Brachoria flammipes, Marek, 2010, Marek, 2010

Marek, Paul E., 2010, A revision of the Appalachian millipede genus Brachoria Chamberlin, 1939 (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae: Apheloriini), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 159 (4), pp. 817-889: 846-849

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00633.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/523387B6-6633-1B39-34DC-87F6BF376586

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Brachoria flammipes
status

SP. NOV.

BRACHORIA FLAMMIPES   SP. NOV.

‘THE FIRE- FOOTED MIMIC MILLIPEDE’

( FIG. 16A–D, FIG View Figure 16 . 40F–G)

Diagnosis: Adult males of B. flammipes   are distinct from other Brachoria species   based on the combination of: Colour. Striped ( Fig. 40F), yellow metatergal stripes, collum stripe, legs. Striped ( Fig. 40G), red metatergal stripes, collum stripe, legs. Exoskeleton. Caudolateral corners, paranota 1–8 rounded, lateral margins 1–4 angled cephalically. Gonopods. Gonopodal acropodite narrow, ~seven-tenths width of tibia on leg pair 9, distinctly narrowed halfway until apex. Prefemur without prefemoral process, or with tiny thorn-like process. Acropodite bent anteromedially at 50°, at cingulum, one-quarter of its length from prefemur ( Fig. 16C View Figure 16 ). Distinctly narrowed distal portion, meathook-like, curved dorsally ( Fig. 16B View Figure 16 ). Acropodal apex projected posterolaterally, sinuate, acuminate tip slightly curved dorsally ( Fig. 16B View Figure 16 , arrow). Note: B. flammipes   and B. dentata   appear similar as a result of close evolutionary relationship. However, the two can be distinguished by the form of the gonopods and phylogenetic location. Specifically, B. flammipes   has an unadorned meathook-like acropodite distal beyond the cingulum, whereas B. dentata   has a single (or double in some Kentucky populations), stout sawtooth projection ventromedially at the base of the narrowed distal portion ( Fig. 11B View Figure 11 , arrow). In addition, the acropodite of B. flammipes   is bent anteromedially at 50°, at the cingulum, one-quarter of its length from the prefemur (Fig. 39V); whereas in B. dentata   the acropodite is bent anteromedially at a smaller angle (45°), one-eighth of its length from the prefemur ( Fig. 11C View Figure 11 ). Although colour should be met with suspicion as a diagnostic character in Brachoria   , generally B. dentata   are either two-spotted or three-spotted and B. flammipes   striped.

