Austrogymnocnemia brevicornis ( Esben-Petersen, 1917 ), Machado & Oswald, 2020
Machado, Renato Jose Pires & Oswald, John David, 2020, Morphological phylogeny and taxonomic revision of the former antlion subtribe Periclystina (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Dendroleontinae), Zootaxa 4796 (1), pp. 1-322: 90-94
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|Austrogymnocnemia brevicornis ( Esben-Petersen, 1917 )|
Austrogymnocnemia brevicornis ( Esben-Petersen, 1917) , new combination
Ceratoleon brevicornis Esben-Petersen, 1917:207 (OD); Esben-Petersen 1923:587 (cit); Stange 1976:303 (cat); New 1985b:6 (key, rd, ill); New 1996:74 (cat); Stange 2004:101 (cat); Oswald 2018 (cat); Machado et al. 2019 (tree).
Diagnosis. Antennae short and fusiform; ocular setae short and white; tibial spurs absent; forewing costal area biareolate at least in basal third; forewing mostly hyaline but with numerous brown marks.
Description. Lengths: forewing: 14–19 mm; hind wing: 13–17 mm.
Head ( Figs. 36 View FIGURE 36 a–b): Labrum pale with two medial brown spots in some specimens; set with a line of elongate setae. Clypeus pale; with some elongate black setae. Frons black; set with few black setae. Gena pale. Vertex raised; in anterior view pale, with two lateral transverse black lines and a central spot; in dorsal view mostly pale with two central perpendicular black lines and two black marks posterolaterally; covered with short black setae. Ocular setae white and short. Antennae fusiform; about twice longer than pronotum; distance between antennae about as wide as scape; scape, pedicel and first flagellomere dark brown, other flagellomeres with ventral half dark brown but dorsal half pale, in some specimens apical flagellomeres entirely dark brown; torular membrane pale; flagellomeres much wider than long, mainly medial ones; all segments set with short black setae, and some elongate setae on posterior surface. Mandibles mostly pale, with tip dark. Palpi, maxillary and labial mostly pale with irregular brown marks, but in some specimens the segments are almost entirely brown; apical labial palpomere elongate, palpimacula opening oval-shaped, located medially.
Thorax ( Fig. 36b View FIGURE 36 ): Pronotum about as long as wide; posterior margin as wide as anterior; subapical furrow present; mostly dark brown except for some irregular pale areas, mainly on lateral parts of posterior half and around central area on anterior half; beset with long black setae. Mesonotum mostly grey to dark brown, with some pale areas in some specimens as follows: small rounded marks on prescutum and scutellum and longitudinal lines at scutum; set with short black setae, and some long setae on prescutum, and a few long and thickened setae on scutum and scutellum. Metanotum grey to dark brown, with scattered pale marks; covered with short black setae. Pterothoracic pleura dark brown to grey with irregular small pale areas; covered with long white setae; Miller’s organ present.
Wings ( Fig. 36c View FIGURE 36 ): Rather narrow with tip acute; anterior and posterior Banksian lines present in both wings; veins mostly dark brown, but some veins intercalated with white spots, beset with short black setae. Male pilula axillaris present. Forewing membrane mostly hyaline with brown marks concentrated at tip, posterior margin, gradate crossveins, subcostal area, around radial crossvein; CuA fork located between RP origin and first fork; three to five presectoral crossveins, in some specimen the distal vein has a medial veinlet connecting with RP; basal part of costal area biareolate; posterior area narrower than prefork area. Hind wing membrane mostly hyaline except for brown marks beneath pterostigma and rhegmal area, some specimens with small brown marks around radial crossveins and tip of hypostigmatic cell; MP fork located between RP origin and first fork; subcostal veinlets simple; one presectoral crossvein.
Legs ( Fig. 36a View FIGURE 36 ): All pairs of legs, femur short (<2x length of coxa); tibia and femur about same size, but slightly longer than tarsi; tibial spurs absent; T2, T3 and T4 about same size, T1 slightly longer than T2, T5 about twice longer than T1; claws shorter than half of T5 length; coxa, trochanter, femur, and tibia set with long white setae, mainly on femur (some setae on dorsal surface can be longer than femur); femur, tibia and tarsi also set with long black setae. Proleg sense hair about half of femur length; tibia with antennal cleaning setae ventroapically; coxa dark brown but with some pale areas on anterior surface, trochanter brown, femur brown with anterior surface pale, tibia with anterior surface mostly dark brown with three pale spots, and posterior surface pale; tarsi dark brown, except for T1, pale. Mesoleg with coxa shorter than proleg, colour pattern similar to proleg, except for anterior surface of femur and tibia, dark brown. Metaleg with femur, tibia and T1 slightly longer than in other legs; colour pattern similar to mesoleg, except for tibia pale with tip and anterior surface dark brown.
