Tenebrionidae, Latreille, 1802

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola, 2009, Insects found in birds’ nests from the Neotropical Region (except Argentina) and immigrant species of Neotropical origin in the Nearctic Region 2187, Zootaxa 2187 (1), pp. 1-144: 63-75

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2187.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/5924C023-8331-9F0D-04EA-FF7BFC9BCCCA

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Tenebrionidae
status

 

Tenebrionidae  

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Bahia: Arquipélago de Abrolhos ( Sick 2001, following Coelho 1981).

Trogidae  

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Bahia: Arquipélago de Abrolhos ( Sick 2001, following Coelho 1981).

Sula leucogaster (Boddaert, 1783)  

COLEOPTERA  

Tenebrionidae  

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Bahia: Arquipélago de Abrolhos ( Sick 2001, following Coelho 1981).

Trogidae  

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Bahia: Arquipélago de Abrolhos ( Sick 2001, following Coelho 1981).

Table 2. Captures of dark morphs [ DM] of Triatoma infestans   in the Bolivian Chaco using light traps and by revision of different habitats (birds´nests, hollow trees, and bromeliads). f, females; m, males; n, nymphs; a, adults.

THAMNOPHILIDAE  

Myrmotherula erythronotos  

Couri 1999: 52 + fig. 55; Teixeira 1999.

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

[ BRAZIL] ( Couri 1999: 52 + fig. 55); ( Teixeira 1999).

Note: the name “ Myrmotherula erythronotos   “ is nonexistent ( Remsen et al. 2008), probably a mispelling of Myrmotherula erythrura Sclater, 1890   [ Colombia; Ecuador; Peru; Brazil], but it may be also Formicivora erythronotos Hartlaub, 1852   .

Thamnophilus caerulescens Vieillot, 1816  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

BRAZIL: Paraná: Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Campus Jardim Botânico , between III-2006 and II-2007, 1 infested from a total of 23 found nests ( Jesus et al. 2007)   .

Thamnophilus murinus Sclater & Salvin, 1868  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis diminuta Couri, 1984  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 27-XI-1973, Oniki leg., 1 female Paratype ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 27-XI-1973, Oniki leg., 1 female ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis mediana Couri, 1984  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 27-XI-1973, Oniki leg., 1 male Holotype, 5 males Paratypes, 5 females Paratypes ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 27-XI-1973, Oniki leg., 1 male ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Thamnophilus palliatus (Lichstenstein, 1823)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

[ BRAZIL] ( Couri 1999: 52 + fig. 56); ( Dudaniec & Kleindorfer 2006, following Mendonça & Couri 1999).

THRAUPIDAE  

Habia rubica rubica (Vieillot, 1817)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

PARAGUAY: Departamento Itapua: 19.5 km NNE Encarnación, Hotel E 1 Tirol (ca. 27º 11’ S, 55º 47’ W), one nest with three eggs discovered 19-IX-1982 [eggs hatched between 10:10 on 21-IX and 08:34 on 22-IX]; nestling # 1 with botfly larvae under skin on abdomen and chin, two open sores on one wing at day 3; one botfly emerged from nestling # 1, no evidence of infection at day 7; second botfly larva of nestling # 1 gone, no infection at day 8 ( Foster 1989) GoogleMaps   .

Ramphocelus carbo (Pallas, 1764)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis diminuta Couri, 1984  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 12-II-1974, Oniki leg., 1 male Holotype ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: half-mile post, Vega de Oropouche Road, Sangre Grande, 4-II-1958, Downs leg., 11 males Paratypes, 12 females Paratypes, ex nest; Maingot Estate, Vega de Oropouche, 22-IV-1959, Aitken leg., 1 female Paratype, ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 12-II-1974, Oniki leg., 1 female ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Schistochlamys melanopis (Latham, 1790)  

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

BRAZIL: Pará: Belem, Ipean, 6-VI-1972, Oniki leg., 3 females ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Tachyphonus rufus (Boddaert, 1783)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Corneillac State, Vega de Oropouche, 22-VII-1958, Aitken leg., 1 female Paratype, ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Thraupis episcopus (Linnaeus, 1766)  

= Thraupis virens: Vogelsang & Fernandez Yépes 1952   ; Dodge & Aitken 1968; Schafer 1957; Hicks 1962.