Description: Holotype (♂) FMNH-INS43068 – measurements: BL = 45.87. CW = 7.77. IW = 5.30. ISW = 1.50. B10W = 10.40. B10H = 6.55. AL = 2.20. Head: antennae extending backwards to middle of third tergite, relative antennomere lengths 2> 3> 5> 4> 6> 1> 7. Tergites: collum with curved cephalic edge, tapering laterally. Collum without carina present on anterior margin. Paranota 1–8 with caudolateral corners rounded, lateral margins 1–4 angled cephalically. Paranotal dorsal surface tightly wrinkled, appearing leathery. Ozopores orientated dorsolaterally. Paranota with anterodorsal corner scooped out. Gonapophyses goblet-shaped apically. Pleural tubercle absent. Sterna without posteriorprojecting spines, with flat caudal margin. Sterna 2–8 sparsely setose (Ể ten setae), sterna 9–18 without setae, ventral surface smooth. Gonopods: in situ configuration– acropodite projected ventrally, bent anteriorly at 50°, at cingulum, one-quarter of its length from prefemur ( Fig. 16C View Figure 16 ). Distinctly narrowed distal portion, meathook-like, curved dorsally ( Fig. 16B View Figure 16 ). Acropodal apex projected posterolaterally, sinuate, acuminate tip slightly curved dorsally. Terminal arc of acropodite orientated anterolaterally. Left, right acropodites crossed midlength, appearing intertwined. Telopodites – prefemur with tiny thornlike process, ~1/32 length of acropodite, equal to its width at its base. Gonopodal acropodite narrow, ~seven-tenths width of tibia on leg pair 9, distinctly narrowed halfway until apex. Acropodite with ventrobasal surface facing medially, flat without flange or swelling. Acropodite base without spines on dorsal surface. Acropodal basal and apical ventral surfaces not coplanar, apical surface rounded, facing laterally; anterior twist well defined, acropodite immediately distal beyond cingulum curved cephalically, apical arc recurved posteriorly. Acropodal ventral surface not swollen, smooth. Acropodite with midlength transverse groove, cingulum. Acropodite distinctly narrowed halfway until apex, about 2.8 ¥ narrower in distal half than basal half at its widest section. Acropodite immediately distal to cingulum equal width to acropodite immediately basal to cingulum. Postcingular region of acropodite without ventromedial or lateral teeth. Acropodal apex projected posterolaterally. Acropodite with postcingular region ~one-quarter of its total length. Anterolateral edge of acropodal postcingular region with small flange ( Fig. 16A View Figure 16 , arrow). Acropodite with an undivided apex. Acropodal apex narrow, ~one-third width of postcingular region, sinuate acuminate tip slightly curved dorsally ( Fig. 16B View Figure 16 ). Paratype (♀) FMNH-INS43070 – measurements: BL = 43.55. CW = 7.70. IW = 5.87. ISW = 1.65. B10W = 10.25. B10H = 7.20. Cyphopods: cyphopods with receptacle (at its greatest breadth) narrower than prefemur length. Receptacle rectangular, one side slightly wider, widest edge facing anterodorsally. Cyphopodal valves nearly symmetric. Cyphopods with valvular suture wavy, facing laterally.

Variation: Brachoria flammipes   is known only from the type locality and seven specimens (4♂ and 3♀ from type series collected in 2005). There is some variation in coloration amongst these specimens with three morphs, all striped (red or yellow): (1) striped ( Fig. 40F), yellow (10YR 7/12) paranota and anterior collum stripe, orange (7.5YR 6/12) metatergal stripes, legs (1.25YR 4/12); (2) striped, yellow (1.25Y 8/14) paranota, anterior collum stripe, yellow (1.25Y 7/14) metatergal stripes, legs; (3) striped ( Fig. 40G), red metatergal stripes, anterior collum spot, legs. There is some variation in length amongst these specimens, specifically I observed two length classes in males: between 45.87–50.05 and 40.71–41.67. Measurements: ♂ (N = 4) BL = 40.71–50.05 (44.58/4.28). CW = 7.29–8.20 (7.70/0.39). IW = 4.98–5.80 (5.27/ 0.38). ISW = 1.40–1.75 (1.52/0.16). B10W = 9.30–10.50 (9.90/0.64). B10H = 5.55–7.10 (6.23/0.73). ♀ (N = 3) BL = 43.55–55.09 (48.60/5.90). CW = 7.70–7.90 (7.82/ 0.10). IW = 5.80–5.89 (5.85/0.05). ISW = 1.65–1.73 (1.69/0.04). B10W = 10.25–11.19 (10.65/0.49). B10H = 7.20–7.70 (7.38/0.28).

Ecology: Brachoria flammipes   specimens were collected during the evening (19:00) in a moist forest comprising maple, hemlock, dogwood, sycamore, birch, and tulip poplar trees. Individuals were found on a north-facing slope beneath layers of decomposing leaf material on the side of a trail above (south) Cawood Branch. Other xystodesmids encountered co-occurring with B. flammipes   were B. splendida   , A. v. corrugata   and an undescribed species of Nannaria   . Note: individuals of B. flammipes   may be confused in the field with B. splendida   and A. v. corrugata   because of similarity in colour patterns, but can be distinguished from B. splendida   by the diagnostic characters (specifically, B. flammipes   has a narrow acropodite distally and B. splendida   a bulky S-shaped acropodite distally), and from A. v. corrugata   by the presence of the following characters (viewed with a 20¥ loupe): acropodite with midlength transverse groove, cingulum; prefemur without prefemoral process, or with tiny thorn-like process; acropodite with distinctly narrowed distal portion, meathooklike, curved dorsally; acropodite not circular like in A. v. corrugata   . Nannaria   is easy to distinguish; it has an olive drab colour and a body length ~threequarters that of B. flammipes   .

