Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837

Aharon, Shlomi, Huber, Bernhard A. & Gavish-Regev, Efrat, 2017, Daddy-long-leg giants: revision of the spider genus Artema Walckenaer, 1837 (Araneae, Pholcidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 376 (376), pp. 1-57 : 8-15

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2017.376

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3852338

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/516F87BB-130B-BC79-FD82-B94CFBD5EDD8

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837
status

 

Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837  

Figs 2–3 View Figs 1–2. 1 View Figs 3–8 , 15–34 View Figs 15–24 View Figs 25–29 View Figs 30–34 , 201 View Figs 201–207 , 208 View Figs 208–214

Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837: 656–657   (♂ ♀, Brazil).

Artema mauriciana Walckenaer, 1837: 657–658   , pl. 15, fig. 1 (♂ ♀, Mauritius). Synonymized by Pickard-Cambridge 1902: 366.

Pholcus sisyphoides Doleschall, 1857: 408–409   ( Indonesia). Synonymized by Pickard-Cambridge 1902: 366.

Artema convexa Blackwall, 1858: 332–334   (♀, Brazil). Synonymy with A. sisyphoides   suggested by Thorell 1881: 179; synonymized with “ A. mauricia   ” by Simon 1885: 19.

Pholcus borbonicus Vinson, 1863: 132–135   , 307, pl. 3, figs 4, 4a (♂ ♀, Réunion, Mauritius). Transferred and synonymized (with “ A. mauricia   ”) by Simon 1885: 19.

Pholcus rotundatus Karsch, 1879: 106–107   (♀, Colombia). Transferred and synonymized (with “ A. mauricia   ”) by Simon 1893: 465.

Crossopriza sexsignata Franganillo, 1926a: 49   ( Cuba). Synonymized by Pérez González 1996: 431– 432.

Coroia magna González-Sponga, 2005: 102   , pl. 2, figs 1–11. Synonymized by Huber et al. 2014: 417.

Artema atlanta   – Simon 1894: 519 ( A. atalanta   – lapsus) ( St. Vincent). — Taczanowski 1874: 103 (French Guiana). — Banks 1898: 212 ( A. atlantica   – lapsus) ( Mexico). — Moenkhaus 1898: 86 ( Brazil). — Pocock 1900: 238–239, fig. 81 ( India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Pakistan). — Pickard-Cambridge 1902: 366, pl. 34, figs 15, 15a–b, 16, 16a ( Mexico, Brazil, India, Pakistan). — Petrunkevitch 1911: 156; 1925: 66 ( Panama); 1929: 119–120, figs 102–104 ( Puerto Rico). — Mello-Leitão 1918: 89–91 ( Brazil); 1941: 244 ( Colombia); 1942: 382 ( Argentina); 1946: 33 ( Paraguay). — Sherriffs 1919: 228 ( India). — Chamberlin 1924: 632 ( Mexico). — Gertsch 1935: 10 ( USA). — Dyal 1935: 170– 171, pl. 15, figs 97–103 ( India). — Bryant 1940: 289 ( Cuba); 1948: 366 ( Dominican Republic). — Gertsch & Davis 1942: 7 ( Mexico). — Caporiacco 1948: 626–627 ( Guyana); 1949: 326 ( Kenya). — Chrysanthus 1967: 92–96, figs 15–19 ( Curaçao, New Guinea, Tanzania, “Sandwich Isl.” = Hawaii?). — Yaginuma 1970: 646 ( Japan). — Tikader 1977: 164–165 ( India). — Brignoli 1981: 92, figs 1–7 ( USA, Mexico, Brazil, Egypt). — Tikader & Biswas 1981: 18, fig. 12. — Majumder & Biswas 1993: 1 ( India). — Pérez González 1996: 431–432 ( Cuba). — Saaristo 1999: 2, 8 ( Seychelles); 2001: 15 –17, figs 16–22 ( Seychelles, India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Vietnam); 2010: 159, figs 25.1– 5. — Huber 2000: 342, figs 12–13, 48, 56–57, 99, 121, 145, 169, 195 (SEM); 2001: 135 –136 ( Australia). — Murphy & Murphy 2000: 246–247. — van Keer & van Keer 2001: 82 ( Belgium). — Lee 2005: 7 ( Great Britain, in container). — Colmenares-García 2008: 87, figs 1a–c ( Venezuela). — Beatty et al. 2008: 3–7, figs 15–16, 42–43 ( Micronesia, Polynesia, Indonesia). — Irie 2009: 106, figs (2-2-13) 1–2, pl. 4, fig. 1. — Gao & Li 2010: 11–13, figs 1–3 ( China). — Huber & Warui 2012: 3 View Cited Treatment , fig. 1 ( Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Tanzania). — Huber & Kwapong 2013: 7 View Cited Treatment ( Guinea, Togo, Benin).