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

TRINIDAD: Melajo Forest, Sangre Grande, 17-VII-1956, Downs leg., 2 males ex T. virens ( Dodge & Aitken 1968)   ; ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

VENEZUELA ( Vogelsang & Fernandez Yépes 1952; Schafer 1957; Couri 1983a); ( Hicks 1962); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Vega de Oropouche, 23-VII-1957, Downs leg., 1 female Paratype, ex T. virens ( Dodge & Aitken 1968)   ; ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Thraupis palmarum (Wied, 1823)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

[ TRINIDAD]: locality and data not given ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: município de Seropédica, Baixada Fluminense, August to October 2006, 42 larvae in 6 nestlings of 2 nests, initially observed 3 days after hatching; 32 adults emerged; 4 nestlings die ( Luz et al. 2008)   .

Philornis sp.  

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Campus da Universidade Federal Rural , larvae initially observed in nestlings of 6 days' age, higher infestation (35 larvae) at 15 days' age; 20 larvae extracted from nestlings (16 adults obtained); 10 pupae extracted from the abandoned nest (7 adults emerged); none of the nestlings died (Luz, et al. 2006a)   .

THRESKIORNITHIDAE  

Cercibis oxycerca (Spix, 1825)  

HEMIPTERA  

Reduviidae   : Triatominae

Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859  

VENEZUELA: [locality not stated], in nest, 12 th position in a ranking of “preferred enviroment by R. prolixus   according with the places where it was captured” ( Guerrero et al. 1965); Estado Monagas: Caripe, nests were positive for R. prolixus (Gamboa C. 1970)   ; ( Carcavallo & Tonn 1985); ( Carcavallo et al. 1998b).

Note: Gamboa C. (1963) is cited among the references by Carcavallo & Tonn (1985) and Carcavallo et al. (1998b), but Cercibis oxycerca   is only mentioned by Gamboa C. (1970).

Theristicus caudatus caudatus (Boddaert, 1783)  

HEMIPTERA  

Reduviidae   : Triatominae

Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859  

VENEZUELA: [locality not stated], in nest, 20 th position in a ranking of “preferred enviroment by R. prolixus   according with the places where it was captured” ( Guerrero et al. 1965); nests were positive for R. prolixus   (Gamboa C. 1970, following Guerrero et al. 1965); ( Carcavallo & Tonn 1985); ( Carcavallo et al. 1998b).

Note: Gamboa C. (1963) is cited among the references by Carcavallo & Tonn (1985) and Carcavallo et al. (1998b), but Theristicus caudatus   is only mentioned by Gamboa C. (1970).

TROCHILIDAE  

Chlorestes notata (Reich, 1793)  

DIPTERA   : [ Muscidae   ]

[ Philornis sp.   ]

BRAZIL: Pará: Belem, “ninhos ... ... séjam comumente parasitados, sendo observado ... um dos filhotes com una larva de mosca” ( Carvalho 1958).

Chlorostilbon aureoventris  

Note: According to the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (2007), only two species of Chlorostilbon   inhabit Brazil, C. mellisugus (Linnaeus, 1758)   and C. lucidus (Shaw, 1812)   . No other trochilid bird from the Brazilian fauna has aureoventris   as specific name.

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

[ BRAZIL]: 17 adult flies emerge from pupae in the botton of a nest with two chicks, one of them died at 5 days old ( Sick 1981, 2001).

Chlorostilbon mellisugus (Linnaeus, 1758)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

VENEZUELA: Estado Miranda: Los Anaucos [30 km south of Caracas], larva of a species of Muscidae   as a dark lump on the chick's neck, eventually four other subcutaneous larvae were found in the nestling's dorsal surface ( Thomas 1994).

Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

BRAZIL: São Paulo: Rio Claro, campus of the Universidade Estadual Paulista (22 o 23' S, 47 o 33' W), 8 larvae extracted from one nestling, later other larvae removed for a total of 58; total mass of larvae over 6.9 grs ( Oniki & Willis 2000) GoogleMaps   .

Glaucis hirsutus (Gmelin, 1788)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Saint Patrick´s Estate, Arima Valley, 5-V-1959, Aitken leg., 1 male Holotype with pinned puparium, # 66449 [ USNM], 1 female Allotype with pinned puparium, ex nest, 27-V-1963, Aitken leg., 8 males Paratypes, 4 females Paratypes, ex nest and nestlings ( Dodge & Aitken 1968; Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis niger Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Saint Patrick´s Estate, Arima Valley, 5-V-1959, Aitken leg., 1 male Holotype with pinned puparium, # 66450 [ USNM], ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968; Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Phaethornis ruber (Linnaeus, 1758)  

= bird’s nests: Pinto et al. 2002: 89-90 [refs.]

= “ninhos de pássaros”: Pinto et al. 2001: 49.

HYMENOPTERA  

Chalcididae  

Brachymeria sp.  

