Newsteadia andreae, Caballero, 2021
Caballero, Alejandro, 2021, Four new scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) associated with coffee roots in Colombia, South America, with identification keys for genera Newsteadia Green, 1902, Distichlicoccus Ferris, 1950, and Paraputo Laing, 1929, Zoosystema 43 (18), pp. 341-363 : 344-348
treatment provided by
Newsteadia andreae n. sp.
( Figs 1 View FIG ; 2 View FIG )
TYPE MATERIAL. — Holotype. Colombia • adult ♀ (2 specimens on 1 slide, holotype situated on the left side and indicated as “Holo” on additional label); Antioquia, Barbosa, Vereda Platanito, Farm Solenia ; 06°58’34.36”N, 75°23’41.32”W; 1741 m a.s.l.; 14.IX.2015; J. Agudelo leg.; ex roots Coffea arabica ( Rubiaceae ) – coffee, manual; UNAB 4630 View Materials . GoogleMaps
Paratypes. Colombia • 2 adult ♀; same data as holotype; 2 slides, 1 containing a single paratype, and the other with 1 paratype (marked as “Para”) sharing a slide with the holotype; UNAB GoogleMaps .
ETYMOLOGY. — The specific epithet “ andreae ” is assigned in honor of Dr Andrea Ramos-Portilla, mentor and friend of the author.
DIAGNOSIS. — This species has two spines on each trochanter; antennal flagellate setae with rounded apices, and three fleshy setae on the distal part of the apical segment; SantII shorter than SantI; five pairs of abdominal spiracles; and lacks groups of quadrilocular pores posterior to the vulva, and tubular ducts.
DESCRIPTION Pre-mounting specimens Appearance in situ: not observed. Specimens preserved in 75% ethanol with milky appearence; color unchanged in 10% potassium hydroxide.
Post-mounting specimens Slide-mounted adult female (n = 3): body oval to round ( Figs 1 View FIG ; 2A View FIG ), 1.9 ± 0.3 [1.6] (1.5-2.1) mm long and 1.5 ± 0.2 [1.3] (1.3-1.7) mm wide.
Wax plates ( Fig. 1A View FIG ). Well developed, composed of: spines, each 21.2 ± 2.7 (12-28) µm long and apically rounded ( Fig. 1B View FIG ); flagellate setae, each 38.4 ± 9.6 (18-58) µm long ( Fig. 1C View FIG ), the longest ones located at the corners of plates; quadrilocular pores of type I, each approximately 5 µm in diameter ( Fig.1D View FIG ); a few simple pores, each about 3 µm in diameter ( Fig. 1E View FIG ). Wax plate distribution as follows: two on head; 12 on thorax arranged in four longitudinal groups, each plate subdivided into one central and two external sections; and abdomen with six central wax plates and one large external plate on each side.
Inter-plate spaces. With quadrilocular pores of type II ( Figs 1F View FIG ; 2B View FIG ), each 4-6 µm in diameter, some pores joined in pairs ( Fig. 2B View FIG ); and simple pores like those on wax plate ( Fig. 2B View FIG ).
Tubular ducts. Absent.
Spicules on abdomen. Present.
Anal ring. 105.3 ± 3.1  (101-108) µm in transverse diameter, with 6 flagellate setae each 62.5 ± 7.9 (50-73) µm long with a rounded tip, and two or three inner rows of cells ( Figs 1G View FIG ; 2C View FIG ).
Antennae ( Fig. 1 View FIG H). Each 766.8 ± 23.5 (737-808) µm long, three segmented, with segment lengths and chaetotaxy as follows: SantI 180.8 ± 17.2 (162-209) µm long, with 8-9 flagellate setae each 46.7 ± 10.6 (25-62) µm long and apically rounded; SantII 125.5 ± 4.4 (120-133) µm long, 4-5 flagellate setae each 52.9 ± 7.1 (37-61) µm long and apically rounded, and one placoid sensilla; SantIII 460.5 ± 6.7 (448-467) µm long with three or four fleshy setae, two apical setae, the larger 100.3 ± 22.3 (51-114) µm long ( Fig. 2D View FIG , ls), the shorter one 15.3 ± 2.7 (11-18) µm long ( Fig. 2D View FIG , ss), one or two subapical setae each 46.2 ± 11.5 (36-71) µm long ( Fig. 2D View FIG , sa) and one distal seta 33 ± 3.2 (27-37) µm long ( Fig. 3D View FIG , ds), also 18 flagellate setae each 41.5 ± 11.8 (18-55) µm long and apically rounded ( Fig. 2E View FIG , fs); ratios SantI / SantII 1.4 ± 0.1 (1.3-1.6), SantIII / SantI 2.6 ± 0.2 (2.2-2.8), SantIII / SantII 3.7 ± 0.1 (3.5-3.8).