Artema mauriciana   – Vinson 1863: 141–142, 307–308 ( A. mauricia   – lapsus) ( Mauritius). — Simon 1885: 19 ( A. mauricia   – lapsus) ( India); 1887: 453 ( A. mauricia   – lapsus) ( Djibouti); 1893: 463–465 ( A. mauricia   – lapsus); figs 441, 451–454; 1908: 426–427 ( Libya). — Kulczyński 1901: pl. 1, fig. 15 ( A. mauricia   – lapsus). — Leardy Airaghi 1902: 348 ( A. mauricia   - lapsus) ( India). — Tullgren 1910: 119, pl. 2, fig. 35 ( Tanzania). — Caporiacco 1928: 91 ( A. mauricia   - lapsus) ( Libya); 1936: 86 ( Libya). — Lessert 1936: 233–234 ( Mozambique). — Millot 1941: fig. 1F only ( Guinea); 1946: 129, fig. 1 ( Madagascar). — Denis 1953: 320 ( Algeria). — Marples 1955: 465 ( Samoa).

Pholcus sisyphoides   – Thorell 1881: 179–180 (“ins Elephanta”, Hawaii).

Artema sisyphoides   – Karsch 1892: 276 ( Sri Lanka). — Thorell 1895: 69–70 ( Myanmar); 1898: 274 ( Myanmar).

Artema convexa   – Blackwall 1866: 459–460 (“Equatorial Africa”); 1867: 394 ( India).

Pholcus borbonicus   – Simon 1873: 47–48 ( Egypt). — Lenz 1886: 395 ( Madagascar); 1891: 173 ( Madagascar). — Bösenberg & Lenz 1895: 40 ( Mozambique).

Crossopriza sexsignata   – Franganillo 1926b: 11; 1936a: 46; 1936b: 77.

Misidentifications

Artema atlanta   ” – Dalmas 1920 (see A. nephilit   sp. nov.). — Feng 1990: 45 (misidentification of Physocyclus globosus   ).

Artema mauriciana   ” – Bodenheimer 1937: 238 (see A. nephilit   sp. nov.). — Millot 1941: 3–5, figs 1A–I (except fig. 1F; misidentification of A. bunkpurugu   ; see Huber & Kwapong 2013).

Pholcus borbonicus   ” – L. Koch 1875: 25–26. — Simon 1882: 234 (see A. kochi   ).

“ Tibiosa coreana ” – González-Sponga 2006: pl. 3, figs 8–9 only (see Huber 2009).

Diagnosis

Males are easily distinguished from all known congeners by their bulbal processes: process c ( Fig. 20 View Figs 15–24 ) with sclerotized ridge projecting prolaterally perpendicular to process b with small teeth prolaterally on round end of process ( Figs 27, 29 View Figs 25–29 ); process d rounded ( Figs 19 View Figs 15–24 , 27 View Figs 25–29 ) rather than pointed as in A. doriae   and A. transcaspica   ; process e present and rounded. Males differ also by two deep dorsal notches on distal margin of procursus, with lighter cuticle than rest of procursus (arrows in Fig. 20 View Figs 15–24 ). Females differ from other congeners by strongly indented posterior epigynal margin ( Fig. 15 View Figs 15–24 ).

Types

BRAZIL: Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837   : syntypes ♂, ♀ probably lost (no further data).  

MAURITIUS: Artema mauriciana Walckenaer, 1837   : syntypes ♂, ♀ probably lost [20.2° S, 57.5° E] (no further data). GoogleMaps  

INDONESIA: Pholcus sisyphoides Doleschall, 1857   : holotype ♂ probably lost; Amboina [3.6° S, 128.1° E] GoogleMaps   .