BRAZIL: Pará: near Belém , [locality not specified], 1 ex. emerged 7-VII-[1969?] from one mud cell under the lining in the lower section of one nest ( Oniki 1970a)   .

Sphecidae  

Pison cressoni Rohwer, 1911  

= “espécies do gênero”: Pinto et al. 2001: 49.

= Pison sp.   : Oniki 1970a, 1970b; Sick 1981, 2001.

BRAZIL: Pará: near Belém, [Instituto de Pesquisas e Experimentação Agropecuárias do Norte], Mocambo [Forest] Reserve, [X-1966], mud cells under the lining in the lower section of one nest, APEG [Area de Pesquisas Eco1ógicas do Guamá] Reserve, in 8 of 13 nests; minimum 1 cell per nest, maximum 13 cells in one nest; 11 cells removed from one nest, from which 5 were preserved, and 5 wasps emerged [ USNM; YOSP] ( Oniki 1970a [ Oniki 1970b]); Belém, 1 to 13 nests of this wasp (rearing the larvae with spiders) in the base of 8 from a total of 13 examined nests ( Sick 1981, 2001); ( Menke 1988, following Oniki 1970a); “ninhos de pássaros ... podem, igualmente abrigar as células de barro de espécies do gênero” ( Pinto et al. 2001); mud cell nest on bird’s nests ( Pinto et al. 2002).

Thalurania glaucopis (Gmelin, 1788)  

= Thalurania sp.   : Couri 1983a: 306 [distr.; host]; Couri 1985: 19, table [host]; Teixeira 1999: 84 [host].

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis insularis Couri, 1983b  

[ BRAZIL]: Rio de Janeiro: Ilha Grande, 1 male holotype, 15 males paratypes, 12 females paratypes [ MNRJ], 9-IX-1944, Sick leg. ( Couri 1983b); ( Couri 1985); ( Teixeira 1999); 64 adults collected from one nest and 16 larvae collected direct from the nestlings ( Sick 2001; Couri et al. 2006); Rio de Janeiro, Botanical Garden, I- 2004, 22 puparia in one nest ( Couri et al. 2006, probably P. insularis   ).

Note: Couri et al. (2006) gave the same data as Sick (2001) following Sick (1977). P. insularis   was described in 1983, thus absent in the edition of 1981 and later added to the edition of 2001.

HYMENOPTERA   : Chalcididae  

Spilochalcis annulifera (Walker, 1864)  

= Conura annulifera (Walker)   : Couri et al. 2006.

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Botanical Garden, 11 wasps parasiting puparia of Philornis sp.   emerged from one nest ( Couri et al. 2006).

TROGLODYTIDAE  

Campylorhynchus zonatus nuchalis Cabanis, 1847  

HEMIPTERA  

Reduviidae   : Triatominae

Psammolestes arthuri (Pinto, 1926)  

= Psammolestes salazari Aldana et al. 1996   : Lent 1997 [syn.].

VENEZUELA: San Carlos de Cojedes (9º 40’ N, 68º 35’ W), eggs and nymphs in the nests ( Aldana et al. 1997) GoogleMaps   .

Thryothorus nigricapillus Sclater, 1861  

/ Thryothorus leucotis Lafresnaye, 1845  

COLEOPTERA  

Scarabaeidae   : Cetoniinae

Genuchinus muzo Krikken, 1981  

PANAMA: Gamboa, 18-VII-1984, B. Eberhard leg., two grey 4 cm long larvae in the nest lining, feeding on the plant material of the nest lining itself; spherical, black fecal pellets plentiful inside the nest; 26-VII-1984, one larvae constructed a spherical cocoon of nest material, adult emerged 24-VIII-1984; 3-VIII-1984 second larvae constructed the cocoon, adult emerged 28-VIII-1984; adult beetles identified by J. Krikken ( Aiello 1987; Howden 2008, following Aiello 1987).

Note: Larvae and cocoons of Anthracophora rusticola Burmeister, 1842   [ Scarabaeidae   : Cetoniinae] were found in all of 12 Chinese Goshawk [ Accipiter soloensis   (Horsfield, 1821, Accipitridae   ] nests in Korea (eight nests in Gyeonggi Province, two in Daejeon, one in Seoul, and one in Chungnam Province) ( Choi et al. 2008). Previous reports of larvae were made “in several nests of the Oriental Honey-Buzzard ( Pernis ptilorhynchus   ) and Mountain Hawk-Eagle ( Spizaetus nipalensis   ) in Japan (Makihara et al. 2004, Coleopt. News 148:21–23; Sato et al. 2006, Jpn. J. Entomol. (N.S.) 9: 46-49)” ( Choi et al. 2008). See also Note added in proof.

