Desmodium distortum (Aubl.) J.F. Macbr., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser.

Lima, Laura Cristina Pires, Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci De, Tozzi, Ana Maria Goulart De Azevedo & Lewis, Gwilym Peter, 2014, A Taxonomic Revision of Desmodium (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) in Brazil, Phytotaxa 169 (1), pp. 1-119: 40-43

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.169.1.1

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5154470

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/537EF179-FFB3-456C-FF3B-28F9FE54FD4A

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Desmodium distortum (Aubl.) J.F. Macbr., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser.
status

Spec. Nov.

10. Desmodium distortum (Aubl.) J.F. Macbr., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser.   8(2): 101. 1930 Hedysarum distortum Aubl., Hist. Pl. Guiane.   2: 774. 1775. Meibomia distorta (Aubl.) Schindl., Repert.   Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 281. 1926. non Meibomia distorta (Aubl.) Schindl., Fedde Rep.   Spec. Nov. 20: 148. 1924. Type:— FRENCH GUIANA. J.B.C.F. Aublet s.n. (holotype BM!). Fig. 12.

Hedysarum asperum Poir., Encycl.   6(2): 408. 1805. Desmodium asperum (Poir.) Desv., J. Bot. Agric.   1: 122. 1813. Aeschynomene aspera (Poir.) J. St.   - Hil., J. Bot. Appl. 1: 60. 1813. Meibomia aspera (Poir.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl.   1: 197. 1891. Type:—Locality unknown. s.c. (holotype P-JU!, isotype P!).

Desmodium elatum Kunth   , Nov. Gen. Sp. 6: 528. 1823. Meibomia elata (Kunth) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl   1: 198. 1891. Type:—CARIBE. F.W.H.A. von Humboldt & A.J.A. Bonpland s.n. (holotype P-HUMB![3 sheets]).

Desmodium perrottetii DC., Mém. Légum.   324. 1825. Meibomia distorta var. perrottetii (DC.) Schindl., Repert.   Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 22: 282. 1926. Lectotype (designated here):— FRENCH GUIANA. G.G.S. Perrottet s.n. (lectotype G-DC!, isolectotypes G![2 sheets], P![3 sheets]), syn. nov.

Desmodium violaceum G. Don, Gen.   hist. 2: 298. 1832. Meibomia violacea (G. Don) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl.   1: 198. 1891. Type:— BRAZIL. Maranhão: G. Don s.n. (holotype BR989555 View Materials !), syn. nov.

Desmodium rubiginosum Benth., Ann. Nat. Hist.   3: 434. 1839. Lectotype (designated here):— GUYANA. R.H. Schomburgk 217 (lectotype BM![2 sheets], isolectotypes K000328093!, P00706583!, W0027216!).

Desmodium spectabile Miq., Linnaea   18: 570. 1844, nom. illeg., non Sweet, 1826. Lectotype (designated by Schubert 1980):— SURINAME. Para: Onoribo , H. Focke 880 (lectotype U!, isolectotypes E!, L!).

Desmodium pabulare Hoehne, Chácaras e Quintais   21: 460. 1920. Meibomia pabularis (Hoehne) Hoehne, Mem. Inst. Butantan   1(1): 25. 1921. Meibomia distorta var. pabularis (Hoehne) Schindl., Repert.   Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 23: 282. 1926.

Desmodium distortum var. pabulare (Hoehne) Hoehne, Ind. Bibl. & Num. Pl. Col. Com. Rondon.   240. 1951, nom. illeg., pro syn. Lectotype (designated here):— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso: Benjamim Constant, Comissão Rondon, May 1911, F.C. Hoehne 2553 (SP!). Remaining syntypes: Brazil. Mato Grosso: Benjamim Constant , Comissão Rondon , May 1911, F.C. Hoehne 2554 (R!). Minas Gerais: Bento-Toledo , cultivada no Instituto Agronômico de Campinas , F.C. Hoehne 3908 (SP!).