BRAZIL: Artema convexa Blackwall, 1858   : syntypes ♀♀ probably lost; Pernambuco [8.0° S, 35.0° W]. GoogleMaps  

REUNION: Pholcus borbonicus Vinson, 1863   : syntypes ♂, ♀ probably lost [21.12° S, 55.52° E] (no further data). GoogleMaps  

COLOMBIA: Pholcus rotundatus Karsch, 1879   : syntype (s?) ♀ probably lost; Santa Marta [11.24° N, 74.20° W]. GoogleMaps  

CUBA: Crossopriza sexsignata Franganillo, 1926   : syntypes ♂, ♀ probably lost; Habana, Luyanó , [23.10° N, 82.34° W]. GoogleMaps  

VENEZUELA: Coroia magna González-Sponga, 2005   : holotype ♂ and 1 ♀ paratype; Falcón State, 10 km SE from Coro (11.20° N, 69.50° W), Mar. and Dec. 1999, E. Bravo and V. Wall leg., in Museo del Instituto de Zoología Agrícola of the Universidad Central de Venezuela 1440 a,b, not examined. GoogleMaps  

Material examined (arranged from west to east)

USA: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Arizona, Tucson [~ 32.2° N, 110.9° W], Jul.–Aug. 1935, W.P. Steckler leg. ( AMNH); GoogleMaps   3 ♀♀, same data (AMNH); GoogleMaps   3 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, same locality, Jul. 1937, collector not given ( NHMB). GoogleMaps  

HONDURAS: 1 juv., Amapala [13.28° N, 87.64° W], 1906, R. Paessler leg. ( ZMH). GoogleMaps  

HAITI: 1 ♀, Port au Prince [18.54° N, 72.33° W], 29 May 1901, G. Keitel Jr. leg. (ZMH); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, Saint Marc [19.10° N, 72.70° W], 1905, C. Gazgo leg. ( ZMH). GoogleMaps  

VIRGIN ISLANDS: 1 juv., St. Thomas [18.33° N, 64.91° W], 28 Mar. 1898, L.D. Calwood leg. (ZMH). GoogleMaps  

PARAGUAY: 2 ♀♀, date and locality not given [~ 23.5° S, 58.1° W], Wiengreen leg. ( ZMH). GoogleMaps  

ALGERIA: 1 ♀, Djanet [24.55° N, 9.48° E], 25 Nov. 1989, Kechemir leg. (CRB). GoogleMaps  

TUNISIA: 7 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, numerous juvs, Djerba [33.80° N, 10.88° E], date not given, Vibert leg. ( MNHN AR 10170). GoogleMaps  

LIBYA: 1 ♂, “ Gialo ” [= Jalu , 29.02° N, 21.54° E], Sep. 1934, Zavattari leg. (MZUF); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, same locality, Jan. 1934, Di Caporiacco leg. ( MZUF);   1 ♂, same locality, 4–5 May 1931 (?), collector not given ( MSNG);   1 ♂, same locality (“Oajo di Gialo ”), Jul. 1931 (?), collector not given ( MSNG);   1 ♀, same locality (“ Gialo ”), Apr. 1931 (?), collector not given ( MSNG);   1 ♂, 1 ♀, same locality, 30 Apr. 1931, collector not given ( MSNG);   6 ♀♀, 6 juvs, “ Giarabub ” [= Al Jaghbub , 29.74° N, 24.51° E], Jun. 1926 – Mar. 1927, Confalonieri leg. ( MSNG); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, with two locality labels: “ Giarabub ” [= Al Jaghbub , 29.74° N, 24.51° E], Jun. 1926 – Mar. 1927 and “ Porto Bardia ” [= Bardiyah , 31.75° N, 25.08° E], Mar. 1927 ( MZUF); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, Tripoli [32.86° N, 13.17° E], 1906, Klaptocz leg. ( ZMH). GoogleMaps  

EGYPT: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv., Sohag, Maragha [26.69° N, 31.60° E] 26 Feb. 2002, H. El-Hennawy leg. (ZFMK Ar 15215); GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 7 ♀♀, numerous juvs, Alexandria [31.19° N, 29.91° E], and Suez [29.96° N, 32.54° E], date not given, E. Simon leg. ( MNHN AR 10155, 392); GoogleMaps   2 ♀♀, near Cairo [~ 30.0° N, 31.2° E], 1911, E. Graeter leg. ( NHMB 1041a, 1402b); GoogleMaps   3 ♂♂, Mansurah [31.04° N, 31.37° E], date not given, I. Sörensen leg. ( ZMUC). GoogleMaps  