Thryothorus rutilus Vieillot, 1819  

HEMIPTERA  

Reduviidae   : Triatominae

Psammolestes arthuri (Pinto, 1926)  

[ VENEZUELA] (Gamboa C. 1970).

Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859  

[ VENEZUELA]: in rare times in these nests (Gamboa C. 1970); ( Carcavallo & Tonn 1985); ( Carcavallo et al. 1998b); ( Ribeiro Júnior et al. 2006: p. 327, tabela 1).

Note: Gamboa C. (1963) is cited among the references by Carcavallo & Tonn (1985) and Carcavallo et al. (1998b), but T. rutilus   is only mentioned by Gamboa C. (1970).

Troglodytes aedon Vieillot, 1809  

HEMIPTERA  

Reduviidae   : Triatominae

Psammolestes arthuri (Pinto, 1926)  

( Carcavallo et al. 1998a, 1998b); ( Ribeiro Júnior et al. 2006, as Troglodytes sp.   ).

Note: original citation not found.

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, 10 larvae on a single chick ( Sick 1981, 2001).

Philornis carinatus Dodge, 1968  

COSTA RICA: Puntarenas Province: Monteverde, up to 17 larvae per nestling, 18 infested of 214 possible nests in a period of three years, 3.3 % in 1989 (n = 61 nests), 7.8 % in 1990 (n = 77 nests), 13.2 % in 1991 (n = 76) nests, 92 % fledging success in infested nests and 95 % in uninfested nests; San Luis, 3 km SW Monteverde, 800 m, up to 22 larvae per nestling, 15 infested of 49 nests, 30.6 % of infested nests in 1990-1991, 81 % of fledging success (n = 13) in infested nests and 95 % in uninfested nests; San Carlos Province: La Lucha de la Tigra, 244 km ENE Monteverde, 200 m, 9 infested of 33 possible nests, 27.3 % of infested nests in 1990-1991, 100 % of fledging success in infested nests ( Young 1993); ( Dudaniec & Kleindorfer 2006, following Young 1993); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis sp.  

PANAMA: [locality not stated] ( Young 1993, following Freed, L. pers. com.).

COLOMBIA: [locality not stated] ( Young 1993, following Kattan, G. pers. com.).

Troglodytes musculus Naumann, 1823  

= Troglodytes aedon: Teixeira 1999   .

= Troglodytes musculosus   [sic]: Carcavallo et al. 1998a, 1998b.

Note: There is no agreement about the taxonomic status of Troglodytes species.   Although some authors treat the South American forms as Troglodytes aedon musculus   or Troglodytes musculus   , other authors call both North and South American forms as Troglodytes aedon   .

HEMIPTERA  

Reduviidae   : Triatominae

Psammolestes arthuri (Pinto, 1926)  

( Carcavallo et al. 1998a, 1998b).

Note: original citation not found.

Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859  

VENEZUELA: [locality not stated], in nest, 21 th position in a ranking of “preferred enviroment by R. prolixus   according with the places where it was captured” ( Guerrero et al. 1965).

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

[ TRINIDAD]: locality and data not given ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Vega de Oropouche, 19-IX-1956, Downs leg., 6 males Paratypes, 4 females Paratypes, subcutaneous larvae and ex nest T. musculus   and Molothrus bonariensis   , 10-I-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Holotype, with pinned puparium, # 65044 [ USNM], 1 female Allotype with pinned puparium, 24 males Paratypes, 24 females Paratypes, ex nest, 1-VII-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 9 males Paratypes, 7 females Paratypes, ex T. musculus   , 4-IV-1959, Aitken leg., 5 males Paratypes, 6 females Paratypes, ex T. musculus   , 7-IV- 1959, Aitken leg., 3 males Paratypes, 3 females Paratypes, ex T. musculus   , 25-VIII-1959, Aitken leg., 3 females Paratypes, ex nest; St. Patrick’s Estate, Arima Valley, 7-VII-1959, Aitken leg., 1 male Paratype, 2 females Paratypes, ex T. musculus   ; Coal Mine, Cunapo Southern Road, 15-IX-1959, 1 male Paratype, 1 female Paratype, ex T. musculus ( Dodge & Aitken 1968)   ; ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

TROGONIDAE  

Trogon citreolus Gould, 1835

ORTHOPTERA   : Tettigonidae  

[Unidentified sp.]

MEXICO: Jalisco: Estación de Biología Chamela   , in abandoned trogon nests which remained open and were built only in active termite nests of Nasutitermes nigriceps ( Valdivia-Hoeflich et al. 2005)   .