Distribution: Known only from the type locality. The closest known Brachoria species   , B. splendida   , co-occurs with B. flammipes   at Cawood Recreation Site. Brachoria gracilipes   occurs about 17 km east in the town of Pine Mountain, Harlan County, Kentucky.

Etymology: The specific epithet was derived from my first impression of some specimens’ bicoloured legs while collecting them at Cawood. Some individuals’ legs are brilliant orange at the base and bright yellow at the tip, imparting a flame-like appearance. (The specific name is a noun derived from the Latin words: flamma = flame, and pes = foot.)

Material examined: Type specimens. ♂ holotype ( FMNH-INS43068 *: EU127870 View Materials )   , 1 ♂, 1 ♀ paratypes ( FMNH-INS43069, 70)   , 1 ♂, 1 ♀ paratypes ( USNM,  

SPC001086, 1021) from Kentucky, Leslie County, Daniel Boone National Forest, Cawood Recreation Site , about 5.4 rd km north of junction KY-221 and US-421 (36.93645°N, - 83.37294°W, 404 m), 27.vii.2006, 19:00 (colls: P. and B. Marek). Nontype specimens. Kentucky: 1♂ (A8705), 1♀ (A8704), Leslie County , 26.4 km south of Hyden , Cawood Recreation Area , Daniel Boone National Forest (36.9356°N, - 83.3724°W), 11.vi.2001 (coll: R. Shelley). 1♂ (SPC001086), same as type locality, 9.v.2007, 11:00 (colls: P. Marek, D. and M. Beamer, C. Hall) GoogleMaps   .

BRACHORIA GLENDALEA ( CHAMBERLIN, 1918)   ‘THE GLENDALE HILLS MIMIC MILLIPEDE’

( FIG. 17A–D, FIG View Figure 17 . 40H)

Fontaria glendalea Chamberlin, 1918: 123   . Brachoria glendalea   – Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958: 212; Keeton, 1959: 28.

Diagnosis: Adult males of B. glendalea   are distinct from other Brachoria species   based on the combination of: Colour. Two-spotted ( Fig. 40H), yellow paranotal spots, anterior collum stripe, legs. Tergites frequently brown, not black ( Fig. 40H). Exoskeleton. Caudolateral corners, paranota 1–4 rounded, lateral margins angled cephalically. Gonopods. Gonopodal acropodite very narrow, one-third width of tibia on leg pair 9, swollen distally beyond cingulum twofold. Acropodite projecting straight from prefemur, not curved medially before cingulum ( Fig. 17A View Figure 17 ). Acropodite beyond cingulum circularly coiled anteriorly ( Fig. 17C View Figure 17 , arrow). Acropodite apex tapered distally, with flanged acuminate tip ( Fig. 17B View Figure 17 , arrow). Note: most species of the genus have brilliantly variable coloration throughout their distribution. However, B. glendalea   has the most uniform colour pattern throughout its range of any species in the genus ( Fig. 40H).

Variation: Brachoria glendalea   is known from Davidson County south to Maury, Bedford, and Coffee counties. There is negligible variation in coloration and measurements amongst these specimens. Measurements: ♂ (N = 5) BL = 38.30–44.73 (40.51/2.51). CW = 7.55–8.45 (8.03/0.37). IW = 4.79–5.62 (5.19/ 0.34). ISW = 1.45–1.65 (1.53/0.08). B10W = 9.94–11.28 (10.66/0.66). B10H = 5.65–6.70 (6.10/0.43). ♀ (N = 4) BL = 40.39–44.30 (42.72/1.67). CW = 7.35–8.40 (7.90/ 0.44). IW = 5.48–5.89 (5.65/0.17). ISW = 1.75–1.90 (1.81/0.06). B10W = 10.30–11.60 (10.80/0.56). B10H = 6.75–7.60 (7.08/0.39).

Description: Male described by Chamberlin (1918); redescribed by Keeton (1959).

Ecology: Brachoria glendalea   specimens were collected during the day (9:30 and 13:00) in two localities: at the type locality, in a disturbed area in Nashville, and at Radnor Lake State Nature Preserve. I found two millipedes within the city limits of Nashville, one of which, a large female, I did not collect. The Nashville locality is a shaded and disturbed gully with Hedera helix   L. blanketing a large part of the soil. No other xystodesmids were encountered sympatrically here. Brachoria glendalea   from Radnor Lake were found in a maple, birch, and tulip poplar forest in a moist gully. One other xystodesmid encountered co-occurring at the Radnor Lake locality is Falloria mimetica ( Chamberlin, 1918)   . Note: individuals of B. glendalea   may be confused in the field with F. mimetica   , but can be distinguished by the presence of the following characters (viewed with a 20¥ loupe): two-spotted, yellow paranotal spots, anterior collum stripe, legs; F. mimetica   has red paranota and purple metatergal stripes; acropodite beyond cingulum circularly coiled anteriorly, F. mimetica   has a bulky acropodite, not circularly coiled.

Distribution: Known from the Interior Plateau of Tennessee in Davidson County south through Marshall County and into Maury, Bedford, and Coffee counties; and west to Hickman County. The closest known Brachoria species   , B. initialis   occurs south and east of B. glendalea   . Brachoria hubrichti   occurs east in the Cumberland Plateau and Sequatchie Valley.

Material examined: Type specimens. ♂ holotype ( MCZ)   , ♂, ♀ paratypes ( USNM) from Davidson County, Tennessee, Glendale Hills, 21.iv.1917 (coll: H. Cummins) (vidi paratypus). Nontype specimens. Tennessee   : 1♂ ( PMLN0165), Bedford County, 14.4 km south of Shelbyville (35.3907°N, - 86.4945°W), 8.x.1960 (coll: L. Hubricht) GoogleMaps   . 1♂, 1♀ (A2670), Coffee County, Old Stone Fort (35.4859°N, - 86.1015°W), 11.v.1979 (coll: R. Shelley) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ (SPC000481*: EU127850 View Materials ), Davidson County, Nashville, gully draining into West Fork , near junction of Scenic Dr and Glendale Ln. (36.09468°N, - 86.79347°W, 165 m), 22.v.2005, 9:30 (coll: P. Marek) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ (SPC000484), 1♀ (SPC000489), Davidson County, Radnor Lake State Nature Preserve, South Cove Trail , in gully near loop trailhead (36.05945°N, - 86.80724°W, 263 m), 22.v.2005, 13:00 (coll: P. Marek) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ ( PMLN0060), Hickman County, Duck River bluff, north of Centerville (35.7891°N, - 87.4673°W), 24.ix.1955 (coll: L. Hubricht) GoogleMaps   . 3♂, 2♀ (A2655), Marshall County, Henry Horton State Park campground (35.5855°N, - 86.6923°W), 5.v.1979 (coll: R. Shelley) GoogleMaps   .

BRACHORIA GRACILIPES ( CHAMBERLIN, 1947)  

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Diplopoda

Order

Polydesmida

Family

Xystodesmidae

Genus

Brachoria

Loc

Brachoria flammipes

Marek, Paul E. 2010
2010
Loc

Fontaria glendalea

Keeton WT 1959: 28
Chamberlin RV & Hoffman RL 1958: 212
Chamberlin RV 1918: 123
1918