CAPE VERDE: 1 ♀, Fogo, São Filipe [14.89° N, 24.49° W], in bathroom, on web, 9 Nov. 1998, W. Tavernier leg. ( MRAC 208404 ). GoogleMaps  

GUINEA-BISSAU (“ Portuguese Guinea ”): 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, 1 juv., Bissao [11.86° N, 15.60° W], 4 Oct. 1898, H. Eberhardt leg. (ZMH); 1 juv., same data (ZMH). GoogleMaps  

GUINEA and BENIN: see Huber & Kwapong (2013).

TOGO: 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 juvs, “ Anecho ” [6.22° N, 1.57° E], 27 Jan. 1910, Günther leg. (ZMH); see also Huber & Kwapong (2013). GoogleMaps  

SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE: 1 ♀, “S. Thomé” [= São Tomé, 0.34° N, 6.73° E], 1879, R. Greef leg. ( ZMH no. 31). GoogleMaps  

CHAD: 3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, numerous juvs, between Bongor and Fort Lamy (“ Lancy ?”) [= N’Djamena , ~ 11.1° N, 15.2° E], Nov.–Dec. 1965, Y. Brandily leg. ( MRAC 132893 ). GoogleMaps  

SUDAN: 1 ♂, Khartoum [5.54° N, 32.53° E], 1960–1961, J.S. Cloudsley-Thompson leg. ( MRAC 120764 ); 1 ♂, same data ( MRAC 120766 ); GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 juvs, (South) Kordofan , Talodi [10.63° N, 30.38° E], 15 Oct. 1938, Werner leg. ( NHMW 356 ); GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, 7 juvs, El-Obeid [13.18° N, 30.22° E], Mar. 1914, D.G. Mainhof leg. ( ZMH). GoogleMaps  

ERITREA: 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, 1 juv., Massawa, 1870, Beccari leg. ( MSNG).  

YEMEN-ERITREA: 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, 1 juv., Aden [12.86° N, 44.98° E] and Massawa [15.61° N, 39.45° E], 1889, E. Simon leg. (“393” part) ( MNHN AR 10169 part). GoogleMaps  

SOMALIA: 1 ♀, 1 juv., locality unknown (“339.76”, “Mag. no. 866”), 1924, Stefanini and Puccioni leg. ( MZUF);   2 ♀♀, locality unknown (“1140 20”), 1924, Stefanini and Puccioni leg. ( MZUF);   1 ♀, Kismayo [0.35° S, 42.54° E], under stones, 16 Apr. 1993, Vercammen Gino leg. ( MRAC 177.415). GoogleMaps  

YEMEN: 1 ♀, 5 juvs, Aden [12.86° N, 44.98° E], 1880, Doria and Beccari leg. ( MSNG). GoogleMaps  

DR CONGO: 3 ♀♀, numerous juvs, Kivu, Uvira between Kolundu and Kavimvira [3.34° S, 29.15° E], Jun. 1961, R. Kiss leg. ( MRAC 119889 ); GoogleMaps   2 juvs, same data ( MRAC 119917 );   1 ♀, Mutelemuko, Uvira [~ 3.40° S, 29.12° E], 1954, J. Bouillon leg. ( MRAC 76923 ). GoogleMaps  

BURUNDI: 1 juv., “Usumbura” (= Bujumbura) (3.36° S, 29.36° E), Jan. 1926, H. Schouteden leg. ( MRAC 29993 ); GoogleMaps   2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, same locality, 1948, A. Lestrade leg. ( MRAC 57974 -77);   1 ♀, Rumonge [3.97° S, 29.43° E], 1934, A. Lestrade leg. ( MRAC 24696 ). GoogleMaps  

UGANDA: 1 ♀, 1 juv., Jinja [0.43° N, 33.20° E], Apr. 1968, E. Vertriest leg. ( MRAC 134815 ); see also Huber & Warui (2012). GoogleMaps  