HYMENOPTERA  

Apidae  

[Unidentified sp.]

MEXICO: Jalisco: Estación de Biología Chamela   , in 8 (33 %) of the 24 examined abandoned trogon nests which remain open and were built only in active termite nests of Nasutitermes nigriceps ( Valdivia-Hoeflich et al. 2005)   .

Sphecidae  

[Unidentified sp.]

MEXICO: Jalisco: Estación de Biología Chamela   , in 2 (8 %) of the 24 examined abandoned trogon nests which remain open and were built only in active termite nests of Nasutitermes nigriceps ( Valdivia-Hoeflich et al. 2005)   .

Note: Also a tailless whip scorpions ( Arachnida  : Amblypygi) was found in a trogon nest ( Valdivia-Hoeflich et al. 2005). This bird inhabits the Tropical Deciduous Forest, Gallery Forest, Secondary Forest (0-1000 m; Tropical and lower Subtropical zones) (American Ornithologists’ Union 1998).

TURDIDAE  

Turdus amaurochalinus Cabanis, 1851  

= Turdus amanrochalthus   [sic!]: Couri 1986 [hosts; distr.].

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis gagnei Couri, 1983  

URUGUAY: [locality not stated], larvae removed from nestlings of Molothrus bonariernsis   inside a nest, P. Mason leg. ( Couri 1986).

Turdus fumigatus Lichtenstein, 1823  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

[ TRINIDAD]: locality and data not given ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Vega de Oropouche, 6-V-1958, Aitken leg., 1 female Paratype, ex T. fumigatus   ( Dodge & Aitken 1968; Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Turdus nudigenis Lafresnaye, 1848  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Riley Settlement, Fishing Pond, 10-IX-1957, Aitken leg., 2 males Paratypes, 2 females Paratypes; Corneillac State, Vega de Oropouche, 14-VII-1958, Aitken leg., 1 male Paratype, ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Turdus sp.  

= “sabiá ( Turdus sp.   )”: Lent 1935 [following Gomes 1916]; Barretto & Carvalheiro 1968b [following Gomes 1917].

= Birds’ nests: Neiva & Lent 1936; Costa Lima 1940 [following Pinto 1930]; Hicks 1959 [following Pinto 1930 and Neiva & Lent 1936].

= “passaros”: Hicks 1959 [following Costa Lima 1940].

= Turdus sp.   : Hicks 1959 [following Gomes 1916 and Lent 1935].

= “sabia”: Correa et al. 1963 [following Gomez 1916].

Reduviidae   : Triatominae

Triatoma sordida   [ sordida   ] (Stål, 1859)

BRAZIL: São Paulo: Municipio de Rifaina, Nicolau Miranda leg., 1 adult in one nest ( Lent 1935; Barretto & Carvalheiro 1968b); ( Neiva & Lent 1936); ( Costa Lima 1940); ( Hicks 1959); ( Correa et al. 1963).

Note: Pinto (1930) was omitted among the references given by Costa Lima (1940) for Reduviidae   as well as those of “Florêncio Gomes”. When dealing in general with species of Triatominae that feed on birds, Neiva & Lent (1936: 157) record T. sordida   as living in birds’ nests. The bird’s nest mentioned by Neiva and Lent (1936) for T. sordida   belongs to the “sabiá, Turdus sp.   ” seeing that Lent knew of the record on Turdus sp.   by Gomes (1916). At that time (1936), the record of Gomes (1916) was the first and the only known of T. sordida   in a bird’s nest. Thus Hicks (1959) records the same association five times: Pinto (1930) [birds’ nests], Gomes (1916) [“sabiá ( Turdus sp.   )”], Costa Lima (1940) [birds´nests], Lent (1935) [ Turdus sp.   ], and Neiva & Lent (1936) [birds’ nests].

Unidentified spp.

= “varios Turdidae   ”: Neiva & Penna 1916.

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis pici ( Macquart, 1854)  

BRAZIL: Brazil central [locality not stated] ( Neiva & Penna 1916).

TYRANNIDAE  

Lathrotriccus euleri (Cabanis 1968)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

[ BRAZIL] ( Aguilar et al. 1999, cited by Luz et al. 2008).

Legatus leucophaios (Vieillot, 1818)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Fort Read , 1-V-1957, Aitken leg., 4 males Paratypes, 5 females Paratypes, ex L. leucophaios   , 29- IV-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Paratypes, 2 females Paratypes, ex L. leucophaios ( Dodge & Aitken 1968)     .

