Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861

Zhang, Jinghuai & Hutchings, Pat, 2019, A revision of Australian Pectinariidae (Polychaeta), with new species and new records, Zootaxa 4611 (1), pp. 1-70: 38-47

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4611.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:178FED38-5FEA-417F-B5DC-807D943B641C

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5670295

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/586F0669-FFAC-FFA3-FF7B-FCA7BB582D91

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scientific name

Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861
status

 

Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861  

Figs 22–23 View FIGURE 22 View FIGURE 23 , Table 3 View TABLE 3

Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861   , neotype (BMNH 1886.8.20.1) designated and described by Hutchings & Peart, 2002): 99 – 127, figs 9 – 10 & 12

Material examined. (Body length greater than 10 mm). Australia, Queensland: AM W.25446, 1 spec., Lindeman Island, Lindeman Group , 20°27’S 149°02’E, sand, coll. G.P. Whitley, 1935 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.33201, 1 spec., Heron Island , 23°26’53”S 151°54’50”E, 15 m, on holothurian in coral garden, coll. P.A. Hutchings, 24 Jul 2003 GoogleMaps   ; AM W. 200622   , 1 spec., Heron Reef, Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef , 23°27’S 151°55’E, 10 m, in Gorgonian hole in medium sediment, coll. G.W. Rouse, 29 Aug 1984 GoogleMaps   . New South Wales   : AM W.50685, 2 specs, Solitary Islands Marine Park , 29°56’S 153°23’E, 55 m, 20 May 1998 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.1760, 1 spec., Port Jackson , 33°51’S 151°16’E, Nov 192 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.1761, 1 spec., Port Hacking, Gunnamatta Bay , tidal flats, 34°04’30”S 151°08’54”E, coll. Museum Party, Nov 1925 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.2578, 1 spec., Port Jackson, between Sow and Pigs Shoal and Shark Island , 33°51’S 151°16’E, 4 m, coll. M. Ward, 01 Apr 1928 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.6461, 1 spec., SE of Malabar , 33°58’08”S 151°16’52”E, 51 m, coll. Australian Museum Shelf Benthic Survey, 02 Jan 1973 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.6462, 2 specs, E of Malabar , 33°58’16”S 151°20’E, coll. Australian Museum Shelf Benthic Survey, 29 May 1973 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.28592, 1 spec., E of Malabar, Sydney, 33°58’41”S 151°17’51”E, 80.5 m, coll. EPA - Malabar Deep Ocean Outfall Study ( DOOM), 24 Feb 1998 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.6460, 1 spec., 1 km SE of Little Bay , 33°59’09”S 151°15’40”E, 25 m, coarse gravel, sand and shell fragments, coll. Australian Museum Shelf Benthic Survey, 12 May 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.6966, 1 spec., 2.3 km SE of Malabar , 33°59’27”S 151°16’48”E, 66 m, coll. Australian Museum Shelf Benthic Survey, Oct 1973 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.3672, 5 specs, Port Hacking, Gunnamatta Bay , 34°04’30”S 151°08’54”E, muddy sand, coll. E.C. Pope & party, Oct 1957 GoogleMaps   , at low water mark of spring tides; AM W.23077, 1 spec., Wattamolla, off Providential Head , 34°08’S 151°08’30”E, 45 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 01 Feb 1990   ; AM W.5617, 1 spec., Jervis Bay , 35°03’S 150°44’E, 15 m, sandy, coll. N. Coleman, 23 Apr 1973 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.21203, 3 specs, Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03’48”S 150°45’24”E, 20 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 05 Jun 1989 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25420, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03’48”S 150°45’24”E, 20 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 21 Aug 1989 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25421, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03’48”S 150°45’24”E, 20 m, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 27 Feb 1990 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25423, 2 specs, Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03’48”S 150°45’24”E, 20 m, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 21 Feb 1991 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194491, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Murrays Basin sandbank, 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, Halophila   , sand, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 17 Oct 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.10700, 1 spec., Wagonga River, 400 m SW of Narooma Bridge , 36°12’55”S 150°07’13”E, coll. Australian Museum Eurobodalla Shire Estuary Survey, 17 Sep 1974 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.10498, 1 spec., Wagonga River, 900 m SW of Narooma Bridge , 36°13’10”S 150°07’30”E, coll. Australian Museum Eurobodalla Shire Estuary Survey, 17 Sep 1974 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.17111, 1 spec., Merimbula Channel, Lake Merimbula , 36°53’30”S 149°54’30”E, intertidal, sand, among Posidonia   , coll. J.H. Day and party, 04 Dec 1975 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.19254, 1 spec., Lake Merimbula , 36°55’S 149°54’E, 6 m, mud, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 25 Nov 1977 GoogleMaps   . South Australia   : AM W.25410, 1 spec., Spencer Gulf, Port Pirie , 10 km NW of Port Davis Creek, 33°16’S 137°51’E, 12.1 m, unvegetated sand, coll. T.J. Ward et al., Aug 1979 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25409, 1 spec., Bay of Shoals, Kangaroo Island , 35°50’S 137°15’E, 1 m, coll. D. Hoese, 11 Mar 1978 GoogleMaps   . Tasmania   : AM W.26160, 1 spec., Tinderbox, D’ Entrecasteaux Channel , 43°04’S 147°20’E, 8 m, coll. G. Edgar, 18 Mar 1999 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.26162, 2 specs, Dennes Point , 43°05’S 147°21’E, 5 m, coll. G. Edgar, 28 Mar 1999 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.26163, 3 specs, Creeses Mistake , 43°07’S 147°47’E, 15.5 m, coll. R.B. Mawbey, 30 Apr 1999 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.26164, 2 specs, Simmons Point , 43°12’S 147°17’E, 17.9 m, coll. R.B. Mawbey, 29 Jan 1999 GoogleMaps   . Victoria   : AM W.16204, 1 spec., Port Phillip Bay, off Patterson River , 37°58’S 144°54’E, 4 m, fine sand, coll. Marine Studies Group, 10 Mar 1971 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.16203, 1 spec., Port Phillip Bay, off Patterson River , 38°16’18”S 144°41’30”E, 9 m, sand, coll. Marine Pollution Studies Group, Ministry for Conservation, Victoria, 09 Dec 1971 GoogleMaps   . Western Australia   : AM W.25406, 4 specs (1 spec. mounted for SEM), Rottnest Island , 32°00’S 115°30’E, Pocillopora reef, coll. P.A. Hutchings, 14 Jan 1991 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.30720, 1 spec., Woodman Point , 32°08’S 115°44’E, 10 Jul 1994 GoogleMaps   .