TANZANIA: 2 ♀♀, Dar es Salaam, UDSM campus [6.77° S, 39.20° E], 1970–1971, K.M. Howell leg. ( MRAC 159428 ); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, “near Msala, Tanganyika Terr .” [~ 3.16° S, 30.98° E], date not given (“ Kuipper 64”) ( SMF); see also Huber & Warui (2012). GoogleMaps  

KENYA: 1 ♀, Rift Valley, Lodwar , along Turkwell River (3.11° N, 35.59° E), 10–12 Jun. 1999, W.J. Pulawski and J.S. Schweikert leg. (CAS); GoogleMaps   1 ♂, Gabraland, Marsabit area [2.33° N, 37.98° E], 17 Jan. 1978 (from artifact in CAS anthropology collection) ( CAS); GoogleMaps   1 ♂, “ Ostafrika Waboniland ” [2.07° S, 40.70° E], 15 Oct. 1938, Haessler leg. ( NHMW 355 ); see also Huber & Warui (2012). GoogleMaps  

ZAMBIA: 1 ♂, Mpulungu [8.76° S, 31.11° E], no date given (“ Kuipper 281”) ( SMF). GoogleMaps  

ZIMBABWE: 1 ♂, Victoria Falls (17.933° S, 25.833° E), 29 Nov. 1996, W. Pulawski and V. Ahrens leg. (CAS). GoogleMaps  

MOZAMBIQUE: 1 ♂, numerous juvs, “ Cucuta/ Brasilien ” [ Cucuta , 11.83° S, 40.24° E], 29 Sep. 1887, W. Bösenberg leg. (ZMH). GoogleMaps  

SOUTH AFRICA: 1 ♂, KwaZulu Natal, Durban (29.850° S, 30.016° E), 10 m a.s.l., 8 Jan. 2001, C. Whitmore leg. (DNSM); GoogleMaps   3 juvs, Limpopo, Lajuma Mountain Retreat (23.037° S, 29.441° E), sifting leaf litter, 1325 m a.s.l., 10 Nov. 2012, J.A. Neethling leg. ( ZFMK Ar 15216). GoogleMaps  

COMOROS: 1 ♂, Grande Comore, Moroni [11.69° S, 43.25° E], inside house, 7 Jan. 2003, U. Dall ‘ Asta leg. ( MRAC 215035 ). GoogleMaps  

MADAGASCAR: 1 ♀, Tamatave [18.15° S, 49.40° E], 12 May 1885, A. O’Swald leg. ( ZMH 7791 ); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, Nosy Be, Lokobe [13.30° S, 48.26° E], 5 Nov. 1885, A. O’Swald leg. ( ZMH 12832 View Materials ); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, Nosy Be, 13 Mar. 1908, collector not given ( ZMH).  

INDIA: 3 ♀♀, 2 juvs, Bombay, “ Elephanta ” [= Gharapuri , 18.96° N, 72.93° E], 18 Sep. 1877, Beccari and E. D’Albertis (MSNG); GoogleMaps   2 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀, Vellore [12.93° N, 79.13° E], date not given, Löwenthal leg. ( ZMUC); GoogleMaps   1 ♀, 1 juv., Tuticorin [8.76° N, 78.13° E], collected in container arrived at Haifa port [32.82° N, 34.99° E], 5 Jun. 2012, E. Gavish-Regev leg. ( SMNH AR 50186); GoogleMaps   1 ♂, Kerala, Malabar, Feroke [11.18° N, 75.85° E], date and collector not given ( SMF). GoogleMaps  

MYANMAR: 3 ♂♂, 14 ♀♀, “fra Rangoohn” [Rangoon, 16.84° N, 96.14° E], date not given, Lövendal leg. ( ZMUC). GoogleMaps  

THAILAND: 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Ratchaburi, Wat Huai Takaeng (13.587° N, 99.758° E), 30 m a.s.l., in cave, 15 Mar. 2015, B.A. Huber and B. Petcharad leg. (ZFMK Ar 15217); GoogleMaps   1 juv., in pure ethanol, same data ( ZFMK Mal 374).  

