Artema doriae Thorell, 1881

Aharon, Shlomi, Huber, Bernhard A. & Gavish-Regev, Efrat, 2017, Daddy-long-leg giants: revision of the spider genus Artema Walckenaer, 1837 (Araneae, Pholcidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 376 (376), pp. 1-57 : 30-35

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2017.376

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3852334

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/516F87BB-1311-BC55-FDBF-BFC6FC7AEFD8

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Artema doriae Thorell, 1881
status

 

Artema doriae Thorell, 1881

Figs 1 View Figs 1–2. 1 , 90–120 View Figs 90–96 View Figs 97–102 View Figs 103–114 View Figs 115–120 , 205 View Figs 201–207 , 212 View Figs 208–214

Pholcus doriae Thorell, 1881: 179–180 (in footnote) (♀, Teheran, Iran). Synonymized with Artema atlanta by Pickard-Cambridge 1902: 366; revalidated by Brignoli 1981: 92.

Artema doriai (unjustified emendation; see Etymology below) – Simon 1893: 465. — Tabrizi et al. 2014: 35, figs 1M–N, 3L–M. — Malek Hosseini et al. 2015: 92.

Misidentifications

Artema transcaspica ” – Denis 1958: 112 ( Afghanistan). — Roewer 1955: 752 ( Iran). — Gharari & Marusik 2009: 4 ( Iran). See Note below.

Etymology

Even though the species was named for a man (Marchese Giacomo Doria, 1840–1913), the ICZN (1999: article 31.1) clearly states that the correct patronym has to be doriae, not doriai. The latter is thus an unjustified emendation.

Diagnosis

Artema doriae is easily distinguished from other congeners (except A. transcaspica and Artema sp. c.) by the arrangement of modified hairs situated frontally on cheliceral processes ( Fig. 98 View Figs 97–102 ), by the triangular bulbal process c, usually curved and pointing towards prolateral ( Fig. 95 View Figs 90–96 ), and by the distinct ventral process d ( Fig. 94 View Figs 90–96 ). Males are possibly distinguishable from A. transcaspica and Artema sp. c by the cheliceral proximal incline usually with small ridge or process above modified hairs in lateral view (arrows in Figs 100–102 View Figs 97–102 ) ( A. transcaspica usually with smooth incline proximally of modified hairs, see arrows in Figs 131–133 View Figs 128–133 ; Artema sp. c with robust ridge or process above modified hairs, see arrows in Figs 190–191 View Figs 186–194 ). Females differ more easily from other congeners (except A. transcaspica and Artema sp. c) by their quadrilateral epigynal shape. Females appear distinguishable from A. transcaspica by their more trapezoidal epigynal plate rather than rectangular to square-shaped, by median sclerite not reaching posterior margin, and by more distinct and inflated pale median area posteriorly (compare Figs 103–114 View Figs 103–114 with Figs 134–145 View Figs 134–145 ); Artema sp. c differs by wider epigynal plate, and by more inflated and prominent pale median area of epigynal plate ( Figs 195–200 View Figs 195–200 ).

Material examined

Syntypes

IRAN: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Tehran [35.70° N, 51.42° E], 1862, G. Doria leg. ( MSNG); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, same data ( MNHN AR 10180) (E. Simon collection number 397).