Small material examined (Body length shorter than 10 mm). Australia, Queensland: AM W.45037, 1 spec., Lizard Island, 500 m off S Watsons Bay , 14°39’41”S 145°26’27”E, 15 m, sandy mud with filamentous algae, coll. M.T. Aguado, M. Capa, P.A. Hutchings & A. Murray, 23 Aug 2013 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.43945, 2 specs, Lizard Island, front of reef between Bird and South Islands , 14°41’43”S 145°27’56”E, 21 m, sand, coll. A. Zhadan, 14 Aug 2013 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.44029, 1 spec., Lizard Island, front of reef between Bird and South Islands , 14°41’52”S 145°27’50”E, 12 m, sand, coll. N. Budaeva, 14 Aug 2013 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.45851, 1 spec., SE of Lizard Island, reef on NW of North Direction Island , 14°44’36”S 145°30’20”E, 16 m, sand, coll. A. Zhadan, 15 Aug 2013 GoogleMaps   . New South Wales   : AM W.29146, 1 spec., S of Smoky Cape, Black Rock , 30°56’58”S 153°04’32”E, 13 m, algal turf on top of rock, coll. R.T. Springthorpe, 13 Feb 2002 GoogleMaps   . AM W.24315, 1 spec., E of Marley , 34°08’05”S 151°09’39”E, 60 m, sand, coll. Fisheries Research Institute ( NSW), 02 May 1991 GoogleMaps   ; Tasmania   : AM W.26161, 1 spec., North East River , 39°45’S 147°56’E, coll. G. Edgar, 08 Apr 1997 GoogleMaps   .

