Stephanogorgia rattoi, Castro & Medeiros & Loiola, 2010

Castro, C. B., Medeiros, M. S. & Loiola, L. L., 2010, Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from Brazilian reefs, Journal of Natural History 44 (13 - 14), pp. 763-827: 819-821

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222930903441160

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/554D1963-FFC5-FFC4-FDD7-F3AC0D9B6300

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Stephanogorgia rattoi
status

sp. nov.

Stephanogorgia rattoi   sp. nov.

( Figures 1 View Figure 1 , 24A,A′ View Figure 24 )

Diagnosis

Stephanogorgia   without sclerites; terminal branches up to 53 mm long (average 6– 27 mm long); branches originated all over colony; branches of lower region of colony do not reach colony apex; contracted polyps up to 0.8 mm high and 0.9 mm wide.

Description

Holotype complete colony 87 mm in height, 89 mm in width, with main axis 2 mm in diameter near basis; paratypes 30–160 mm in height, 5–124 mm in width, with main stem 0.6–4.8 mm in diameter at base. Planar colonies (although a few specimens almost bushy), with monopodial pinnate branching, no anastomosis ( Figure 24A View Figure 24 ). Axes approximately circular in transverse section, strongly calcified on lower parts of colony and with flexible terminal twigs. Axis yellowish to metallic copper-coloured. First ramification 2–15 mm from colony bases. Trunk diameter just below first ramification 0.6–3.1 mm. Branching may proceed at least up to fifth order. Branches alternate on both sides of main axis, internodes from 0.9 to 15 mm long, measured between successive branchlets, average interval being from 3.1 ± 0.9 to 5.8 ± 3.1 mm. Main axis often bends slightly away from lateral branches forming zigzag course ( Figure 24A View Figure 24 ). Median branches diameter 0.2–1.7 mm, with average in different colonies varying from 0.38 ± 0.10 to 1.05 ± 0.38 mm. Terminal branches maximum length from 12 to 53 mm on different colonies, but on average undivided branchlets from 8.4 ± 2.0 to 27.3 ± 13.3 mm long; terminal branches diameter 0.1–0.6 mm, with average in different colonies varying from 0.1 ± 0.02 to 0.43 ± 0.12 mm. Polyps placed biserially along branches, alternating or opposite ( Figure 24A′ View Figure 24 ). Depending upon state of contraction, polyps from nearly cylindrical, trumpet-shaped, conical, to almost globose, rising from branches obliquely towards distal end of branches. Polyps up to 0.8 mm high and 0.9 mm wide; average 0.2 ± 0.06 to 0.46 ± 0.11 mm high and 0.40 ± 0.06 to 0.69 ± 0.08 mm wide. Polyps close-set on distal branches (up to 0.9 mm apart, average from 0.16 ± 0.05 to 0.54 ± 0.27 mm apart), becoming sparser on median (up to 1.6 mm apart, average from 0.2 ± 0.17 to 1 ± 0.4 mm apart), and basal (up to 2.1 mm apart, average from 0.16 ± 0.08 to 0.9 ± 0.6 mm apart) parts of colonies. Density of polyps on terminal branches from 14 to 39 per centimetre (average from 20.9 ± 4.39 to 32.4 ± 3.65 polyps per centimetre). Polyps pale yellow or white, column translucent; polyps and coenenchyme in specimens from Califórnia Reef bright orange. No sclerites.

Material

Holotype. Brazil: Bahia, Pedra Grande , Parcel das Paredes, 17°44′44.1′′ S, 038°55′08.7′′ W, c. 16 m, collected by B. Segal and C. B. Castro, 19 February 2000 ( MNRJ 06071 View Materials ) ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 ). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. Brazil: Bahia, Off Itacolomis Reefs, 16°56′29′′ S, 039°00′24′′ W, 14–22 m ( MNRJ 03684 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Salteado de Timbebas ”, 17°25′34.3′′ S, 038°58′16.6′′ W, 23 m ( MNRJ 04323 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; south of Parcel de Timbebas , 17°30′22.4′′ S, 039°00′47.5′′ W, 3.5– 13 m ( MNRJ 04324 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Parcel de Timbebas , 17°30.057′ S, 039°00.776′ W ( MNRJ 02844 View Materials , 02845 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Pedra Grande , Parcel das Paredes, 17°44′44.1′′ S, 038°55′08.7′′ W, c. 16 m ( MNRJ 04319 – 14 paratypes) GoogleMaps   ; Lixa Reef , Parcel das Paredes, 17°46.54′ S, 039°01.58′ W, 12 m ( MNRJ 02954 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Lixa Reef , Vigilante, Parcel das Paredes ( MNRJ 03064 View Materials )   ; Parcel das Paredes , 17°52′37.83′′ S, 038°58′34.15′′ W ( MNRJ 03169 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Popa Verde Reef , Abrolhos Bank, 18–20 m ( MNRJ 02967 View Materials )   ; Califórnia Reef , 18°06′07.8′′ S, 038°35′26.0′′ W, 15–32 m ( MNRJ 04071 View Materials – seven specimens; 04318 – 24 specimens) GoogleMaps   ; Califórnia Reef , 18°07′ S, 038°34′ W, 20–30 m ( MNRJ 04146 – 16 specimens; MNRJ 06000 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; south-east of Califórnia Reef , 18°34′00′′ to 18°39′48′′ S, 038°04′00′′ to 037°52′13′′ W, 65 m ( MNRJ 04823 View Materials , MNRJ 05994 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; Espírito Santo, off Doce River , 19°42.626′ to 19°43.857′ S, 039°26.321′ to 039°26.372′ W, 100–417 m ( MNRJ 04221 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ( Figure 1 View Figure 1 ).

Etymology

In honour of Cláudio Continentino Ratto, for his help in several field and laboratory stages of the current study and for his keen eye that made him the first to recognize the octocoral nature of these chrysogorgiids while collecting underwater.

Remarks

Three species were assigned to Stephanogorgia   by Bayer and Muzik (1976), namely: S. wainwrighti Bayer and Muzik, 1976   , from a depth of 10 m at Fiji Islands, S. diomedea Bayer and Muzik, 1976   , from a depth of 37 m at the Philippines, and S. faulkneri (Bayer, 1974)   , from a depth of 14 m at Palau Islands. The new species, collected at depths of 12–239 m at the Abrolhos Bank, Brazil, can be readily distinguished from these by the absence of sclerites in the new species. This is the first record of this genus in the Atlantic Ocean.

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro