Brachoria, , Hoffman, 1971

Marek, Paul E., 2010, A revision of the Appalachian millipede genus Brachoria Chamberlin, 1939 (Polydesmida: Xystodesmidae: Apheloriini), Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 159 (4), pp. 817-889: 825-826

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00633.x

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/523387B6-6626-1B10-366C-828BB8A866A1

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Brachoria
status

 

BRACHORIA   TAXONOMY

CLASS DIPLOPODA DE BLAINVILLE IN GERVAIS, 1844  ORDER POLYDESMIDA POCOCK, 1887   FAMILY XYSTODESMIDAE COOK, 1895   SUBFAMILY XYSTODESMINAE HOFFMAN, 1978   TRIBE APHELORIINI HOFFMAN, 1980   GENUS BRACHORIA CHAMBERLIN, 1939   COMMON NAME: ‘THE APPALACHIAN MIMIC MILLIPEDES’

Brachoria Chamberlin, 1939   . Type species: B. initialis Chamberlin, 1939: 3   ; by original designation.

Synonyms: Tucoria Chamberlin, 1939   , synonymized by Keeton, 1959; Anfractogon Hoffman, 1948   , synonymized by Chamberlin & Hoffman, 1958. These taxa were established based on gonopodal morphology: Tucoria   for species with bulky and enlarged gonopods ( B. calceata   , Brachoria kentuckiana   , Brachoria splendida   , and B. viridicolens   ) and Anfractogon   for certain populations of B. ochra   with bifurcate acropodal apices. I agree with synonymy of these genera in Brachoria   – specifically Tucoria   is not monophyletic, and similar ranges of acropodal modification, including bifurcation, are present within other species of Brachoria   .

Species: Brachoria badbranchensis   sp. nov.; B. blackmountainensis   sp. nov.; B. calceata ( Causey, 1955)   ; B. campcreekensis   sp. nov.; B. cedra Keeton, 1959   ; B. conta Keeton, 1965   ; B. cumberlandmountainensis   sp. nov.; B. dentata Keeton, 1959   ; B. divicuma Keeton, 1965   ; B. electa Causey, 1955   ; B. enodicuma Keeton, 1965   ; B. evides ( Bollman, 1887)   ; B. flammipes   sp. nov.; B. glendalea ( Chamberlin, 1918)   ; B. gracilipes ( Chamberlin, 1947)   ; B. grapevinensis   sp. nov.; B. guntermountainensis   sp. nov.; B. hansonia Causey, 1950   ; B. hendrixsoni   sp. nov.; B. hoffmani Keeton, 1959   ; B. hubrichti Keeton, 1959   ; B. indianae ( Bollman, 1888)   ; B. initialis Chamberlin, 1939   ; B. insolita Keeton, 1959   ; B. kentuckiana ( Causey, 1942)   ; B. laminata Keeton, 1959   ; B. ligula Keeton, 1959   ; B. mendota Keeton, 1959   ; B. ochra ( Chamberlin, 1918)   ; B. plecta Keeton, 1959   ; B. sheari   sp. nov.; B. splendida ( Causey, 1942)   ; B. virginia   sp. nov.; B. viridicolens Hoffman, 1948   .

Tribal affiliation: Brachoria   is placed with other taxa in the tribe Apheloriini   based on the following characters: Male gonopodal characters: Telopodite-coxa joint articulated at 180° angle. Prefemoral process present, short and stout; or absent, never long, or acicular. See also diagnoses of Apheloriini   in Shelley & Whitehead (1986: 205) and Hoffman (1980: 187).

Diagnosis: Large (4–6 cm in length), broad, ‘flatbacked’ millipedes. Bright aposematic coloration in yellow, orange, red, violet that commonly mimics other sympatric apheloriine genera. Brachoria   individuals frequently mimic the yellow and black spots or alternating yellow and black bands of Apheloria ( Marek & Bond, 2009)   . Members of the genus Brachoria   are distinct from other apheloriine genera based on the following combination of characters. Male exoskeletal characters: collum with carinae present on anterolateral margins, absent medially; carinae rarely completely absent. Caudolateral corners of paranota usually rounded cephalically on anterior body rings (1–4), acute, projecting caudally (beyond paranotal caudal edge) throughout posterior body rings (11–19); or acute, projecting caudally on all body rings (1–19) in B. guntermountainensis   , B. ochra   , and B. initialis   . Male gonopodal characters: distinct cingulum present ( Fig. 2 View Figure 2 , cg). Cingulum proximal (located distance less than half length of acropodite distally from coxa), or distal (located distance greater than half length of acropodite distally from coxa). Note: other apheloriine genera lack a cingulum, except for individuals in the genus Appalachioria   , see below for distinguishing characters between individuals in the genera Brachoria   and Appalachioria   . Prostatic groove ( Fig. 2 View Figure 2 , ps) located marginally on acropodal base. Acropodite occasionally bulky (in ten out of 34 species); width greater than tibia on leg pair nine (species with bulky gonopods: B. splendida   , Fig. 2 View Figure 2 ; B. blackmountainensis   , B. calceata   , B. campcreekensis   , B. cumberlandmountainensis   , B. kentuckiana   , B. laminata   , B. plecta   , B. sheari   , and B. viridicolens   ). Acropodite distal zone surface usually directed anterolaterally, twisted one-quarter turn clockwise; or occasionally directed posterolaterally, twisted one-quarter turn counterclockwise. Note: individuals of Brachoria   may be confused with Apheloria   and Appalachioria   , but can be distinguished from Apheloria   by the presence of the following characters (viewed with a 20¥ loupe): acropodite with midlength transverse groove, cingulum ( Fig. 2A–C View Figure 2 , cg); acropodite, when viewed ventrally C- or D-shaped, acropodal apex not coiled, or overlapping prefemoral region, not circular. Individuals of Brachoria   can be distinguished from Appalachioria   by the presence of the following characters (viewed with a 20¥ loupe): collum with carinae present on anterolateral margins, absent medially; caudolateral corners of paranota usually rounded cephalically on anterior body rings (1–4) and acute, projecting caudally (beyond paranotal caudal edge) throughout posterior body rings (11–19); not rounded on all segments (1–19) as in Appalachioria   .

Distribution: Predominately distributed in the Valley and Ridge and Cumberland Plateau provinces from southern West Virginia to north-eastern Kentucky, south to eastern Tennessee, and south-western Virginia ( Fig. 1 View Figure 1 ). The range of the genus extends into the historically unglaciated south-eastern corner of Indiana, north-eastern Mississippi and Alabama, and north-western Georgia. The species B. initialis   is broadly distributed in the coastal plain in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana (extending west of the Mississippi River).

Ecology: Brachoria   are predominately found in Appalachian mixed mesophytic deciduous forests ( B. cedra   sometimes occur in cedar glades) beneath decomposing leaf material on the forest floor. Individuals are less frequently encountered in Tsuga canadensis, Rhododendron   coves.

BRACHORIA BADBRANCHENSIS   SP. NOV.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Diplopoda

Order

Polydesmida

Family

Xystodesmidae

Loc

Brachoria

Marek, Paul E. 2010
2010
Loc

Brachoria

Chamberlin RV 1939: 3
1939