Material examined (but not measured). Australia, New South Wales: AM W.14894, 1 spec., E Botany Bay , 33°59’S 151°10’E, 14 m, sand, coll. NSW State Pollution Control Commission, 26 Jan 1977 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25413, 1 spec., SE of Bate Bay , 34°06’48”S 151°11’E, 45 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 25 Jun 1990   ; AM W.25414, 1 spec., SE of Bate Bay , 34°06’48”S 151°11’E, 45 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 25 Jun 1990   ; AM W.25415, 1 spec., SE of Bate Bay , 34°06’48”S 151°11’E, 45 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 25 Jun 1990   ; AM W.25416, 1 spec., SE of Bate Bay , 34°06’48”S 151°11’E, 45 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 25 Jun 1990   ; AM W.25417, 1 spec., SE of Bate Bay , 34°06’48”S 151°11’E, 35 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 25 Jun 1990   ; AM W.25418, 1 spec., Bass Point , 34°36’S 150°54’E, 65 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 29 Oct 1990   ; AM W.25419, 1 spec., Bass Point , 34°36’S 150°54’E, 35 m, coll. The Ecology Lab for GoogleMaps   RMI / Pioneer Project , 25 Jun 1990   ; AM W.25424, 3 specs, Jervis Bay, Green Point , 35°01’S 150°45’12”E, 12 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 18 Jun 1991 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25428, 2 specs, Jervis Bay, Montagu Roadstead , 35°02’12”S 150°46’E, 12 m, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 05 Jun 1990 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25422, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03’48”S 150°45’24”E, 20 m, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 17 Aug 1989 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25614, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03’48”S 150°45’24”E, 20 m, muddy sediments, coll. P.A. Hutchings, 05 Jun 1989 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.27528, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Honeymoon Bay , 35°03’48”S 150°45’24”E, 20 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 05 Jun 1989 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25425, 1 spec., Jervis Bay , S of Plantation Point, 35°04’48”S 150°41’48”E, 20 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 18 Jun 1991 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194145, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Murrays Beach , 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 25 Apr 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194259, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Murrays Beach , 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 25 Apr 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194358, 2 specs, Jervis Bay, Murrays Beach , 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 25 Apr 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194372, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Murrays Basin sandbank, 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, sand, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 17 Oct 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194398, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Murrays Beach , 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 25 Apr 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194469, 2 specs, Jervis Bay, Murrays Basin sandbank, 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, Zostera   & sand, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 17 Oct 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194521, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Murrays Beach , 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, sand, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 25 Apr 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.194584, 2 specs, Jervis Bay, Murrays Basin sandbank, 35°07’30”S 150°45’30”E, sand, coll. NSW State Fisheries, 17 Oct 1972 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.20835, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Hole in the Wall , 35°07’36”S 150°44’48”E, 12 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 20 Feb 1989 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25426, 1 spec., Jervis Bay, Hole in the Wall , 35°07’36”S 150°44’48”E, 12 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 18 Jun 1991 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25427, 2 specs, Jervis Bay, Hole in the Wall , 35°07’36”S 150°44’48”E, 12 m, unvegetated sediment, coll. P.A. Hutchings & party, 18 Jun 1991 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.10698, 1 spec., Wagonga River , 400 m SW of Narooma Bridge, 36°12’55”S 150°07’13”E, coll. Australian Museum Eurobodalla Shire Estuary Survey, 17 Sep 1974 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.10699, 1 spec., Wagonga River , 400 m SW of Narooma Bridge, 36°12’55”S 150°07’13”E, coll. Australian Museum Eurobodalla Shire Estuary Survey, 17 Sep 1974 GoogleMaps   ; South Australia: AM W.25412, 1 spec., Spencer Gulf, Port Pirie , 3 km NW of 1st Creek , 33°12’S 138°00’E, 4.1 m, coll. T.J. Ward et al., Mar 1980 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25411, 1 spec., Spencer Gulf, Port Pirie , 10 km NW of Port Davis Creek, 33°16’S 137°51’E, 12.1 m, unvegetated sand, coll. T.J. Ward et al., Aug 1979 GoogleMaps   . Western Australia: AM W.25407, 2 specs, Rottnest Island, North Point , 31°59’18”S 115°30’30”E, underneath boulders, coll. P.A. Hutchings, 22 Jan 1991 GoogleMaps   ; AM W.25408, 1 spec., Rottnest Island, Thompsons Bay , 32°00’S 115°30’E, 12 m, coll. P.A. Hutchings, 17 Jan 1991 GoogleMaps   .

Description. Based on all specimens measured. Preserved specimen pale or reddish in colour, conical in shape ( Fig. 22A, B View FIGURE 22 ). Body length 10.0 – 46.8 mm including paleae and scaphe, width 1.0 – 7.5 mm at cephalic regions.