CHINA: 1 ♀, Canton [22.67° N, 113.60° E], 8 Aug. 1904, W. Helms leg. (ZMH); GoogleMaps   1 ♂, “ Swatow ” [= Shantou , 23.33° N, 116.68° E], date and collector not given ( MNHN AR 10166). GoogleMaps  

TAIWAN: 1 ♀, 2 juvs, “Takao, Formosa” [= Kaohsiung, 22.77° N, 120.42° E], 1 Nov. 1908, W. Schwinghammer leg. (ZMH). GoogleMaps  

PHILIPPINES: 1 ♂, Manila [14.61° N, 121.04° E], 10 Jun. 1945, T. Aarons leg. (CAS). GoogleMaps  

INDONESIA: 1 ♂, Flores, Labuan Bajo (8.49° S, 119.87° E), 22 Mar. 2009, S. Huber leg. (SMF); GoogleMaps   2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, 4 juvs, Sumatra, Medan [3.61° N, 98.67° E], 15 Oct. 1938, Fulmek leg. ( NHMW). GoogleMaps  

AUSTRALIA: Numerous specimens from Western Australia, Northern Territory, and Queensland were examined but not listed in detail by Huber (2001). We have not reexamined those specimens.  

Locations not clear: 2 ♀♀, “El Bur” ( Somalia?), “Mag. no. 1220”, 15Aug. 1968 (“ SBS ”, “977”) ( MZUF); 1 ♂, 1 juv., “ Museat, Jayakan , 22” ( NHMUK);   1 ♀, 1 juv., “ Westindien ”, 3 Sep. 1906, C. Gazgo leg. ( ZMH).  

Description

Male ( Myanmar: Rangoon, ZMUC)

MEASUREMENTS. Total body length 9.6, carapace width 4.0. Leg 1: 48.4 (16.0 + 1.6 + 16.6 + 22.5 + 2.6), tibia 2: 12.6, tibia 3: 9.5, tibia 4: 13.0; tibia 1 L/d: 42. Distance PME–PME 210 μm, diameter PME 210 μm, distance PME–ALE 110 μm, distance AME–AME 60 μm, diameter AME 180 μm.

COLOR. Carapace ochre beige, with light brown median band and small dots laterally; ocular area light brown; clypeus with light brown band fading towards edge, with brown rim (as in Fig. 3 View Figs 3–8 ); legs light ochre, with dark rings on femora subdistally, patellae + tibiae proximally, and tibiae subdistally; sternum light ochre with two small light brown marks posteriorly, with narrow light brown margins; abdomen pale ochre with pale and dark dots forming large marks dorsally and stripes laterally.

BODY. Ocular area slightly elevated; carapace with median pit and distinct posterior furrow; clypeus unmodified; sternum wider than long (2.5/2.2); chelicerae as in Figs 22–24 View Figs 15–24 , with frontal row of ~20 modified (cone-shaped; cf. Huber 2000: figs 12–13) hairs on each side in s-shaped pattern (as in Fig. 24 View Figs 15–24 ); stridulatory ridges absent (as in Fig. 31 View Figs 30–34 ); abdomen globose and high; gonopore with four epiandrous spigots (cf. Huber 2000: fig. 121); ALS with several cylindrical spigots in addition to widened and pointed spigot (as in Figs 26, 28 View Figs 25–29 ) (cf. Huber 2000: fig. 169); PMS with two pointed spigots each (as in Fig. 25 View Figs 25–29 ) (cf. Huber 2000: fig. 195).

PALPS. As in Figs 16–18 View Figs 15–24 ; coxa unmodified; trochanter with short ventral projection; femur with short, somewhat pointed retrolateral process and small dorsal projection proximally; ventral membranous area proximally bordered on both sides by sclerotized ridges; femur-patella hinges close together dorsally; patella very short; procursus with proximal dorsal process and weakly developed ventral pocket; with two distal dorsal notches on sclerotized margin (arrows in Fig. 20 View Figs 15–24 ); bulb with membranous embolus arising from base of processes a and b (as in Fig. 27 View Figs 25–29 ; cf. Huber 2000: fig. 56), process a long, somewhat inflated; process b elongated and pointed, process c (as in Figs 20 View Figs 15–24 , 27 View Figs 25–29 ) with sclerotized ridge projecting prolaterally perpendicular to process b, with small teeth prolaterally on round end of process (as in Fig. 29 View Figs 25–29 ) (cf Huber 2000: fig. 57), processes d and e low and rounded (as in Figs 19 View Figs 15–24 , 27 View Figs 25–29 ).

