Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) vulcanus, Cavalcanti, Thaynã, Santos, George Garcia & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014

Cavalcanti, Thaynã, Santos, George Garcia & Pinheiro, Ulisses, 2014, A new species of Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) Burton, 1934 (Porifera: Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida) from deeper waters off the Atlantic coast of Brazil, Zootaxa 3884 (5), pp. 497-500: 497-499

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3884.5.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CEB43CCB-1967-4A54-8E19-2D2D3B243179

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5670385

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/5A5B5F0E-E826-801A-FF40-46BEFF544FB5

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) vulcanus
status

sp. nov.

Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) vulcanus   sp. nov.

Holotype. UFPEPOR 1647, Bacia Potiguar (04º 44.8945 ' S, 36 º 25.4571 ' W), Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil, depth 108 m, trawl, col. Petrobras, (23.V. 2011).

Description of preserved specimen ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A–C). Massive or volcano-shaped, 16 x 15 x 4 cm (length x height x width) ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A), elastic and compressible consistency. Warty surface, with papillae (2.7mm high) covering the sponge. Two big membranaceous circular oscules (approximately 2 cm in diameter) at the top ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A–C). The sponge exudes copious mucus when handled. Color in life is unknown and it is brownish-purple in ethanol. The specimens were collected in the same drag as Aiolochroia crassa ( Hyatt, 1875)   and stored in the same container. It is possible that the A. crassa   pigments discoloured the Lissodendoryx   ( Anomodoryx   ) specimen.

Skeleton: The ectosomal skeleton consists of some strewn tylotes, with abundant fibres, sigmas and arcuate isochelae also concentrated in this region ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D). The choanosomal skeleton is a system of anastomosing spongin fibres without any regular architecture ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B), the primary (trabeculae) and secundary fibres are cored by tylotes. Raphides are present throughout the mesohyl.

Spicules ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E–I; Table 1 View TABLE 1 ). Tylotes (263– 397.8 – 550 / 5 – 7.4 – 11 µm): large, smooth, straight to sinuously curved, head oval ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E, G); Arcuate isochelae (16– 23.5 – 28 µm): smooth, lightly curved, abundant ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 I); Sigmas (21– 30.7 – 41 µm): thin, smooth, abundant ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 H); Raphides (287– 343.3 – 419 / 0.5– 0.64 – 1 µm): long, smooth, lightly curved, very thin ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F).

Distribution and ecology. Known only from the type locality: Off Bacia Potiguar, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil), at 108 m depth. No data regarding the habitat were recorded; the relatively deep distribution (below 100 m) is so far unusual for members of the subgenus.

Etymology. The species name, from the Latin vulcanus   , refers to its volcano-shape.

Discussion. Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) vulcanus   sp. nov. can be distinguished from other species of the subgenus by the combination of its volcano-shape, presence of mucus and combination of microscleres arcuate isochelae (16–28 µm), sigmas (21–41 µm) and raphides (287–419 µm) ( Table 1 View TABLE 1 ). It is the only species in the subgenus that possesses both sigma and raphide microscleres. In comparison with Atlantic species: Lissodendoryx (A.) amphispinulata Rützler et al., 2007   from the Caribbean can be distinguished by the presence of two categories of tylotes and by the absence of raphides; Lissodendoryx (A.) coralgardeniensis Samaai & Gibbons, 2005   from South Africa is an encrusting to massive sponge and does not have sigmas; Lissodendoryx (A.) recife   has strongyles and lacks sigmas and raphides; and Lissodendoryx (A.) tylota   does not have sigmas or styles and its arcuate isochelae (50 µm) are bigger than those of the new species (28 µm). The most similar species to L. (A.) vulcanus   sp. nov. is L. (A.) dendyi (Whitelegge, 1901)   which also has a massive shape, but differs by having smaller tylotes (see Tab. 1 View TABLE 1 ) and absence of raphides. Finally, L. (A.) dendyi   is known only from Australia, making conspecificity highly improbable.

References: (1) Rützler et al. (2007); (2) Samaai & Gibbons (2005); (3) Boury-Esnault (1973); (4) Topsent (1892 b); (5) Van Soest (2002).

TABLE 1. Comparative micrometric data on the spicules, color, shape, and overview of distribution of the living species of Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx). Spicule dimensions are in micrometres (µm). References are numbered in parentheses and listed after the table.

Species Distribution / Depth (m) Shape / Color Tylote Arcuate isochelae Sigma Other Spicules
Lissodendoryx (Anomodoryx) vulcanus   sp. nov. Rio Grande do Norte State (Brazil) / 108 volcano-shaped / brownish-purple (ethanol) 263– 397.8 –550 / 5– 7.4 –11 16– 23.5 –28 21– 30.7 –41 287– 343.3 –419 / 0.5– 0.64 –1 (raphides)
L. (A.) amphispinulata Rützler et al., 2007   1 Caribbean / 54–71 thickly encrusting / grey (ethanol) I - 259.2–273.1 / 5–7.2 II - 213.7–240.5 / 5.9–7.4 22.2–29.8 10.8–19.8
L. (A.) coralgardeniensis Samaai & Gibbons, 2005   2 South Africa / 12 massive to thickly encrusting / yellow-orange 273 / 14 32 82 / 0.5 (raphides)
L. (A.) recife (Boury-Esnault, 1973)   3 Paraíba and Pernambuco States (Brazil) / 33–45 massive / not recorded 430–500 / 6–12 (strongylote) 26–31
L. (A.) tylota (Boury-Esnault, 1973)   3 Sergipe State (Brazil) / 34 fragmented / purple brown 538–620 / 9–12 37–50 650–115 / 3–15 (styles)
L. (A.) cavernosa   (Topsent, 1892b)4 Western Mediterranean / not recorded massive cavernous / brown 300 / 6–10 not recorded
L. (A.) dendyi (Whitelegge, 1901)   5 Australia / not recorded massive / yellowish grey 150–250 / 2.5–9 18–25 35–40