Cephalic veil oval, free, with 16 – 29 smooth cirri on anterior margin and 2/3 of lateral margins ( Figs 22C – D View FIGURE 22 ; 23A – B View FIGURE 23 ). Pair of ear-shaped lobes adjacent to both sides of dorsal base of cephalic veil. Buccal tentacles with wide longitudinal grooves, arising posterior to cephalic veil ( Figs 22C – D View FIGURE 22 ; 23B View FIGURE 23 ).

Operculum semicircular; dorsal and lateral margin well developed, smooth; ventral margin (opercular ridge) with 8 – 13 pairs of stout and golden paleae, curved dorsally, with blunt tips ( Figs 22A – C View FIGURE 22 ; 23A – B View FIGURE 23 ).

First pair of tentacular cirri not extending beyond tips of paleae, with annuli, arising from connection of opercular margin and paleal ridge ( Figs 22B, F View FIGURE 22 ; 23A View FIGURE 23 ). Pair of small ventral lappets present behind tentacular cirri near cephalic veil on segment 1 ( Figs 22C – D View FIGURE 22 ; 23A View FIGURE 23 ). Ventral region of segment 1 covered by buccal tentacles and ventral lobes of segment 2 ( Figs 22C – D View FIGURE 22 ; 23B View FIGURE 23 ).

Second pair of tentacular cirri extending beyond opercular margin, with annuli, on latero-median connecting ridge on segment 2, inserted more dorsally than 1 st pair of tentacular cirri ( Figs 22B, F View FIGURE 22 ; 23A View FIGURE 23 ). Segment 2 with ventral lobes as pair of narrow ventro-lateral lobes separated by grooves from base of 2 nd pair of tentacular cirri, and pair of broad mid-ventral lobes about twice as wide as ventro-lateral lobes. Segment 2 with pair of short dorsolateral lobes, not extending to dorsum, connected to base of 2 nd pair of tentacular cirri.

Comb-like branchiae on segments 3 – 4, consisting of series of dense, flat lamellae ( Figs 22C, F View FIGURE 22 ; 23A View FIGURE 23 ). Branchiae on segment 3 larger and inserted more ventrally than those of segment 4 ( Figs 22E View FIGURE 22 ; 23A View FIGURE 23 ). Pair of small dorso-lateral glandular pads present on dorsal side of branchiae on segments 3 and 4 ( Figs 22F View FIGURE 22 ; 23A View FIGURE 23 ).

Distinct ventral glandular lobes present on segments 3 – 6, becoming progressively more lateral and broader on segments 3 – 5 ( Figs 22A, C View FIGURE 22 ; 23A – B View FIGURE 23 ). Hump present near the branchiae on segment 4. Segment 3 with broad ventral lobe, curved anteriorwards at mid-line. Segment 4 with pair of broad ventro-lateral lobes and mid-ventral lobe about 1/2 width of ventro-lateral lobes, separated from those by shallow grooves. Segment 5 with pair of broad ventro-lateral lobes and narrow mid-ventral lobe about 1/4 width of lateral lobes, separated from those by shallow grooves. Segment 6 with pair of broad ventral lobes, separated from each other by deep notch, with continuous papillae ( Figs 22A, C View FIGURE 22 ; 23A – B View FIGURE 23 ).

Notopodia other than those of segment 1 which bear paleae, on segments 5 – 21 (17 pairs), each bearing two kinds of notochaetae; one winged, bordered with serrations along distal portion, recurved dorsally, covered progressively with more spines from about middle to front of wing, on anterior surface; other stout, straight, tapering to pointed tip, covered progressively with more spines from mid-anterior portion to tip, on anterior surface ( Figs 22B, G View FIGURE 22 ; 23C – D View FIGURE 23 ). Neuropodia, 13 pairs on segments 8 – 20, each with slightly raised torus with transverse row of uncini; each uncinus with U-shaped peg embedded into torus, several rows of minor teeth, and two longitudinal rows of major teeth, each with 7 – 8 teeth ( Figs 22B, G View FIGURE 22 ; 23E View FIGURE 23 ). Segment 21 with ventro-lateral lobes near notopodia.