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

[ TRINIDAD]: locality and data not given ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Mionectes macconnelli (Chubb, 1919)  

= Pipromorpha macconneli: Couri 1984, 1985; Teixeira 1999.

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 1-III-1974, Oniki leg., 1 female ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Myiarchus sp.  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis carinatus Dodge, 1968  

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: São Cristovão, 20-XI-1987, M. Monné leg., 14 larvae in one nestling [7 larvae fixed, 1 larva lost, 3 puparium, 3 adults] [ MNRJ] ( Couri 1991); ( Young 1993, following Couri 1991); ( Teixeira 1999).

Myiarchus tyrannulus   [ tyrannulus (Müller, 1776)   ]

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis gagnei Couri, 1983b  

TRINIDAD: Mono Island, 1 male Holotype, 6 males Paratypes, 7 females Paratypes, R.M. Funch leg. [Holotype, 10 Paratypes, SI; 5 paratypes, MNRJ] ( Couri 1983b); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Couri 1991); ( Teixeira 1999).

Myiozetetes cayanensis (Linnaeus, 1766)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

BRAZIL: Pará: Belem, Ipean, 21-I-1972, Oniki leg., 1 male ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis diminuta Couri, 1984  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke , 3-XI-1973, Oniki leg., 1 female Paratype ( Couri 1984)   ;

( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis frontalis Couri, 1984  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 3-XI-1973, Oniki leg., 1 male Holotype, 3 females Paratypes ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis sp.  

= “larvas de moscas ( Diptera   : Muscidae   )”: Carvalho 1960: 130.

PANAMA: Barro Colorado Island, III/ IV-1998 & III/ V-1999, all nestlings infected with 2–7 dipteran maggots (c. 10 mm) under skin on the head, on back, and at the bases of wings in one of 22 nests ( Dyrcz 2002).

BRAZIL: Pará: Belem, two infested nestlings in one nest ( Carvalho 1960).

Philornis vulgaris Couri, 1984  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: Manaus, Reserva Ducke, 2-XI-1973, Oniki leg., 1 male Holotype, 1 female Paratype ( Couri 1984); ( Couri 1985, specimen label); ( Teixeira 1999).

Note: Couri (1984) also recorded 1 female Paratype with same data except 3-XI-1973, but without host indication. Sick (2001) mentioned that “ Myiozetetes   [ cayanensis   ] e Pitangus   [ sulphuratus   ] são muito infestados pelas larvas umbrófilas de moscas, que depois se recolhem no fundo do grande ninho para se transformarem em pupas”. Undoubtedly, he is talking about Philornis   , probably taken the data from Couri (1984) for M. cayanensis   and Couri (1985) for P. sulphuratus   , not cited by Sick (2001) in the text or among the references.

Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825)  

[ DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.   ]

PANAMA: Barro Colorado Island, III/ IV-1998 & III/ V-1999, all nestlings infected with 2–7 dipteran maggots (c. 10 mm) under skin on the head, on back, and at the bases of wings in four of 89 active nests ( Dyrcz 2002).

Pyrocephalus rubinus (Boddaert, 1783)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

ECUADOR: Galapagos Islands: Santa Cruz, 1 nest parasitized of 1 examined nest ( Fessl & Tebbich 2002).

Pitangus sulphuratus   [trinitatis Hellmayr, 1906]

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

TRINIDAD: Vega de Oropouche, 31-VII-1959, Aitken leg., 6 males, 3 females, ex P. sulphuratus ( Dodge & Aitken 1968)   ; ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Vega de Oropouche, 13-III-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 5 males Paratypes, 2 females Paratypes, ex P. sulphuratus   ; Fort Read, 14-V-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 female Paratype, ex P. sulphuratus ( Dodge & Aitken 1968)   ; ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Cunaripo R.C. School, 7-III-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Holotype with pinned puparium, # 65042 [ USNM], 1 female Allotype with pinned puparium, 8 males Paratypes, 14 females Paratypes reared ex nest; Cumuto Road, Fort Read, 3-V-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 female Paratype, ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); Cunaripo, R.S. School, 7-III-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male paratype, 1 female paratype [ FIOC] ( Couri 1989).

Philornis sanguinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: St. John Estate, Vega de Oropouche, 24-V-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 2 males Paratypes, ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968; Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: St. John Estate, Vega de Oropouche, 24-VI-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 2 females ex P. sulphuratus ( Dodge & Aitken 1968)   ; ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Pitangus sulphuratus   [sensu lato]

= Pitangus: Sick 2001   .