LEGS. Without spines, with long curved hairs, especially on tibiae and metatarsi; retrolateral trichobothrium on tibia 1 at 9%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all tibiae; pseudosegmentation not visible (cf. Huber 2000: fig. 99). Comb-hairs on tarsi 4 variant of complex ‘ Belisana   -type’ (cf. Huber & Fleckenstein 2008: figs 17–18).

Male (variation)

Tibia 1 in 19 other males: 12.0–19.0 (mean 15.4); color pattern on abdomen varies from distinct stripes consisting of dark and pale dots on pale to brown-ochre background, to pale without any pattern; leg color varies from pale to ochre, prolateral ochre mark on patella 1 proximally sometimes absent; ocular area light brown to ochre; lateral dots on carapace vary from round radiating pattern to small indistinct marks; cheliceral modified hairs vary in numbers (~17–20), sometimes sclerotized ridge very dark and pattern of modified hairs hard to distinguish, one male with small process medial of sclerotized ridge (from Khartoum, Sudan; MRAC 120766); brown marks posteriorly on sternum variable; one male with procursus notches almost fused to one large notch without sclerotized line between them (from Shantou, China; MNHN AR 10166). No variation observed in numbers of epiandrous spigots.

Female

In general similar to male; tibia 1 in 20 females: 9.2–17.2 (mean 13.2); stridulatory files laterally on chelicerae present ( Fig. 30 View Figs 30–34 ); epigynal plate trapezoidal (posteriorly wider), posterior margin with deep median indentation ( Figs 15 View Figs 15–24 , 33 View Figs 30–34 ); epigynal plate consisting of two sclerotized lateral areas that appear swollen posteriorly, usually light brown, sometimes very pale at lateral posterior edge, with light brown to pale median area, and dark sclerite anteriorly (variably large and variably distinct), posterior rim sometimes slightly sclerotized; pair of projections anterior to epigynum (AEP) ovoid, sometimes with variable light brown marks anteriorly.

Natural history

Like other species in the genus, A. atlanta   inhabits caves as well as buildings and basements. Similar to several other pholcid genera, such as Crossopriza Simon, 1893   , Micropholcus Deeleman-Reinhold & Prinsen, 1987   , Modisimus Simon, 1893   , Pholcus Walckenaer, 1805   , Physocyclus Simon, 1893   and Smeringopus Simon, 1890   , it is not clear why this is the only species in the genus that has spread all over the world. Another surprising fact is that, to the best of our knowledge, no study on the biology of this widespread species has ever been conducted.

Distribution

Artema atlanta   is the only species in this small genus with a worldwide distribution ( Fig. 2 View Figs 1–2. 1 ). It is widespread from the subtropical Americas through Africa and India, the Far East and Australia. It can be assumed from the genus distribution that A. atlanta   was originally an Old World species, like the other species in the genus, which expanded its distribution worldwide ( Brignoli 1981). Intriguingly, A. atlanta   is almost entirely absent from the large area where congeneric species occur (Arabian Peninsula, Middle East, Central Asia).

It seems that in several parts of the world, A. atlanta   was more common a century ago than it is now. For example, Mello-Leitão (1918) reported the species to be very common along the Brazilian coast (“… muito commun em todo o littoral do Brazil …”). Nowadays, this is definitely not the case (not a single encounter during seven collecting trips along the coast ranging from the Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul to Rio Grande do Norte; B.A. Huber, unpublished data). Likewise, the species was reported frequently from the Caribbean until the mid 20 th century ( Simon 1894; Franganillo 1926a, 1926 b, 1936a, 1936b; Petrunkevitch 1929; Bryant 1940, 1948) but not thereafter. Intensive collecting in Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Lesser Antilles between 1999 and 2012 has not produced a single specimen (B.A. Huber and I. Agnarsson, unpublished data).