Scaphe ovoidal, flattened dorsally, divided into three anterior narrow lobes and three posterior broadly triangular lobes on each lateral margin,4 th lobe largest with pointed tip ( Figs 22A – B, F View FIGURE 22 ; 23F View FIGURE 23 ). Anal flap triangular tongue with short anal cirrus, with smooth margin. Scaphal hooks 6 – 12 pairs (more frequently 6 – 8), amber, with blunt tips, slightly curved dorsally ( Figs 22G View FIGURE 22 ; 23F – G View FIGURE 23 ).

Tube with wide opening, slightly curved, fragile, made of large sand grains ( Fig. 22E View FIGURE 22 ).

Methyl Green stained body distinctly green on cirri of cephalic veil, ventral lobes of segments 2–6, dorsolateral lobes of segment 2, dorso-lateral pads of segments 3–4, ventro-lateral regions adjacent to neuropodia, dorsal and ventro-lateral regions of segment 21, and dorsum of anal flap except for anal cirrus and margin ( Fig. 22 View FIGURE 22 ).

Small individuals. Based on all specimens (body length less than 10 mm) measured. Body length 2.2 – 9.2 mm including paleae and scaphe, width 0.3 – 2.6 mm at cephalic regions. Cephalic veil oval, free from operculum, with 14 – 20 smooth cirri on anterior and lateral margins. Opercular with 7 – 11 pairs of golden paleae, curved dorsally, with blunt tips. Scaphal hooks 2 – 6 pairs, amber, blunt bent tips. All other morphological characters similar to those of larger individuals.

Distribution. SE Queensland, New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Victoria, Tasmania, SW Western Australia ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

Habitat. Found in mud or muddy sand sediments and in amongst algae, from intertidal to 80.5 m.

Remarks. Pectinaria antipoda   has been widely reported from Australia since it was described by Schmarda, 1861 (Augener 1921; Knox & Cameron 1971; Poore et al. 1975; Hutchings & Peart 2002; Wong & Hutchings 2015). As the type of P. antipoda   is lost, Hutchings & Peart (2002) designated a neotype from the type locality Port Jackson, from material collected several decades after Schmarda collected his material, and deposited in the Natural History Museum in London. Hutchings & Peart (2002) suggest that in those few decades after Schmarda collected his type material little development had occurred in Port Jackson and there is, therefore, confidence of the validity of the neotype. Wong & Hutchings (2015) also described several specimens from Lizard Island, but all are less than five mm in length with fewer scaphal hooks (2 – 5 pairs) and cirri (14–17) on cephalic veil. Larger specimens of P. antipoda   have more cirri on the cephalic veil, paleae and scaphal hooks ( Fig. 24 View FIGURE 24 ). Hutchings & Peart (2002) suggest that the ventral lobes with continuous papillae on segment 6 are important taxonomic characters. All the specimens of P. dodeka Hutchings & Peart, 2002   and P. kanabinos Hutchings & Peart, 2002   deposited in the Australian Museum were examined and the continuous papillae on segment 6 are also present in ventral lobes of both species. Pectinaria antipoda   can be easily distinguished from the other Australian species by the paleae which have compact blunt tips, relatively more (usually 6 – 8 pairs) scaphal hooks and dorso-lateral lobes on segment 2 ( Table 3 View TABLE 3 ). Pectinaria antipoda   also differs from P. kanabinos   which has elongated anal flap, cirri on latero-posterior margins of anal flap, more longitudinal rows (four rows) of major uncinial teeth and fewer pairs of scaphal hooks which are distinctly curved; Pectinaria carnosus   lacks continuous papillae on the ventral lobes on segment 6 and an anal cirrus; and P. dodeka   has a long and narrow compact anal flap.

TABLE 3. (Continued) Major teeth of uncini Papillae Anal flap Scaphal hooks on Species Nos. of Nos. of Large ventral Reference Anal Nos. of longitudinal teeth medial surface Shape Margin Shape of tips cirrus pairs rows per row tooth of scaphe broad pointed, slightly Pallas 1766; Malmgren 1866; Hessle 1917; P. belgica 2‒4 7‒8 absent absent smooth present 6‒12 tongue-like curved Fauvel 1927; Nilsson 1928; Holthe 1986b; broad P. regalis 2‒3 6‒10 absent absent smooth present 0‒4 pointed, straight Verrill 1901; Hartman 1941; Long 1973 triangular P. gouldii 2‒4 6‒8 absent absent semicircular crenulated present 8‒22 pointed, straight Verrill 1874; Nilsson 1928; Long 1973 pointed, strongly P. californiensis 2 5 present absent tongue-like crenulated present 13 Hartman 1941 curved P. hartmanae 2 7 absent absent n.r. crenulated present 8‒10 blunt Reish 1968 pointed, slightly P. meredithi 2‒3 6‒8 absent absent semicircular 4‒5 papillae present 7‒9 Savigny 1822 curved pointed, slightly P. chilensis 2 7‒8 absent absent tongue-like crenulated present 13‒15 Hartman 1941 curved pointed, strongly P. aegyptia 2 7‒8 absent absent short broad smooth present 4‒5 Nilsson 1928 curved long pointed, strongly P. nana n.r. n.r. absent absent 3 pappillae present 3 Wesenberg-Lund 1949 tongue-like curved P. panava n.r. 8 absent absent semilunar crenulated pesent 7 n.r. Willey 1905 P. dimai 3‒4 6‒7 n.r. absent n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r. Zachs 1933 broad pointed, strongly P. hiuchiensis 2 8 absent absent smooth absent 8‒9 Kitamori 1965; Nishi et al. 2014 tongue-like curved blunt, strongly Imajima & Hartman 1964; Nishi et al. P. okudai 3‒4 7‒9 absent absent tongue-like crenulated present 12‒13 curved 2014 blunt, strongly P. torquata 2 7‒8 absent absent tongue-like crenulated absent 4‒5 Zhang & Qiu 2017 curved ……continued on the next page

  Major teeth of uncini Papillae on   Anal flap   Scaphal hooks  
Species Nos. of longitudinal rows Nos. of teeth per row Large medial tooth ventral surface of scaphe Shape Margin Anal cirrus Nos. of pairs Shape of tips Reference
P. belgica   2 ‒ 4 7 ‒ 8 absent absent broad tongue-like smooth present 6 ‒ 12 pointed, slightly curved Pallas 1766; Malmgren 1866; Hessle 1917; Fauvel 1927; Nilsson 1928; Holthe 1986b;
P. regalis   2 ‒ 3 6 ‒ 10 absent absent broad triangular smooth present 0 ‒ 4 pointed, straight Verrill 1901; Hartman 1941; Long 1973
P. gouldii   2 ‒ 4 6 ‒ 8 absent absent semicircular crenulated present 8 ‒ 22 pointed, straight Verrill 1874; Nilsson 1928; Long 1973
P. californiensis   2 5 present absent tongue-like crenulated present 13 pointed, strongly curved Hartman 1941
P. hartmanae   2 7 absent absent n.r. crenulated present 8 ‒ 10 blunt Reish 1968
P. meredithi   2 ‒ 3 6 ‒ 8 absent absent semicircular 4 ‒ 5 papillae present 7 ‒ 9 pointed, slightly curved Savigny 1822
P. chilensis   2 7 ‒ 8 absent absent tongue-like crenulated present 13 ‒ 15 pointed, slightly curved Hartman 1941
P. aegyptia   2 7 ‒ 8 absent absent short broad smooth present 4 ‒ 5 pointed, strongly curved Nilsson 1928
P. nana   n.r. n.r. absent absent long tongue-like 3 pappillae present 3 pointed, strongly curved Wesenberg-Lund 1949
P. panava   n.r. 8 absent absent semilunar crenulated pesent 7 n.r. Willey 1905
P. dimai   3 ‒ 4 6 ‒ 7 n.r. absent n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r. Zachs 1933
P. hiuchiensis   2 8 absent absent broad tongue-like smooth absent 8 ‒ 9 pointed, strongly curved Kitamori 1965; Nishi et al. 2014
P. okudai   3 ‒ 4 7 ‒ 9 absent absent tongue-like crenulated present 12 ‒ 13 blunt, strongly curved Imajima & Hartman 1964; Nishi et al. 2014
P. torquata   2 7 ‒ 8 absent absent tongue-like crenulated absent 4 ‒ 5 blunt, strongly curved Zhang & Qiu 2017

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AM

Australian Museum

NSW

Royal Botanic Gardens, National Herbarium of New South Wales

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Order

Terebellida

Family

Pectinariidae

Genus

Pectinaria

Loc

Pectinaria antipoda Schmarda, 1861

Zhang, Jinghuai & Hutchings, Pat 2019
2019
Loc

Pectinaria antipoda

Schmarda 1861
1861