GoogleMaps

Other material

ISRAEL: 1 ♀, Upper Galilee, Ramot Naftali (33.08° N, 35.54° E), 15 May 2012, S. Zonstein leg. ( CSZ); GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂, Yavni’el [32.70° N, 35.50° E], Sep. 1961, collector not given ( HUJ Ara 16030-31); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, Poriyya slope [32.73° N, 35.54° E], Sep. 1970, Pener et al. leg. ( HUJ Ara 16032); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, Nachal Chagal, N of Gesher (32.634° N, 35.534° E), 3 Dec. 2010, L. Friedman and C. Drees leg. ( CSZ); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, Memorial Ha-Biq’a, NE Peza’el (32.052° N, 35.458° E), in cave, 10 Mar. 2014, S. Aharon and E. Gavish-Regev leg. ( HUJ Ara 16033); GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀, 1 juv., Memorial Ha-Biq’a, NE Peza’el (32.0524° N, 35.4589° E), - 245 m b.s.l., at base of stonewall, 15 Sep. 2013, B.A. Huber, S. Aharon and E. Gavish-Regev ( ZFMK Ar 15243-44); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 2 juvs, in pure ethanol, same data ( ZFMK Isr 40); 1 ♀, Jericho [31.89° N, 35.42° E], 25 Feb. 1968, G. Tsabar leg. ( HUJ Ara 16034); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, same locality, 12 Dec. 1967, P. Amitai leg. ( HUJ Ara 16035); 1 juv., same locality, 20 Oct. 1969, P. Amitai ( HUJ Ara 16036); 6 ♀♀, Modi’in (31.893° N, 34.971° E), pitfall trap in shrub habitat, Apr. 2012, I. Berenstein et al. leg. ( SMNH); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, Hazeva [30.76° N, 35.27° E], 17 Jun. 2010, L. Friedman and C. Drees ( CSZ); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, near Hazeva [30.76° N, 35.27° E], 11 Aug. 2014, Akiva Topper leg. ( HUJ Ara 16037). GoogleMaps

TURKEY: 2 ♀♀, Şanlıurfa Prov., Urfa, 15 km Urfa - Gaziantep [37.10° N, 38.64° E], webs under rocks on dry rocky hills, 12 Sep. 1956, collector not given ( XUM); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, 1 juv., Diyarbakır Prov., Çermik [38.14° N, 39.45° E], 700 m a.s.l., 27 Jul. 2004, T. Danisman leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15931) GoogleMaps .

IRAN: 1 ♂, Tehran, 15 Oct. 1938, collector not given ( NHMW 354 ); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Tehran Prov., Tochal (35.827° N, 51.406° E), 6 Jun. 2013, A. Zamani leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15233–34); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, Alborz Prov., Karaj (35.84° N, 50.95° E), date not given, Ressl leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15930); GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, 1 juv., Lorestan Prov., Ma’amulan (33.33° N, 47.90° E), 6 Aug. 1973, A. Senglet ( MHNG); GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂, Esfahan Prov., Esfahan (32.56° N, 51.51° E), 23Aug. 1973, A. Senglet leg. ( MHNG); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, Esfahan, 18–20Aug. 1934, H. Field and R.A. Martin leg. ( FMNH); 1 ♂, Hamedan Prov., Ganj nameh (34.76° N, 48.44° E), 2100 m, 4 Jul. 1974, A. Senglet leg ( MHNG); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, Fars Prov., Allabad (30.01° N, 53.00° E), 9 Jun. 1974, A. Senglet leg. ( MHNG); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Fars Prov., Bishapour (29.78° N, 51.58° E), 28 May 1974, A. Senglet leg. ( MHNG); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, Kermanshah Prov., SE of Berendjan (34.55° N, 47.03° E), 12 Sep. 1975, A. Senglet leg. ( MHNG); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, Yazd Prov., 10 km NE of Bafq (31.70° N, 55.53° E), 1260 m, 10 Apr. 2004, V. Vignoli and P. Crucitti leg. ( SMF); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Yazd Prov., Mehriz, Gode Morghun Cave (31.4° N, 54.4° E), 1760 m a.s.l., date not given, M.S. Tahami leg. ( ZMSU); GoogleMaps 2 ♂♂, Khuzestan Prov. [ Ahvaz , 31.31° N, 48.68° E], 17 Nov. 1958, W. Frank leg. ( SMF); GoogleMaps 2 juvs, Fars Province, Shiraz (29.607° N, 52.533° E), 18–26 May 2000, Y.M. Marusik leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15235); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 juvs, Fars Province, 50 km NNE of Shiraz (29.75° N, 52.75° E), 18–28 May 2000, Y.M. Marusik leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15236); GoogleMaps 1 ♂, Fars Province, “ Hosseinie House ” [29.63° N, 52.51° E], 27 May 1981, collector not given ( ZFMK Ar 15237); GoogleMaps 1 ♀, University of Shiraz [29.63° N, 52.51° E], 29 May 2000, F. Hosseinie leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15238). GoogleMaps

