Augochlora (Augochlora) esox (Vachal, 1911)

Lepeco, Anderson & Gonçalves, Rodrigo Barbosa, 2020, A revision of the bee genus Augochlora Smith (Hymenoptera; Apoidea) in Southern South America, Zootaxa 4897 (1), pp. 1-97 : 31-34

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4897.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1C8AA826-36BA-4F48-8F67-6DCD62DFC20F

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4392401

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/507B87CD-AD70-B57E-FF72-2AD4CE6BF937

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Augochlora (Augochlora) esox (Vachal, 1911)
status

 

Augochlora (Augochlora) esox (Vachal, 1911)

(Figures 15A–D; 16A–D; 51G)

Halictus esox Vachal, 1911: 19 , lectotype, ♀ (MNHN, accession number EY25519 ) from Brazil, Espírito Santo is presently designated to stabilize species taxonomy. Examined through photographs.

Odontochlora schrottkyi Moure, 1940: 57 , holotype, ♀ (DZUP) from Brazil, São Paulo, Rio Claro. Examined .

Diagnosis. Augochlora esox has a well-marked median furrow on scutellum, a strong angulation separating the anterior and posterior surfaces of hind coxa ventrally on females and the F1 and F2 with similar size on males. Females can be diagnosed by the elongated aspect of head, hypostomal carina projected anteriorly, S1 without a tuberculate elevation, and the setae on mesoscutum with about 1 OD long. Males are diagnosed also by the elongated aspect of head, and the S1 without elevation. This species has a broad distribution and plenty of morphological variation, but is the only in the studied area that often presents black spots on head and clypeus. Often the metasomal terga are dorsally darkened, lacking punctures. Entirely golden or green specimens are common.

Comments. We examined photographs of syntypes of Halictus esox and concluded that they belong to at least two different species. We recognized the specimen from Espírito Santo as belonging to a common species in southern and eastern Brazil, agreeing with the utilization of A. esox in many ecological studies carried out in Brazil. Moure & Hurd (1987) and Moure (2007) followed this opinion when considering Odontochlora schrottky as junior synonym of Halictus esox . Original type localities include British Guyana, Colombia, Bolivia and Peru, but all the paralectotypes from outside of Brazil may belong to other species described or not for Northern South America. Further elucidation on the paralectotypes identities is needed. Nests of A. esox were found in rosettes of Bromeliads by Zillikens et al. (2001).

Redescription. ♀. Measurements. Maximum interocular distance: 1.46–1.73 (x‾ = 1.57, n = 10); head length: 2.16–2.56 (x‾ = 2.33, n = 10); clypeus width: 0.56–0.66 (x‾ = 0.59, n = 10); clypeus length: 0.60–0.78 (x‾ = 0.65, n = 10); clypeoantennal distance: 0.40–0.46 (x‾ = 0.43, n = 10); clypeus ocellar distance: 1.26–1.44 (x‾ = 1.34, n = 10); intertegular distance: 1.46–1.86 (x‾ = 1.63, n = 10); T1 width: 2.04–2.76 (x‾ = 2.35, n = 10); T2 width: 2.24–2.84 (x‾ = 2.53, n = 10); body length: 8.00–9.50 (x‾ = 8.50, n = 10).

Head. Labrum basal surface black; basal elevation transverse. Mandible mostly black, subapical region brown and with basal green spot; medial portion not strongly constricted, minimum width between 0.7x and 0.9x basal width; preapical tooth large and sharp, produced near mandible apex; distal part of adductor ridge weakly swollen. Clypeus mostly green, laterals with darkened spots, apical black band <OD; punctate, punctures large and weak, imbricate in between; apex not prolonged over apical border. Epistomal angle acute, strongly protruding over clypeus. Supraclypeal area green, darkened; densely punctate, imbricate in between. Lower paraocular area green; crowded punctate; long setae (1–2 OD) intermixed with tiny setae. Antennae: mostly black, flagellum ventrally brown. Frons with green and blue iridescences intermixed; crowded punctate; not protuberant above antennal sockets. Preoccipital area strongly lamellate, lamella expanded near post gena. Gena green. Post gena mostly darkened with green reflections; microreticulate, some scattered weak punctures; setae length <3 OD. Hypostomal carina projected anteriorly.