Erect, branched shrub, 1–4 m tall, without a xylopodium; stems not virgate, not slender, cylindrical, striate, densely or sparsely tomentose, uncinate and puberulous-uncinate, rarely hispid or glabrescent, not glaucous; internodes 2.1–6.5 cm long. Stipules 8–14 × 2–4 mm, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, auriculate, semi-amplexicaul, inserted perpendicularly at the base of the leaf petiole, free from each other, apex caudate, apiculate, margin ciliate, densely or sparsely tomentose and uncinate, rarely glabrescent, veins conspicuous, caducous or generally persistent at the base of the inflorescence; auricle 3–5 mm long. Leaves trifoliolate or unifoliolate, or uni and trifoliolate on the same plant; petiole 11–78 mm long, cylindrical, sulcate, densely or sparsely uncinate or puberulous-uncinate; rachis 10–39 mm long; stipels 5–8 mm long, lanceolate, margin ciliate, tomentose or glabrescent on the outer surface, persistent; leaflets discolorous, chartaceous, coriaceous, subcoriaceous or papyraceous, venation eucamptodromous, primary, secondary, and tertiary veins prominent, quaternary veins flush on the abaxial surface, indumentum densely or sparsely tomentose on the primary, secondary and tertiary veins on the abaxial surface, adaxial surface puberulous, uncinate hairs covering both surfaces, terminal leaflet 6.7–19.8 × 2.8–17.2 cm, elliptic, lanceolate, broadly ovate, ovate, ovate-rhombic or rhombic, base cordate, cuneate, oblique or obtuse, apex acute, obtuse or retuse, mucronate, lateral leaflets 6.5–13.5 × 5.5–7.6 cm, the same shape as the terminal leaflet. Inflorescence a terminal paniculate; the main axis longer than the adjacent leaves, 32.1–77.5 cm long, densely hispid, uncinate and puberulous-uncinate, 2 flowers per node; primary bract 2–4 mm long, ovate-lanceolate, margin ciliate, puberulous-uncinate on the on the outer surface, caducous, veins conspicuous on the outer surface; secondary bract 0.8–1 mm long, subulate, margin ciliate, puberulous-uncinate on the outer surface, caducous, veins inconspicuous on the on the outer surface; pedicel 2–3(–5) mm long, densely or sparsely hispid and puberulousuncinate, rarely glabrescent. Flowers 3–4.5 mm long; calyx bilabiate, tube campanulate, 1–1.2 mm long, tomentose, hispid and puberulous-uncinate on the outer surface; upper lip bifid, the 2 teeth joined for ca. ¾ of their length, acute, ca. 0.2 mm long; lower lip trifid, lateral tooth triangular, 1–1.2 mm long, central tooth triangular, 1.5–2 mm long; corolla purple or white, standard 3–4.5 × 2.5–3 mm, obovate, apex obtuse, maculate at the base, claw 0.2–0.5 mm long; wing petals 3.5–4.5 × 1.5–2 mm, obovate, apex obtuse, without callosities, claw 0.5 mm long; keel petals 3.5–4.5 × 1–1.5 mm, narrowly obovate, apex subacute, with callosities, claw 1.5–2 mm long; androecium monadelphous, 3–4.5 mm long, vexillary stamen partially fused with the other from the base 2–2.5 mm; ovary 2.5–3 mm long, puberulous or glabrous stipe ca. 0.2 mm long, glabrous. Loment 0.9–1.7 cm long, stipe 1–1.5 mm long, glabrous, isthmus subcentral, both margins sinuate; articles uniform 3–6, 2–3 × 1.5–2.5 mm, ovate-elliptic or orbicular, tortuous, indehiscent, subcoriaceous, veins inconspicuous, densely uncinate becoming glabrescent at maturity. Seed 2.5–3 × 1.5–2 mm, oblong, hilum subcentral.