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

VENEZUELA ( Vogelsang & Fernandez Yépes 1952; Schafer 1957; Couri 1983a); ( Hicks 1962); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis bella Couri, 1984  

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Niterói, Santa Rosa , 21 larvae from 3 infested nestlings, 11 adults emerged [ FIOC] ( Possati et al. 2001)   .

Note: adults were identified by Possati et al. (2001) “utilizando-se para tal a referência de Papavero & Guimarães (1999) e Couri (1984) ”. “Papavero & Guimarães (1999)” is in reality Guimarães & Papavero (1999), correctly cited in the references but not in the text.

Philornis sp.  

= “larvas de moscas ( Diptera   : Muscidae   )”: Carvalho 1960: 130.

BRAZIL [Pará: Belem?] ( Carvalho 1960); [ BRAZIL]: 32 and 41 larvae in two nestlings respectively ( Couri 1985, following Oniki pers. com.); ( Sick 2001); 30 to 41 larvae per nestling of 4 infested from a total of 4 observed nestlings ( Dudaniec & Kleindorfer 2006, following Oniki 1983); 32 larvae in one nestling ( Luz et al. 2008, following Couri 1985).

Note: see the comment below Myiozetetes cayanensis   .

Pitangus sulphuratus   [argentinus Todd, 1952]

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

= Phaonia sp.   : Cassamagnaghi h. 1946 [hosts]: fide Albuquerque 1958:36; Carvalho et al. 2005: 60. URUGUAY: “chicks frequently invaded by worms” [translated from Spanish] (Cassamagnaghi h. 1946).

Sublegatus modestus   [brevirostris? (D’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837)]

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis sp.  

[ BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Planaltina]: Estação Ecológica Águas Emendadas ( Higgins et al. 2004).

Suiriri suiriri (Vieillot, 1818)  

= Suiriri affinis (Burmeister, 1835)   : Fernandes Higgins et al. 2005.

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

= Philornis sp   : Higgins et al. 2004 [distr.; hosts].

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Planaltina, Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas ( Higgins et al. 2004), puparia in all nests of 8 collected [ DZUB], infesting the chicks simultaneously with Philornis deceptivus ( Fernandes Higgins et al. 2005)   .

Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

= Philornis sp   : Higgins et al. 2004 [distr.; hosts].

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Planaltina, Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas ( Higgins et al. 2004), puparia in all nests of 8 collectetd [ DZUB], infesting the chicks simultaneously with Philornis angustifrons ( Fernandes Higgins et al. 2005)   .

Suiriri islerorum Zimmer, Whittaker & Oren, 2001  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)  

= Philornis sp   : Higgins et al. 2004 [distr.; hosts].

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Planaltina, Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas ( Higgins et al. 2004), puparia in all nests of 2 collectetd [ DZUB], infesting the chicks simultaneously with Philornis deceptivus ( Fernandes Higgins et al. 2005)   .

Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

= Philornis sp   : Higgins et al. 2004 [distr.; hosts].

BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Planaltina, Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas ( Higgins et al. 2004), puparia in all nests of 2 collected [ DZUB], infesting the chicks simultaneously with Philornis angustifrons ( Fernandes Higgins et al. 2005)   .

Philornis sp.  

BRAZIL: [Distrito Federal]: Estação Ecológica de Águas Emendadas, 22 % of 20 nests parasitized ( Esteves Lopes & Marini 2005).

Tolmomyias flaviventris (Wied, 1831)  

HYMENOPTERA   : Sphecidae  

Pison sp.  

BRAZIL: Pará: Belém, nests of this wasp also found in a nest of this bird ( Sick 2001).

Note: this record is absent in the previous edition of Sick (1981).

Tolmomyias sulphurescens (Spix, 1825)  

BLATTARIA  

[Unidentified sp.]

BRASIL: São Paulo: Arujá, 46º 18’ W, 23º 19’ S, 1-VII-2001, “uma pequena barata-do mato (blatídeo)” inside the breeding chamber (of a nest 5 m high from the ground), together with a pair of Asarcus ingenuus   (Mello- Leitão, 1940) [ Opiliones   : Gonyleptidae   ] ( Gussoni 2003).

Tyrannus dominicencis dominicensis (Gmelin, 1788)  

BLATTARIA   : Blattellidae  

Aglaopteryx facies (Walker, 1868)  

= Aglaopteryx diaphana   [non Fabricius, 1793]: Danforth 1926: 97; Wolcott 1936: 25-26.

= Aglaopteryx devia (Rehn, 1932)   : Wolcott 1941: 39 [according to Gurney 1937].

= Aglaopteryx facies (Walker)   : Roth & Willis 1960: 7 “[ Aglaopteyx devia Rehn   ; Aglaopteyx diaphana (Fabricius)   , “in records from Puerto Rico only; Rehn (1932b); Gurney (1937)]”.