Eyespot. Protuberant, base 40.8 ± 1.9 (38-44) µm in diameter and 90.7 ± 7.4 (81-101) µm long, its base not fused with first antennal segment ( Fig. 2F View FIG ).
Labium ( Fig. 1I View FIG ). 237.3 ± 6.6 (228-243) µm long and 150.7 ± 8.1 (144-162) µm wide, of two segments: basal segment with 3 pairs of setae and apical segment with 14 pairs.
Fore leg ( Fig. 1J View FIG ). 1273.4 ± 28.7 (1235-1304) µm long; coxa 154 ± 10.3 (144-176) µm long, depression not developed; trochanter-femur fused, 470.7 ± 23.1 (428-492) µm long and 142.2 ± 4.4 (138-150) µm wide; tibia-tarsus fused, 594.8 ± 13.2 (569-606) µm long and 55.8 ± 3.1 (51-60) µm wide; claw 62.6 ± 7.8 (57-77) µm long; ratios: length of trochanter-femur/tibia-tarsus 0.8; trochanterfemur length/width 3.3 ± 0.2 (3.0-3.5), leg length/antenna length 1.7; fore leg chaetotaxy: coxa with 15-17 flagellate setae with rounded tips, trochanter with two spine-like setae and eight placoid sensilla, femur with 30-45 flagellate setae with rounded tips, tibia-tarsus with 5-12 flagellate setae with rounded tips, 25-28 spines and one sensilla; claw without a denticle but with two ungual spine-like digitules, each 15 ± 4.3 (11-21) µm long.
Mid leg. 1376.3 ± 22.6 (1348-1410) µm long; coxa 172.7 ± 8.0 (158-183) µm long, trochanter-femur fusion 492.7 ± 15.8 (470-515) µm long and 147.3 ± 2.4 (144-150) µm wide; tibia-tarsus fusion 643 ± 19.9 (610-660) µm long and 57 ± 5.4 (49-64) µm wide; claw 64.5 ± 3.8 (60-70) µm long; ratios: length of trochanter-femur/tibia-tarsus 0.8; trochanter-femur length/width 3.3 ± 0.1 (3.2-3.6), leg length/ antenna length 1.8; chaetotaxy: coxa with 14-20 flagellate setae with rounded tips, trochanter with 2 spine-like setae ( Figs 1K View FIG ; 2G View FIG arrows) and eight placoid sensilla ( Fig. 2G View FIG single-headed arrows), femur with 30-45 flagellate setae with rounded tips, and tibia-tarsus with 11-16 flagellate setae with rounded tips, 28-33 spines and one sensilla; claw without a denticle, two ungual spine-like digitules each 12.3 ± 2.6 (9-16) µm long.
Hind leg. 1513 ± 29.6 (1485-1554) µm long; coxa 179.8 ± 4.8 (173-188) µm long, trochanter-femur fusion 548.8 ± 20.3 (513-573) µm long and 150.4 ± 3.4 (146-154) µm wide; tibia-tarsus fusion 719.3 ± 33.5 (672-745) µm long and 58.3 ± 2.1 (56-61) µm wide; claw 65 ± 1.4 (64-67) µm long; ratios: length of trochanter-femur /tibia-tarsus 0.8 ± 0.1 (0.7-0.9); trochanter-femur length/width 3.6 ± 0.2 (3.2-3.8), leg length/antenna length 2; chaetotaxy: coxa with 14-19 flagellate setae with rounded tips, trochanter with 2 spine-like setae and eight placoid sensilla, femur with 32-45 flagellate setae with rounded tips, tibia-tarsus with 11-17 flagellate setae with rounded tips, 33-34 spines and one sensilla; claw without a denticle, two ungual digitules spine-like, each 12 µm long.