40 • Phytotaxa 169 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press

LIMA ET AL. DESMODIUM   (LEGUMINOSAE, PAPILIONOIDEAE   ) IN BRAZIL

Phytotaxa 169 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press • 41

Selected specimens examined:— BRAZIL. Acre: Rio Branco: Rio Branco para Boa Vista, 1908, fl., E   . Ule 7935 ( K)   . Alagoas: União : s. loc., 23 March 1980, fl., J   . Deslandes 65 ( HUEFS)   . Amapá: rio Pedreira: Borda do rio Pedreira , ao longo da estrada para   Amapá, Km 108, 13 July 1962, fl., fr., J. M   . Pires & P. B   . Cavalcante 2165 ( U). Amazonas: Manicoré : Estrada do Estanho , Parque Nacional dos Campos Amazônicos , 7 May 2009, fl., fr., L. C. P   . Lima et al. 630 ( HUEFS)   . Bahia: Abaíra : s. loc., 12 April 1994, fl., W   . Ganev 3237 ( HUEFS, K)   . Ceará: Guaraciaba do Norte: Serra da Ibiapaba , 15 June 1979, fl., fr., A   . Fernandes et al. s.n. ( HUEFS128478 View Materials ); Candeias : ca. 30 km Noroeste de Salvador, na BR-324, 25 September 1995, fl., L. P   . de Queiroz 4452 ( HUEFS)   . Espírito Santo: s. mun.: Serra do Caparaó , BR-262, Km 195, 28 April 1975, fl., P   . Occhioni 7194 ( RB)   . Goiás: Caldas Novas: BR-070, Km 232, perto de Paredão do Leste, 14 January 2009, fl., fr., L. C. P   . Lima et al. 517 ( HUEFS)   . Maranhão: Loreto: Ilha de Balsas , 19 April 1962, fl., G   . Eiten & L. T   . Eiten 4336 ( SP)   . Mato Grosso: Glória do Oeste: BR-070, Km 160, 18 April 2009, fl., fr., L. C. P   . Lima et al. 610 ( HUEFS)   . Mato Grosso do Sul: Nova Andradina: MS-134, Km 34, lado esquerdo, sentido Nova Andradina a Casa Verde, ca. 23 km Sul de Casa Verde, 6 April 2009, fl., fr., L. C. P   . Lima & M. P   . Andrade 571 ( HUEFS)   . Minas Gerais: Monte Carmelo : BR-365, próximo à torre CTBC   , 2 April 1992, fl., G   . Hatschbach et al. 56449 ( BR, CTES, HBG, K). Pará: Santarém: s. loc., June 1850, fl., fr., R   . Spruce s.n. ( FI-W, G, LE, M, OXF, W)   . Paraíba: Areia: Escola de Agronomia do Nordeste , 28 September 1956, fr., J. C   . Moraes s.n. ( HUEFS169175 View Materials )   . Pernambuco: São Lourenço da Mata: Estação Ecológica do Tapacurá, mata do Camocim , 22 October 1992, fl., fr., A. M   . Miranda et al. 631 ( HUEFS)   . Piauí: Alto Longa: Posto Experimental de Área Seca , 16 May 1978, fl., J. J   . Viana 153 ( RB)   . Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro: Restinga de Jacarepaguá, vizinha da estrada do lado Sul da Pedra de Ituana. 7 April 1970, fl., D. Sucre et al. 6548 ( HUEFS)   . Roraima: s. mun.: serra da Lua, 22 March 1955, fr., I. S   . Miranda 463 ( INPA)   . São Paulo: Bocaina do Sul: Guará , São Josémar, 29 March 1997, fl., R. M   . Harley et al. 28540 ( HUEFS)   . Tocantins: Arraias : s. loc., March 1840, fl., G   . Gardner 3677 ( K)   .

Distribution and Ecology:— Central America and Tropical South America ( Schubert 1980). In Brazil D.distortum   has been collected along roadsides, in pasture and grassland in the States of Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Roraima, São Paulo, and Tocantins.

Conservation Assessment:— Least Concern (LC), not endangered ( IUCN 2001).

Phenology:— flowering and fruiting from January to October.

Etymology:— in reference to the tortuose, distorted articles of the fruit.

Common Name:— carrapichinho; carrapicho; carrapicho-amor-seco; engorda-magro; feijão-de-boi.

Taxonomic notes:— persistent stipules at the base of the inflorescence, asperous leaflets more than 6 cm long, paniculate inflorescences, pedicels 2–5 mm long, flowers 3–4.5 mm long with a purple or whitish corolla, and tortuous fruit articles are diagnostic characters of Desmodium distortum   .

Among the unifoliolate species with ovate leaflets more than 6 cm long, D. distortum   is similar to D. guaraniticum   , D. arechavaletae   , D. membranifolium   , and D. sclerophyllum   . The three latter species also have flowers with purple corollas, as in D. distortum   (vs. lilac or rose corollas in D. guaraniticum   ). Desmodium distortum   can be distinguished from D. membranifolium   and D. sclerophyllum   by the auriculate stipules (vs. nonauriculate in D. sclerophyllum   ), lanceolate stipels (vs. subulate in the latter two species), the tortuous articles to 3 mm long (vs. not tortuous and more than 4 mm long in D. sclerophyllum   ) and ovate-elliptic or orbicular articles (vs. rhombic in D. membranifolium   ).

