Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963),

Masan, Peter, 2017, A revision of the family Ameroseiidae (Acari, Mesostigmata), with some data on Slovak fauna, ZooKeys 704, pp. 1-228: 1

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.704.13304

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:111A101E-7405-4C40-8F51-693957A64D97

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/55A5D3DD-701A-293C-E292-B82FF9374E7E

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963)
status

 

Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963) 

Hypoaspis  sp. - Simmonds 1949: 42. By Halliday 1997.

Neocypholaelaps  sp. - Brimblecombe and Roff 1960: 447. By Halliday 1997.

Neocypholaelaps africana  Evans, 1963a: 224.

Neocypholaelaps lindquisti  Prasad, 1968: 130. Syn. n.

Afrocypholaelaps africana  . - Elsen, 1972b: 159; Seeman and Walter 1995: 45; Halliday 1997: 181; Ho et al. 2010: 90.

Afrocypholaelaps lindquisti  . - Haitlinger 1987a: 366; Halliday 1997: 181.

Neocypholaelaps africanus  . - Domrow 1979: 105.

Neocypholaelaps africana  . - Ishikawa 1979: 115; Baker and Delfinado-Baker 1985: 232; Delfinado-Baker et al. 1989: 610; Karg 1993: 233.

Neocypholaelaps lindquisti  . - Treat 1975: 118; Baker and Delfinado-Baker 1985: 232.

Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis  Haitlinger, 1987b: 531. Syn. n.

Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis  . - Halliday 1997: 181; Ho et al. 2010: 90; Narita et al. 2013a: 13.

Afrocypholaelaps lindqusti  (sic). - Ho et al. 2010: 91.

Afrocypholaelaps analicullus  Ho, Ma, Wang & Severinghaus, 2010: 88. Syn. n.

Type depository.

Of Neocypholaelaps africana  - British Museum (Natural History), London, United Kingdom; of Neocypholaelaps lindquisti  - Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum (Hawaii State Museum of Natural and Cultural History), Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; British Museum (Natural History), London, United Kingdom; Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Institute of Acarology, Wooster, Ohio, USA; United States National Museum, Washington, D.C., USA; Entomology Department, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA; Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India; of Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis  - Museum of Natural History, Wrocław University, Poland; of Afrocypholaelaps analicullus  - National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan.

Type locality and habitat.

Of Neocypholaelaps africana  - Angola, Luanda, on an African stingless bee, Meliponula bocandei  (as Trigona tomentosa  ) ( Hymenoptera  ); of Neocypholaelaps lindquisti  - Hawaii, Manoa, Oahu, on a noctuid moth, Achaea janata  ( Lepidoptera  ); of Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis  - Madagascar, Ranomafana, on unidentified butterfly ( Lepidoptera  ); of Afrocypholaelaps analicullus  - Taiwan, Chiayi, Fenchihu, on European honey bee, Apis mellifera  ( Hymenoptera  ).

Comparative material.

Madagascar: 1 ♀ (MPUV: MP-1291, holotype by monotypy) - 19. 3. 1986, Ranomafana, Lepidoptera  (labelled Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanae  , holotype).

Remarks.

There are some contradictory statements on the leg chaetotaxy of this species in some available papers on the genus Afrocypholaelaps  . The leg chaetotaxy for Afrocypholaelaps africanus  in Evans (1963a) is incomplete. His figures (1-4, page 211) show the chaetotaxy of Neocypholaelaps  , with three ventral setae on femur II, and two anterolateral setae on genu II, tibia II, genu III and tibia III. He then mentioned that A. africanus  has only one anterolateral seta on genu III and tibia III (page 213, and 225). He did not mention the deficiency of a ventral seta on femur II, and one anterolateral seta on genu II and tibia II. Prasad (1968) misunderstood this. He thought A. africanus  had three ventral setae on femur II and two anterolateral setae on genu II and tibia II. That is why he thought A. africanus  had more leg setae than the species he then described as Afrocypholaelaps lindquisti  . These two species actually have the same chaetotaxy, and they are here considered to be conspecific. Later, in his original generic diagnosis of Afrocypholaelaps  , Elsen (1972b) re-examined the type species A. africanus  , stating the correct number of two ventral setae on femur II, and one anterolateral and one posterolateral seta on genu II and tibia II. This chaetotactic pattern was confirmed also by Halliday (personal communication), who additionally checked his Australian specimens of A. africanus  , although his previous chaetotactic data ( Halliday 1997) showed the same misinterpretation of Prasad (1968) and Ho et al. (2010).

Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis  was quite briefly and inadequately described on the basis of the single female specimen by Haitlinger (1987b), and his description needs various amendments because it contains several morphological features inconsistent with Afrocypholaelaps  (dorsal shield with 28 instead of 29 pairs of setae, soft integument with four instead of six pairs of opisthogastric setae, st3 on soft integument instead of on small shields). The only further differences to the other congeners of Afrocypholaelaps  that he noted were the relatively larger dorsal shield (488 × 280 vs 350-436 × 216-279 μm respectively) and the shields situated on ventral surface (sternal shield 120 × 90 vs 68-84 × 68-78 μm, epigynal shield 134 × 86 vs 100-173 × 53-60 μm, and anal shield 84 × 92 vs 52-69 × 62-78 μm) in his own specimen from Madagascar. I examined the holotype specimens of A. ranomafanaensis  and found no important morphological differences with specimens described by various authors under the name Afrocypholaelaps  ( Evans 1963a, Prasad 1968, Elsen 1972b, Domrow 1979, Ishikawa 1979, Seeman and Walter 1995, Halliday 1997, and Ho et al. 2010). Despite the fact that the holotype is not in perfect condition for observation, I could detect full complement of 29 pairs of dorsal shield setae typical of Afrocypholaelaps  . Setae s1 and s2 are asymmetrically expressed in right side of the dorsal shield, as their bases are markedly adjacent each other. Dorsal setae are quite short and similar in length (anterior and marginal dorsal setae 12-14 μm, posteriormost dorsal setae 10-12 μm, Z5 11 μm), with otherwise position and relative length as in original illustration. Posteroventral region possesses the complete set of four pairs of slightly asymmetrically situated opisthogastric setae (JV1-JV3, ZV2) of which left JV2 displaced somewhat posteriorly and left JV3 abnormally placed on anal shield. Remaining two pairs of opisthogastric setae can be found on dorsal marginal surface, but I have detected only two of them (JV4, JV5) on the left side of the holotype. Ventrally placed setae clearly longer than those on dorsum (JV1 27-29 μm; JV2, JV3 and ZV2 16-23 μm). Setae st3 inserted on very small suboval pseudo-metasternal platelets. Anal shield not regularly rounded, but with posterior portion slightly expanded. I have checked the size of the all above mentioned shields, and can report holotype specimen with lower values for these measurements: dorsal shield 488 × 280 vs 428 × 248 μm respectively, sternal shield 120 × 90 vs 74 × 77,5 μm (at the level of st2), width of epigynal shield 86 vs 80 or 69 (at the level of genital setae), and anal shield 84 × 92 vs 78 × 89 μm. I believe that slight differences in size of scutal structures and setal length, found in different world populations of Afrocypholaelaps  and documented by various above cited authors can be interpreted as variation within a widespread species. Seeman and Walter (1995) examined the holotype and paratype of Afrocypholaelaps africanus  and a rich material of the specimens from Australia, finding no morphological differences between them. I believe that also A. ranomafanaensis  and A. africanus  cannot be distinguished morphologically, and are considered here to be conspecific.

Afrocypholaelaps analicullus  was characterised by the features of hypostome, anal shield and adjacent soft integument ( Ho et al. 2010), and introduced as a species closely related with Afrocypholaelaps lindquisti  . The most important diagnostic characters of A. analicullus  were mentioned to be (1) setae h2 and h3 similar in length; (2) ventral hypostome with five short rows of denticles on each side; (3) anal shield expanded posteriorly, with V-shaped cribrum; (4) setae JV4 and JV5 inserted close to the anal shield; in A. lindquisti  , these characteristics were mentioned as (1) setae h2 longer than h3; (2) ventral hypostome with one short and two long rows of denticles; (3) anal shield rounded, with U-shaped cribrum; (4) setae JV4 and JV5 distant from the anal shield. Undoubtedly, Ho’s interpretation of A. lindquisti  was based on the original descriptions and illustrations, and not on study of the type material. The above enumerated distinguishing characters do not provide a useful basis for establishment of a new species, so I relegate A. analicullus  into synonymy with Afrocypholaelaps africanus  . For example, the position of JV4 and JV5, and their distance from the anal shield, depends on an expansion of soft integument. The soft integument is well striated in Afrocypholaelaps  , and it could conceivably increase its surface considerably in gravid females, as it is originally depicted in A. lindquisti  by Prasad (1968). Also anal shield may vary in size and shape, as documented in A. africanus  by illustrations of Evans (1963a) and Ishikawa (1979). Except for the leg chaetotaxy, the only reliable difference between A. africanus  and other two species, A. lindquisti  and A. analicullus  , appeared the number of serrated setae on the posteriormost surface of the dorsal shield. Evans (1963a) stated three pairs of serrate setae in A. africanus  , whereas Prasad (1968) and Ho et al. (2010) reported six pairs of such setae for A. lindquisti  and A. analicullus  , respectively. But according to Elsen (1972b), the former species actually has the same number of serrate posterior setae as the two latter ones.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Mesostigmata

Family

Ameroseiidae

Genus

Afrocypholaelaps

Loc

Afrocypholaelaps africanus (Evans, 1963)

Masan, Peter 2017
2017
Loc

Afrocypholaelaps africana

Elsen 1972
1972
Loc

Afrocypholaelaps lindquisti

Elsen 1972
1972
Loc

Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis

Elsen 1972
1972
Loc

Afrocypholaelaps ranomafanaensis

Elsen 1972
1972
Loc

Afrocypholaelaps lindqusti

Elsen 1972
1972
Loc

Afrocypholaelaps analicullus

Elsen 1972
1972