Abdomen: Mostly dark brown with scattered pale marks mainly in the sternites; beset with short black setae, and some white setae on basal segments.
Male Terminalia ( Figs. 37 View FIGURE 37 a–c): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded in lateral view, set with elongate black setae. 9 th sternite posterior margin curved, in ventral view; set with elongate black setae. Gonarcus arched and very broad in lateral view. Mediuncus small and acute. Paramere broad with base curved and tip acute.
Female Terminalia ( Figs. 37 View FIGURE 37 d–e): Ectoproct posterior margin rounded covered with thin elongate setae. Lateral gonapophyses rounded, much smaller than ectoproct, set with few cavisetae. 7 th sternite distal margin curved in ventral view, covered with long black setae. Pregenital plate large, “goblet” shaped. Posterior gonapophyses broad, elongate, with tip enlarged; covered with long black setae, and some cavisetae apically. 9 th tergite with a membranous digitiform process. Anterior gonapophyses absent. Ventral membrane gonapophyseal plates present.
Distribution ( Fig. 30 View FIGURE 30 ). Australia: NSW, NT, QLD, SA, VIC*, WA. Widespread and common across mainland Australia.
Adult activity period. Records for September to May.
Biology. Unknown, larva unknown.
Name-bearing type. Ceratoleon brevicornis : Holotype (by original designation), female, ANIC, examined. Type locality: Australia, New South Wales, Brewarrina (town). From original description: “Brewarrina, N.S.W.; one female specimen (type), 1914 (W. W. Froggatt leg.); Coll. Froggatt. Narromine, N.S.W. ”. From New 1985: “ Holotype, ♀, New South Wales, Brewarrina, 1914, W.W. Froggatt leg. ( ANIC)”. Condition: good (no parts missing) but covered with white mold.
Additional material examined (69♂, 112♀). AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: Bourke : 30 S, 24.x.1957, E.F. Riek (5♂, 21♀, ANIC, 2♀, FSCA) ; Broken Hill : near. race track , 280m, 31.96445 oS– 141.41817 oE ± 70m, 2.i.2013, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #625 (1♀, TAMU) ; Cobar : 26.x.1957, E.F. Riek (1♂, 2♀, ANIC) ; Mount Boppy : 27.x.1957, E.F. Riek (1♀, ANIC) ; Nombinnie Nature Reserve: 18 air km SSE Mount Hope , 160m, 32.99613 oS– 145.94006 oE ± 70m, 3.i.2013, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #626 (2♂, 2♀, TAMU) ; North Bourke : 14.xii.1977, at light, K.J. & C.L. Lambkin (1♂, 1♀, QMBA) ; 4 km N of Talyealye Homestead , 29 o 05’28’’S– 144 o 27’59’’E, 17.i.1999, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA) GoogleMaps ; Northern Territory: Alice Springs : 39 km E, 23.41S– 134.15E, 5.x.1978, M.S. Upton & R.A. Barrett (2♂, 4♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 19.xi.1989, R.B. Miller (1♂, FSCA) ; 22.xi.1989 (1♀, FSCA) ; Andado Station : iii.1993 (1♀, SAMA) ; Barrow Creek : iv.1966 (1♀, SAMA) ; Bitter Spring Creek : iii.1993 (1♂, SAMA) ; Kings Canyon : 19.ix.2005, R. Miller & L. Stange (1♂, FSCA) ; Narwietooma Home- stead: iv.1972 (1♀, SAMA) ; Tennant Creek : iii.1906 (1♂, ANIC) ; 160 km E of Three Ways , 7.x.1972, E.F. Riek (4♂, 3♀, ANIC) ; Queensland: Amby : W of Roma, 12.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♂, AMSA) ; Barcaldine : 10.ii.1981, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (2♂, 4♀, AMSA) ; 9.5 air km S, Botanical Walk , 23.63733°S 145.28137°E ± 30m, R Machado, MV light, 23.xii.2015, AustRM#08 (1♂, 1♀, TAMU) GoogleMaps ; 70 km S of Blackwater , 19.i.1987, M.S. & B.J. Moulds (1♀, AMSA) ; 62 km WS of Boulia , 23.02S– 139.18E, 16.x.1978, E.F. Riek (1♂, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; Charleville : 13.xi.1938 (2♀, QMBA) ; Clermont : 17.xi.1924 (1♀, QMBA) ; 19.xi.1924 (2♀, ANIC) ; Cunnamulla : 22.x.1938, N. Geary (1♂, AMSA) ; 10.xi.1938 (1♀, AMSA) ; Hebel : 16.x.1957, E.F. Riek (3♂, 5♀, ANIC) ; Noombah Station : SW of Longreach, 24: 05.2S– 143: 08.7E, 14.i.2002, Cooley, Hill, Marshall & Moulds (1♀, AMSA) GoogleMaps ; Roma : 11.xi.1938 (1♀, QMBA) ; Simpson Desert : x.1987 (1♀, SAMA) ; South