Among the trifoliate species with paniculate inflorescences, D. distortum   can be confused with D. album   , D. subsecundum   , and D. tortuosum   . It resembles D. tortuosum   in leaf shape (elliptic, ovate-rhombic, or rhombic) and in the auriculate stipules, but can be distinguished by the prominent venation on the abaxial surface of the leaf (vs. only the primary and secondary venation prominent in D. tortuosum   ), pedicels to 2–3(– 5) mm long (vs. more than 7 mm long), and articles up to 3.5 mm long (vs. more than 3.5 mm long).

Desmodium distortum   is similar to D. subsecundum   with auriculate stipules and discolorous leaflets, but can be distinguished by flowers to 4.5 mm long (vs. more than 7 mm long in D. subsecundum   ), fruit stipe to 1.5 mm long (vs. 2–3 mm long), and tortuous fruit articles (vs. not tortuous).

Hoehne (1920) published Desmodium pabulare Hoehne   based on collections from Mato Grosso and Minas Gerais, the latter cultivated in São Paulo. Vanni (2001) cited as the type of this species only the collections from Mato Grosso. As the typifications by Vanni (2001) are not valid following articles 7.11 and 9.21 of the ICBN ( McNeill et al. 2006), a lectotype is designated for this taxon.

42 • Phytotaxa 169 (1) © 2014 Magnolia Press

LIMA ET AL.

Schubert (1980) designated the material from K as the holotype of Desmodium rubiginosum Benth. However   , she did not specify which of the sheets labelled “Schomburgk 217” was being designated, which is a problem because one of them has been identified as D. distortum   and the other as D. incanum   . To remove any ambiguity as to the type of Desmodium rubiginosum   , a lectotype is designated in this study. Schindler (1928) had already mentioned that there were two different specimens– Desmodium frutescens Schindl.   (= D. incanum   ) and Meibomia distorta   (= D. distortum   )–comprising the “Schomburgk 217” collection. This study confirms the observation of Schindler (1928) through analysis of the “Schomburgk 217” specimens deposited in BR!, FI–W!, P00706584!, OXF!, and W1889–0109606!, all of which correspond to D. incanum   .

Schubert (1980) considered Desmodium perrottetii   as distinct from D. distortum   , but suggested that they may be synonymous. After examination of the type material D. perrottetii   is treated here as a new synonym of D. distortum   .

Desmodium violaceum   was considered a doubtful species by Bentham (1859), Hoehne (1921), and Schindler (1928). On the type material analysed from the BR herbarium ( BR989555 View Materials !), the morphological similarities between D. violaceum   and D. distortum   are evident and D. violaceum   is therefore considered a synonym of D. distortum   in this study.

E

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh

K

Royal Botanic Gardens

J

University of the Witwatersrand

HUEFS

Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana

M

Botanische Staatssammlung München

P

Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants

B

Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet

U

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland

L

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch

C

University of Copenhagen

W

Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

A

Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum

RB

Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

G

Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

SP

Instituto de Botânica

BR

Embrapa Agrobiology Diazothrophic Microbial Culture Collection

CTES

Instituto de Botánica del Nordeste

HBG

Hiroshima Botanical Garden

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

LE

Servico de Microbiologia e Imunologia

OXF

University of Oxford

I

"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University

S

Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Fabales

Family

Fabaceae

Genus

Desmodium

Loc

Desmodium distortum (Aubl.) J.F. Macbr., Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser.

Lima, Laura Cristina Pires, Queiroz, Luciano Paganucci De, Tozzi, Ana Maria Goulart De Azevedo & Lewis, Gwilym Peter 2014
2014
Loc

Meibomia distorta (Aubl.)

Schindl. 1926: 281
1926
Loc

Meibomia distorta var. perrottetii (DC.)

Schindl. 1926: 282
1926
Loc

Meibomia distorta var. pabularis (Hoehne)

Schindl. 1926: 282
1926
Loc

Meibomia pabularis (Hoehne) Hoehne, Mem. Inst. Butantan

Hoehne 1921: 25
1921
Loc

Desmodium pabulare Hoehne, Chácaras e Quintais

Hoehne 1920: 460
1920
Loc

Meibomia aspera (Poir.)

Poir. 1891: 197
1891
Loc

Meibomia elata (Kunth)

Kunth 1891: 198
1891
Loc

Meibomia violacea (G. Don)

G. Don 1891: 198
1891
Loc

Desmodium spectabile

Miq. 1844: 570
1844
Loc

Desmodium rubiginosum Benth., Ann. Nat. Hist.

Benth. 1839: 434
1839
Loc

Desmodium violaceum

G. Don, Gen. 1832: 298
1832
Loc

Desmodium asperum (Poir.)

Desv. 1813: 122
1813