ZMH

USA, Illinois, Chicago, Field Museum of Natural History (also used by Finnish Museum of Natural History)

MNHN

France, Paris, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

MZUF

Italy, Firenze, Museo Zoologico "La Specola"

MSNG

Italy, Genova, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria"

ZMUC

Denmark, Kobenhavn [= Copenhagen], University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museum

MRAC

Belgium, Tervuren, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale

SMF

Germany, Frankfurt-am-Main, Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Senckenberg

CAS

USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences

ZFMK

Germany, Bonn, Zoologische Forschungsinstitut und Museum "Alexander Koenig"

SMNH

Canada, Saskatchewan, Regina, Royal Saskatchewan Museum

NHMW

Austria, Wien, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien

NHMUK

NHMUK

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Artema

Loc

Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837

Aharon, Shlomi, Huber, Bernhard A. & Gavish-Regev, Efrat 2017
2017
Loc

Coroia magna González-Sponga, 2005: 102

Huber B. A. & Colmenares-Garcia P. A. & Ramirez M. J. 2014: 417
Gonzalez-Sponga M. A. 2005: 102
2005
Loc

Artema mauriciana

Bodenheimer F. S. 1937: 238
1937
Loc

Crossopriza sexsignata

Perez Gonzalez A. 1996: 431
Franganillo B. P. 1926: 49
1926
Loc

Crossopriza sexsignata

Franganillo B. P. 1936: 46
Franganillo B. P. 1936: 77
Franganillo B. P. 1926: 11
1926
Loc

Artema atlanta

Huber B. A. & Kwapong P. 2013: 7
Huber B. A. & Warui C. M. 2012: 3
Gao C. X. & Li S. Q. 2010: 11
Irie T. 2009: 106
Colmenares-Garcia P. A. 2008: 87
Beatty J. A. & Berry J. W. & Huber B. A. 2008: 3
Lee P. 2005: 7
van Keer K. & van Keer J. 2001: 82
Huber B. A. 2000: 342
Murphy F. & Murphy J. 2000: 246
Saaristo M. I. 1999: 2
Perez Gonzalez A. 1996: 431
Majumder S. C. & Biswas B. 1993: 1
Brignoli P. M. 1981: 92
Tikader B. K. & Biswas B. 1981: 18
Tikader B. K. 1977: 164
Yaginuma T. 1970: 646
Chrysanthus P. 1967: 92
Caporiacco L. di 1948: 626
Gertsch W. J. & Davis L. I. 1942: 7
Bryant E. B. 1940: 289
Gertsch W. J. 1935: 10
Dyal S. 1935: 170
Petrunkevitch A. 1925: 66
Chamberlin R. V. 1924: 632
Sherriffs W. R. 1919: 228
Mello-Leitao C. F. de 1918: 89
Petrunkevitch A. 1911: 156
Pickard-Cambridge F. O. 1902: 366
Pocock R. I. 1900: 238
Banks N. 1898: 212
Moenkhaus W. J. 1898: 86
Simon E. 1894: 519
Taczanowski L. 1874: 103
2001: 15
2010: 159
2001: 135
1894
Loc

Artema sisyphoides

Thorell T. 1895: 69
Karsch F. 1892: 276
1892
Loc

Pholcus sisyphoides

Thorell T. 1881: 179
1881
Loc

Pholcus rotundatus

Simon E. 1893: 465
Karsch F. 1879: 107
1879
Loc

Pholcus borbonicus

Simon E. 1882: 234
Koch L. 1875: 25
1875
Loc

Pholcus borbonicus

Bosenberg W. & Lenz H. 1895: 40
Lenz H. 1886: 395
Simon E. 1873: 47
1873
Loc

Artema convexa

Blackwall J. 1866: 459
1866
Loc

Pholcus borbonicus

Simon E. 1885: 19
Vinson A. 1863: 135
1863
Loc

Artema mauriciana

Denis J. 1953: 320
Lessert R. de 1936: 233
Caporiacco L. di 1928: 91
Tullgren A. 1910: 119
Leardy Airaghi Z. 1902: 348
Simon E. 1885: 19
Vinson A. 1863: 141
Kulczyński 1901
Millot 1941
Marples 1955: 465
1863
Loc

Artema convexa

Simon E. 1885: 19
Thorell T. 1881: 179
Blackwall J. 1858: 334
1858
Loc

Pholcus sisyphoides

Pickard-Cambridge F. O. 1902: 366
Doleschall L. 1857: 409
1857
Loc

Artema atlanta

Walckenaer C. A. 1837: 657
1837
Loc

Artema mauriciana

Pickard-Cambridge F. O. 1902: 366
Walckenaer C. A. 1837: 658
1837
Loc

Artema atlanta

Feng Z. 1990: 45
Dalmas 1920
Loc

González-Sponga 2006