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: 2 ♀♀, Sharjah Desert Park (25.28º N, 55.69º E), hand-collected, 24 Feb. 2005, C. Griffioen leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15239); GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀, same locality, in pitfall traps, 6–28 Dec. 2006, A. van Harten leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15240); 1 ♀, same locality, hand-collected, 6 Oct. 2004, C. Griffioen leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15241); 1 ♀, Um al-Quwain (25.51º N, 55.53º E), in pitfall traps, 1–30 Nov. 2008, A. van Harten leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15242); GoogleMaps 2 ♀♀, Dubai, Deira, inside Al Quisais Mosque (25.277° N, 55.373° E), 7 May 2014, N. Iqbal leg. ( NHMUK); GoogleMaps 1 ♂ (palps missing), 1 juv., Dubai, Falcon City, in building (25.087° N, 55.360° E), 22 May 2014, Morshid leg. ( NHMUK). GoogleMaps

AFGHANISTAN: 1 ♂, Herat (34.33° N, 62.21° E), 15 Aug. 1975, A. Senglet leg. ( MHNG). GoogleMaps

JAPAN: 1 ♀, Okayama Pref., Kasaoka Port [34.5° N, 133.5° E], Kasaoka-shi, 23 Dec. 1995, K. Nojima leg. ( ZFMK Ar 5203). GoogleMaps

Description

Male (MNHN AR 10180)

MEASUREMENTS. Total body length 8.5, carapace width 4.1. Leg 1: 60.8 (16.0 + 1.9 + 18.2 + 21.2 + 3.5), tibia 2: 14.2, tibia 3: 10.0, tibia 4: 13.8; tibia 1 L/d: 36. Distance PME–PME 220 μm, diameter PME 200 μm, distance PME–ALE 140 μm, distance AME–AME 50 μm, diameter AME 190 μm.

COLOR. Carapace ochre with light brown median band; ocular area light brown, clypeus with subtle brown rim and light brown band below AME enlarged at base of clypeus to triangular shape (as in Fig. 90 View Figs 90–96 ); legs ochre yellow to ochre without dark rings on femora subdistally but with light brown rings on patellae + tibiae proximally, and tibiae subdistally, tips of femora and tibiae not whitish; sternum ochre with narrow brown margins; abdomen beige with indistinct pale stripes from dorsal to posterior of abdomen with several marks dorsally.

BODY. Ocular area slightly elevated; carapace with distinct posterior furrow and distinct median pit; clypeus unmodified; sternum wider than long (3.0/2.2); chelicerae, with frontal row of ~20–25 modified (cone-shaped) hairs on each side, situated on elevated process (see Figs 97–99 View Figs 97–102 ); cheliceral proximal incline in lateral view with distinct small process above modified hairs (see Fig. 97 View Figs 97–102 ); with stridulatory ridges laterally (as in Fig. 118 View Figs 115–120 ); abdomen globose and high; gonopore with four epiandrous spigots.

PALPS. Coxa unmodified, trochanter with short ventral projection, femur with distinct retrolateral process proximally, ventral membranous area proximally bordered on both sides by heavily sclerotized ridges, and small dorsal projection proximally; femur-patella hinges close together dorsally; patella very short; procursus with proximal dorsal process and weakly developed ventral pocket, and distal dorsal notch on prolateral sclerotized margin (as in Fig. 95 View Figs 90–96 ); bulb with membranous embolus rising from base of processes a and b; process a with subdistal hump; process b narrow, elongated, and pointed; process c small, triangular (as in Fig. 95 View Figs 90–96 ); process d is a distinct small ventral projection distally (as in Figs 94, 96 View Figs 90–96 ).