Australia: 91 km SE of Coober Pedy , 29.49S– 134.54E, 22.xi.1977, M.S. Upton (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; Emu Junction : x.1976 (1♀, SAMA) ; Everard Park : xi.1970 (1♂, 5♀, SAMA) ; Mount Barr : 24 km SSE of Abminga, 22.ix.1972, Z. Liepa (1♀, ANIC) ; Mount Lindsay : 18.x.1996 (1♂, 2♀, SAMA) ; Mount Serle : i.1965 (1♀, SAMA) ; Mulgathing Homestead : xi.1977 (1♀, SAMA) ; Pirramimma : x.1953 (3♂, 1♀, SAMA) ; xi.1975 (1♂, SAMA) ; Price Bore : iv.2007 (1♀, SAMA) ; White Bull Yard: Kalamurina Station x.1999 (3♀, SAMA) ; Victoria: 44 km E of Hattah , 34 o 45.3’S– 142 o 40.9E, 3.ii.2004, M. Moulds & S. Cowan (1♀, AMSA) GoogleMaps ; Western Australia: 23 km WSW of Barradale , 23.56S– 114.45E, 28.iv.1971, Upton & Mitchell (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; Black- stone: x.2006 (1♂, SAMA) ; Beverley : (1♀, SAMA) ; Cunderdin : ii.1914 (1♀, ANIC) ; 34mi NNW of Fraser Range Homestead , 31.34S– 122.35E, 8.xi.1969, Key & Upton (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 70 air km WWNW of Gascoyne Junction , 24.87559 oS– 114.55150 oE ± 90m, 21.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #613 (22♂, 6♀, TAMU) ; Goldfields highway: 85 km SSE Wiluna, 27.32886 oS– 120.50593 oE ± 70m, 560m, 26.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #617 (1♂, 2♀, TAMU) ; Great Central Road: track W off, 6 air km NNNE Laverton , 28.58435 oS– 122.41038 oE ± 100m, 470m, 27.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #618 (1♂, 1♀, TAMU) ; 13mi ES of Karonie , 9.xi.1969, Key & Upton (1♂, ANIC) ; Kalgoorlie : 22.ix.1986, A.J. Graham (1♀, AMSA) ; Lake Marmion : iii.1996 (1♂, 2♀, SAMA) ; Laverton: Deeba Rock Hole , 34 km NE, 28.22S– 122.37E, 12.xi.1977, M.S. Upton (4♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 35 km N of Mount Aloysius , 25.43S– 128.34E, 16.xi.1977, M.S. Upton (1♂, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 5 km SE of Millstream , 21.37S– 117.06E, 8.xi.1970, Upton & Feehan (2♀, 1♂, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 29.x.1970 (2♀, ANIC) ; Monkey Mia : 31.v.2000 (1♀, SAMA) ; 6 km S of Mount Keith Homestead , 27.20S– 120.30E, 14.xi.1970, Upton & Feehan (1♂, 1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 135 SW of Mundiwindi , x.1960 (1♀, FSCA) ; Murchison Range : 23.49S– 114.41E, 27.iii.1971, E.F. Riek (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; highway 136, 13 air km NENE of Nanutarra Roadhouse , 22.47124 oS– 115.60040 oE ± 70m, 22.xii.2012, M.V., Oswald, Diehl & Machado, Oswald #614 (1♂, TAMU) ; Norseman : 25.xi.1958, E.F. Riek (1♂, ANIC) ; 0.5 km E of Pungkulpirri Waterhole, Walter James Range, 24 o 39’15’’S– 128 o 45’18’’E, 26.ix.2006, at light, Central Ranges Sur. Camp 1 (1♂, 1♀, SAMA) GoogleMaps ; 66 km EN of Warburton , 26.03S– 127.14E, 15.xi.1977, M.S. Upton (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 19mi NNW of Widgiemooltha , 31.14S– 121.28E, 6.xi.1969, Key & Upton (2♂, ANIC) GoogleMaps ; 36mi SE of Zanthus , 31.29S– 123.53E, 10.xi.1969, Key & Upton (1♀, ANIC) GoogleMaps .
Comments. Austrogymnocnemia brevicornis is easily distinguished from all other Australian antlions by its small body size and peculiar antennal shape. This distinctive morphology might explain the difference between its placement in this study and that of Machado et al. (2019). Our morphological analysis recovered A. brevicornis sister to its former congener in Ceratoleon , A. mjobergi , largely based on their shared biareolate costal area, a very plastic character within Myrmeleontidae . However, the molecular analysis ( Machado et al. 2019) recovered A. brevicornis sister to A. meteorica , which also seems reasonable morphologically based on the similar shapes of their female pregenital plates. Austrogymnocnemia brevicornis seems to be very common and widespread throughout the central area of Australia. For phylogenetic relationships see Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 .
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