Mesosoma. Pronotum dorsolateral angle with a projected acute tip. Fore leg: coxa dark brown with weak green reflection; trochanter dark brown; femur dark brown; ventral surface slightly rounded; long plumose setae (<4 OD); tibia dark brown; tarsus brown; white to yellowish setae on both. Mesoscutum green; contiguously punctate, anterior border rugulose; setae length = OD. Scutellum with a strongly marked medial furrow; green; densely punctate, I <PD; with dense tiny setae intermixed with longer dark setae (4 OD). Mesepisternum green; preepisternum rugose; hypoepimeral area densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, imbricate in between; below scrobe densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, imbricate in between, ventrally crowded punctate; with long setae (2 OD). Mid leg: coxa dark brown; trochanter dark brown; ventral margin not swollen, almost straight; femur brown, flattened, mesofemoral brush yellowish; tibia and tarsus brown; white to brownish setae on both. Tegula brown with anterior green spot. Metanotum with dense tiny setae intermixed with longer yellowish setae (= 3 OD). Metepisternum green; densely punctate, becoming crowded punctate to rugose above superior metapleural pit. Hind leg: coxa blue, anterior and posterior surfaces ventrally separated by a strong angulation; trochanter dark brown; setae length = 4 OD; femur dark brown; tibia and tarsus brown; outer surfaces without dark setae. Metapostnotum green; shorter than scutellum; entirely with radiating carinae, medially somewhat rugose. Propodeum green with blue iridescence; with tiny and long (3 OD) setae intermixed; posterior surface with tiny and larger punctures intermixed, smooth in between; lateral carinae ending below propodeum half; lateral surfaces imbricate among punctures.

F IGURE 15. Female of Augochlora esox (Vachal) . A) habitus, B) frontal view of head, C) dorsal view of mesosoma, D) dorsal view of metasoma. Scale bar: 1.0 mm, all at same scale.

Metasoma. T1 anterior surface sparsely punctate, smooth in between; mostly green, base darkened; with dense coverage of tiny decumbent setae among long setae. T1 dorsal surface weakly punctate on disc, imbricate in between, puncticulate on lateral surfaces; dorsally darkened, dull, lateral surfaces blue; tiny setae dorsally, long setae (2 OD) on lateral surfaces; apex not inflexed, brown. T2 dorsally darkened, dull, lateral surfaces blue; weakly punctate, imbricate in between; marginal area with punctate portion longer than apical brown band on sublateral surfaces; tiny decumbent setae near base and on lateral surfaces, long setae (2 OD) on lateral surfaces. T3 weakly punctate, imbricate in between; dorsally darkened, lateral surfaces blue, apical band dark brown; tiny setae apex not reaching apical margin sublaterally. T4 weakly punctate, imbricate in between; mostly blue, apical band brown; mostly with tiny decumbent setae, long setae (3 OD) scattered on disc and lateral surfaces. T5 black; pseudopygidial area not covered by scale-like setae, colliculate integument exposed. Pygidial plate black, apex rounded. S1 without elevation; black with weak green reflection; long setae (> 2 OD) medially, margin tiny decumbent setae. S2 mostly black, apical band yellowish; medioapical margin sharp; punctate, microreticulate in between; long setae (> 3 OD). S3–4 as S2. S5 apical margin widely rounded; dark brown; long setae (> 3 OD). S6 dark brown; long dark setae on apex.

Description. Ƌ Measurements. Maximum interocular distance: 1.30–1.52 (x‾ = 1.40, n = 10); head length: 2.12–2.40 (x‾ = 2.25, n = 10); clypeus width: 0.46–0.54 (x‾ = 0.50, n = 10); clypeus length: 0.60–0.70 (x‾ = 0.67, n = 10); clypeoantennal distance: 0.34–0.46 (x‾ = 0.40, n = 10); clypeus ocellar distance: 1.10–1.32 (x‾ = 1.22, n = 10); intertegular distance: 1.30–1.67 (x‾ = 1.50, n = 10); T1 width: 1.76–2.24 (x‾ = 22, n = 10); T2 width: 1.96–2.32 (x‾ = 2.14, n = 10); scape length: 0.44–0.66 (x‾ = 0.57, n = 10); body length: 70–9.50 (x‾ = 8.10, n = 10).

Head. Labrum basal surface yellowish. Mandible mostly yellowish, apex brown and base with green spot. Clypeus mostly green with golden reflection, apex yellowish, apical border exposed, yellowish; densely punctate, I = 0.5 PD, punctures large, imbricate in between; setae length = 2 OD. Epistomal angle acute, protruding over clypeus. Supraclypeal area green; densely punctate, imbricate in between. Paraocular area green; densely punctate, punctures small, imbricate in between; long setae (3 OD) intermixed with tiny setae. Antennae: scape black; pedicel as long as F1; black; F1 dark brown; as long as F2; F3 wider than long; remaining flagellomeres mostly dark brown, ventrally brown. Frons with green and blue iridescences intermixed; contiguously to crowded punctate; setae length <OD. Gena green. Post gena with golden reflection, darkened near hypostoma; loosely imbricate, some scattered punctures; abundant long setae up to 4 OD.