LEGS.Without spines;with long curved hairs, especially on tibiae and metatarsi; retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 8%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all tibiae; pseudosegmentation not visible.

Male (variation)

Tibia 1 in 19 other males: 8.0–22.2 (mean 14.5); color pattern on abdomen varies from pale without any marks to beige with lateral stripes and large marks dorsally; leg color varies from light brown to ochre; ocular area usually light brown; carapace pattern varies from sub-marginal brown marks to pale carapace with median band only; clypeus sometimes without dark band; process c varies in length, sometimes curved and pointing towards prolateral; lateral stridulatory ridges usually present and easy to notice ( Fig. 118 View Figs 115–120 ), sometimes invisible; cheliceral proximal incline (in lateral view) usually with ridge or small process above modified hairs, sometimes absent or indistinct ( Figs 97, 100–102 View Figs 97–102 ).

Female

In general similar to male; tibia 1 in 20 females: 5.3–14.3 (mean 8.3); stridulatory files laterally on chelicerae more distinct than in males; epigynal plate trapezoidal, consisting of two sclerotized lateral areas that are wider posteriorly, gently swollen posteriorly, and depressed medially anteriorly, pale median area inflated posteriorly with dark median sclerite ⅓–⅔ the length of epigynal plate and not fused at posterior epigynal margin with lateral sclerotized plates, epigynal posterior margin usually straight, sometimes with small median indentation (i.e., Figs 111, 113–114 View Figs 103–114 ); anterior epigynal projections oval, not prominent in lateral view. Intraspecific variation of epigynum as shown in Figs 103–114 View Figs 103–114 .

Distribution

This species is widespread, ranging from Israel and eastern Turkey in the west, to Afghanistan in the east ( Fig. 1 View Figs 1–2. 1 ). The single specimen from Japan is most probably a human introduction.

Note

We have not seen the material identified by Denis (1958), Roewer (1955), and Ghahari & Marusik (2009) as A. transcaspica (from Pirzada, Afghanistan, and various localities in Iran, respectively). We assume that these authors were all dealing with the very similar A. doriae , judging from its known distribution (we examined one male of A. doriae that was collected from Herat, Afghanistan, and the Iranian localities in the papers above also suggest A. doriae rather than A. transcaspica ).

MSNG

Italy, Genova, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria"

MNHN

France, Paris, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ZFMK

Germany, Bonn, Zoologische Forschungsinstitut und Museum "Alexander Koenig"

SMNH

Canada, Saskatchewan, Regina, Royal Saskatchewan Museum

MHNG

Switzerland, Geneva, Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

FMNH

USA, Illinois, Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History (also used by Finnish Museum of Natural History)

SMF

Germany, Frankfurt-am-Main, Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg

NHMUK

NHMUK

MSNG

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova 'Giacomo Doria'

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

HUJ

Hebrew University

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

SMNH

Department of Paleozoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History

XUM

Hope Department of Entomology

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

FMNH

Field Museum of Natural History

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

ZMSU

Zoological Museum, Saratov State University

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Artema

Loc

Artema doriae Thorell, 1881

Aharon, Shlomi, Huber, Bernhard A. & Gavish-Regev, Efrat 2017
2017
Loc

Artema transcaspica

Denis J. 1958: 112
Roewer C. F. 1955: 752
1958
Loc

Artema doriai

Malek Hosseini M. J. & Zamani A. & Sadeghi S. 2015: 92
Tabrizi S. S. & Rad S. P. & Hedayati Z. 2014: 35
Simon E. 1893: 465
1893
Loc

Pholcus doriae

Brignoli P. M. 1981: 92
Pickard-Cambridge F. O. 1902: 366
Thorell T. 1881: 180
1881