= Euthlastoblatta facies (Walker)   (= Aglaopteryx facies (Walker))   : Roth 1973: 1 [distr.; host].

PUERTO RICO: [locality not stated], abundant in the nest of Grey Kingbird ( Wolcott 1936, following Danforth 1926); Cartagena Lagoon, “in the nests of the grey kingbird” “living among the twigs” ( Roth & Willis 1960, following Wolcott 1948); Puerto Rico, large numbers among twigs in the nests ( Roth 1973, following Danforth in Wolcott 1950 [= Wolcott 1948]).

Tyrannus melancholicus   [ melancholicus Vieillot, 1819   ]

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Sangre Grande, 9-IV-1958, Aitken leg., 1 female Paratype, ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis masoni Couri, 1986  

URUGUAY: Colonia: Route   12, Km 194, XI-1983 / I-1984, P. Mason leg., 1 male paratype ( Couri 1986); ( Nihei & Bencke 2003).

Philornis sp.  

MEXICO: Jalisco: Barranca de Oblatos   , one female infested with three larvae ( Selander & Giller 1959)   .

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: Campus da Universidade Federal Rural , 29 larvae in one nestling 12 days old, 13 pupae extracted from the nest after it was abandoned ( Luz et al. 2006b)  

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968  

TRINIDAD: Melajo Forest, Sangre Grande, 6-VII-1956, Downs leg., 14 males Paratypes, 9 females Paratypes, ex T. melancholicus   ( Dodge & Aitken 1968; Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Xolmis cinerea (Vieillot, 1816)  

DIPTERA   : Muscidae  

Philornis deceptivus ( Dodge & Aitken, 1968)  

BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro: município Seropédica ( Luz et al. 2007b).

UNDETERMINED FAMILY

Birds´nests [undetermined species]

BLATTARIA  

Blaberidae  

Blaberus discoidalis (Serville, 1839)  

TRINIDAD: San Juan, 1-V-1943, “in a bird’s nest in an old derelict motor-car” ( Princis & Kevan 1955); 1 male, Kevan leg. ( Roth & Willis 1960, following Princis & Kevan 1955).

Blattellidae  

Cahita sp.  

= “either Cahita   or Galibia   (probably Galibia   )”: Roth 1973: 26 [distr.; host]

Note: Galibia Hebard, 1926   is currently a synonym of Cahita Hebard, 1923   (see Grandcolas 2006).

BRAZIL: Amazonas: along the Río Amazonas , 10 miles east Manaus, 12-VIII-1967, 2 females [reared], det. Gurney, from one bird’s nest ( Roth 1973)   .

Eudromiella   ” sp.

BRAZIL: Amazonas: along the Río Amazonas , 10 miles east Manaus, 12-VIII-1967, 1 male [reared], det. Gurney, from one bird’s nest ( Roth 1973)   .

Pseudophyllodromiidae  

Chorisoneura sp. A  

BRAZIL: Amazonas: along the Río Amazonas , 10 miles east Manaus, 12-VIII-1967, 1 male, 1 female [both reared], det. Gurney, from one bird’s nest ( Roth 1973)   .

COLEOPTERA  

Curculionidae   : Scolytinae  

Hypothenemus sp.  

JAMAICA: St. Catherine, Caymanas Estates ( Ventura 1968).

Cryptophagidae  

Cryptophilus integer (Heer, 1841)  

= Cryptophilus frater Grouvelle, 1898   : Ventura 1968.

JAMAICA: St. Catherine, Caymanas Estates ( Ventura 1968).

Note: European species (probably introduced in the New World).

Lathrididae  

Melanophthalma sp.  

JAMAICA: St. Catherine, Caymanas Estates ( Ventura 1968).

DM

Dominion Museum

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

FIOC

Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Tenebrionidae

Loc

Tenebrionidae

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola 2009
2009
Loc

Thalurania sp.

Teixeira, D. M. 1999: 84
Couri, M. S. 1985: 19
Couri, M. S. 1983: 306
1983
Loc

Euthlastoblatta facies

Roth, L. M. 1973: 1
1973
Loc

Aglaopteryx facies

Roth, L. M. & Willis, E. R. 1960: 7
1960
Loc

Phaonia sp.

Albuquerque, D. de 1958: 36
1958
Loc

Aglaopteryx devia (Rehn, 1932)

Wolcott, J. N. 1941: 39
1941
Loc

Aglaopteryx diaphana

Wolcott, J. N. 1936: 25
Danforth, S. T. 1926: 97
1926