Mesosoma. Pronotum lateral angle with a projected acute tip. Fore leg: coxa ventrally green; trochanter dark brown with weak green reflection; femur dark brown with green reflection; not swollen; tibia light brown; tarsus yellow; white to yellowish setae on both. Mesoscutum green; densely punctate on disc, I <PD, contiguously punctate on lateral surfaces, anterior border punctate, smooth in between; setae length = 1–1.5 OD. Scutellum with a strongly marked medial furrow; green; mostly punctate, punctures coarse, denser punctation medially; longer setae (4 OD) near apex. Mesepisternum green; preepisternum contiguously punctate near pronotal lobe; hypoepimeral area densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, smooth in between; below scrobe densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, smooth in between. Mid leg: coxa dark brown; trochanter green; setae length 3 OD; femur dark brown with weak green reflection; not swollen; tibia and basitarsus brown; white to yellowish setae on both. Tegula light brown with anterior green spot. Metanotum with dense tiny setae intermixed with longer white setae (= 3 OD). Metepisternum green; punctate, smooth in between, crowded punctate to striate near hind wing. Hind leg: coxa and trochanter green; femur dark brown with green reflection; tibia dark brown, anterior surface with abundant tiny setae among long setae; basitarsus more than 6.5x longer than maximum width, parallel sided; brown. Metapostnotum green; as long as metanotum; plane; entirely filled with radiating carinae. Propodeum green; with tiny and long (3 OD) setae intermixed; posterior surface densely punctate, smooth in between; lateral carinae lamellate, ending below propodeum half; lateral surfaces smooth among punctures.

Metasoma. T1 anterior surface sparsely punctate, I = 3 PD, smooth in between; mostly green, base darkened; only with long setae, tiny decumbent setae absent. T1 dorsal surface sparsely punctate, I> PD, tiny punctures, with an impunctate area near apical margin medially; mostly green, dorsally darkened; tiny setae on disc, lateral surfaces with longer setae (2 OD); apex not inflexed, brown. T2 mostly blue with green reflection, dorsally darkened; punctate, I = PD, smaller punctures near base, loosely imbricate in between; marginal area with punctate portion longer than apical brown band on sublateral surfaces; mostly with tiny setae, long setae (2 OD) near margin and lateral surfaces, pre-marginal setae ending far from apical margin on sub-lateral surfaces. T3 weakly punctate, imbricate in between; mostly green with blue iridescence, dorsally darkened, dull, apical band dark brown; mostly with tiny setae, long setae (3 OD) near margin and lateral surfaces. T4 weakly punctate, imbricate in between; mostly dark brown with blue iridescence, apical band dark brown; mostly with tiny setae, long setae (2 OD) scattered on disc and lateral surfaces. T5 dark brown; long setae (2 OD) intermixed with tiny setae. T6 brown; mostly with long setae (<3 OD). T7 light brown. S1 without elevation; mostly green, apex brown; with long plumose setae (2 OD) medially, margin with tiny decumbent setae. S2 mostly brown, apical band yellowish; medioapical margin sharp; punctate, microreticulate in between; with long plumose setae (3 OD), tiny setae on apex. S3 as S2. S4 mostly brown, apical band yellowish; medioapical margin slightly rounded; punctate, microreticulate in between; with long plumose setae (3 OD), tiny setae on apex. S5 brown; not depressed transversally on median surface; homogeneously pilose, without glabrous patch medially. S6 brown; setae length = OD, tiny setae on apex. S7 lateral apodemes shorter than half S8 width. S8 anterior projection more than four times longer than apical width; posterior margin slightly bilobate.

Genitalia: gonobase 3 times wider than long; gonobase ventral arms slightly curved on apex. Gonocoxite about 1.5 times longer than wide. Gonostylus, dorsal surface glabrous. Ventral process of gonostylus: inner lobe small; with long and short setae intermixed; outer lobe with short setae with length = 0.8x inner lobe size. Gonapophysis ventral prong well produced, broad; dorsal bridge margin weakly projected; ventral bridge absent; apodeme broad and weakly hooked.

Distribution. The species has a broad distribution, occurring in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, S„o Paulo. The species is also found in Paraguay and in the province of Salta, Argentina.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Halictidae

Genus

Augochlora

Loc

Augochlora (Augochlora) esox (Vachal, 1911)

Lepeco, Anderson & Gonçalves, Rodrigo Barbosa 2020
2020
Loc

Odontochlora schrottkyi

Moure, J. S. 1940: 57
1940