Spiracles. On thorax, each peritreme 43.9 ± 3.9 (39-51) µm in diameter and 76.3 ± 11.3 (63-94) µm long, with a cluster of 15-23 quadrilocular pores around the peritreme cavity, each pore about 5 µm in diameter, setae absent ( Fig. 1L View FIG ; 2H View FIG ); abdominal spiracles numbering 5 pairs, each peritreme 11.6 ± 1.6 (9-14) µm in diameter and 21.8 ± 3.8 (15-29) µm long, with pores and setae absent from around peritreme cavity ( Figs 1M View FIG ; 2I View FIG ).
Wax plates. Structure like that of dorsal plates, with spines each 16.3 ± 2.4 (11-22) µm long and apically rounded, flagellate setae each 40.6 ± 9.6 (20-60) µm long, and quadrilocular pores of similar diameter to those on dorsum; plates in marginal region well developed, similar to those on dorsum; plates in central region less conspicuous, composed of flagellate setae and few spines; head with three wax plates, thorax with 19, wax plates absent from abdomen. Ovisac band ( Fig. 1N View FIG ) surrounding the second abdominal segment, external edge composed of a transverse cluster of quadrilocular pores of type II, like those on dorsum ( Fig. 1F View FIG ), each 4-5 µm in diameter, accompanied by simple pores and spicules; inner edge of band formed of clustered spines, each 21.1 ± 4.4 (14-22) µm long and apically rounded, most posterior row of spines longest, truncate; flagellate setae forming mesial cluster in anterior section of band, each seta 43.8 ± 6.9 (32-55) µm long; other setae scattered through the band; quadrilocular pores of type I and simple pores with diameter similar to those on dorsum, scattered in the cluster of spines; area enclosed by ovisac band with six transverse clusters of quadrilocular pores of type II; scattered simple pores and spicules clustered with flagellate setae, each seta 33.2 ± 4.7 (26-42) µm long; inter-cluster areas bare.
Tubular ducts. Absent.
Spicules. Present on mesothorax and posterior body segments.
Based on data from Kozár (2004): Newsteadia andreae n. sp. is morphologically similar to several species. The closest species is N. vietnamensis Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 1999 , which is similar in most characters. The main differences are: antenna length, up to 808 µm in N. andreae n. sp. (949 µm long in N. vietnamensis ), and tubular ducts being absent from both surfaces in N. andreae n. sp. (present on both surfaces in N. vietnamensis ). Their geographical distributions and host records are different also: N. andreae n. sp. is recorded from the Neotropical Region ( Colombia) on roots of C offea arabica , whereas N. vietnamensis is known only from the Oriental Region ( Vietnam) and has no host records.
Newsteadia andreae n. sp. also resembles Newsteadia morrisoni Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2001 but differs in having ( N. morrisoni characters in parentheses): no groups of quadrilocular pores posterior to the vulva (quadrilocular pores posterior to vulva in groups); a ratio of SantIII / SantII of 3.7 (2.4); two spine-like setae on the trochanter (trochanter without spine-like setae), and each thoracic spiracle peritreme with quadrilocular pores inside (without quadrilocular pores in the peritremes).
Another species similar to N. andreae n. sp. is N. monikae Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2000 , which also has three antennal segments, the second antennal segment longer that first one, distal fleshy setae on the antenna, flagellate setae with rounded apices on all antennal segments, and five pairs of abdominal spiracles. Newsteadia andreae n. sp. differs from N. monikae (characteristics given in parenthesis) by: spine-like setae absent from the coxa (present) and present on the trochanter (absent); apical antennal segment with fleshy longer setae and subapical setae, and apical shorter setae present (with flagellate longer setae and subapical setae, without apical shorter setae); tubular ducts absent from wax plates (present); and peritreme of each thoracic spiracle with 15-23 quadrilocular pores (pores absent).
In addition, N. andreae n. sp. is similar to N. milleri Kozár & Konczné Benedicty, 2000 in having antenna with three antennal segments, spine-like setae on the bases of trochanter and femur, an ovisac band without gaps, and five pairs of abdominal spiracles. Newsteadia andreae n. sp. differs from N. milleri (characteristics given in parenthesis) by having: all antennal segments with flagellate setae with rounded apices (all antennal segments with spine-like setae); apex of third antennal segment with subapical fleshy seta and apical short setae (apex of third antennal segment without either subapical setae or apical short setae); trochanter with two spine-like setae (one spine-like seta); and tubular ducts absent from both dorsum and venter (tubular ducts present in dorsal wax plates).
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.