Augochlora (Augochlora) thusnelda ( Schrottky, 1909 )

Lepeco, Anderson & Gonçalves, Rodrigo Barbosa, 2020, A revision of the bee genus Augochlora Smith (Hymenoptera; Apoidea) in Southern South America, Zootaxa 4897 (1), pp. 1-97 : 80-84

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4897.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1C8AA826-36BA-4F48-8F67-6DCD62DFC20F

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4421147

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/507B87CD-AD21-B50C-FF72-2DC8CE13F90D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Augochlora (Augochlora) thusnelda ( Schrottky, 1909 )
status

 

Augochlora (Augochlora) thusnelda ( Schrottky, 1909)

( Figures 1H View FIGURE 1 ; 2B View FIGURE 2 ; 44 View FIGURE 44 A–D; 45A–D; 50G)

Oxystoglossa thusnelda Schrottky, 1909: 140 , holotype, ♀ (whereabouts unknown) from Paraguay, Alto Paraná, Puerto Ber-toni.

Diagnosis. This species is remarkable for the mesoscutum of females with tiny sparse punctures and usually with distinctive purple iridescence. Besides this, A. thusnelda females have the apex of T1 inflexed on both sexes ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 ) and lack aprojection on S1 ( Fig. 1H View FIGURE 1 ). They are diagnosed by the head with triangular aspect and the scutellum with sparse tiny punctures. Males are quite similar to those of A. caerulior , but can be differentiated by the antennae brownish and with elongate aspect, the F3 being usually much longer than wide (darker and shorter on A. caerulior , the F3 not longer than wide), S3 entirely with dense pubescence (restricted to apex on A. caerulior ), and hind basitarsus brownish (yellowish on A. caerulior ).

Comments. Although nest structure and behavior of this species were not studied in detail yet, a nest in rotten wood was brought to us by G. A. R. Melo in 2017. The nest was found near Antonina, Paraná, and contained two larvae that later emerged in the laboratory.

Redescription. ♀. Measurements. Maximum interocular distance: 1.36–1.64 (x‾ = 1.53, n = 10); head length: 1.84–2.20 (x‾ = 2.08, n = 10); clypeus width: 0.58–0.68 (x‾ = 0.63, n = 10); clypeus length: 0.50–0.60 (x‾ = 0.56, n = 10); clypeoantennal distance: 0.28–0.40 (x‾ = 0.35, n = 10); clypeus ocellar distance: 1.10–1.30 (x‾ = 1.21, n = 10); intertegular distance: 1.36–1.70 (x‾ = 1.56, n = 10); T1 width: 1.96–2.32 (x‾ = 2.22, n = 10); T2 width: 2.16–2.64 (x‾ = 2.42, n = 10); body length: 7.00–8.50 (x‾ = 8.05, n = 10).

Head. Labrum basal surface black; basal elevation transverse. Mandible mostly black, subapical region brown and with basal green spot; medial portion not strongly constricted, minimum width between 0.7x and 0.9x basal width; preapical tooth large and sharp, produced near mandible apex; distal part of adductor ridge weakly swollen. Clypeus mostly green with golden and purplish iridescences, apical black band = OD; punctate, punctures large and weak, smooth in between; apex not prolonged over apical border. Epistomal angle acute, strongly protruding over clypeus. Supraclypeal area green with golden and purplish iridescences; densely punctate, imbricate in be-tween. Lower paraocular area with golden reflection; contiguously punctate; long setae (1–2 OD) intermixed with tiny setae. Antennae: mostly black, flagellum ventrally pale. Frons with golden and green reflections intermixed; mostly contiguously punctate, medially crowded punctate; not protuberant above antennal sockets. Preoccipital area strongly lamellate, lamella expanded near post gena. Gena with golden reflection. Post gena golden with copper and purplish iridescences; microreticulate, some scattered weak punctures; setae length <3 OD. Hypostomal carina not projected anteriorly.

Mesosoma. Pronotum dorsolateral angle with a projected acute tip. Fore leg: coxa ventrally green; trochanter black; femur black; ventral surface strongly rounded; long plumose setae (<4 OD); tibia dark brown; tarsus brown; white to yellowish setae on both. Mesoscutum mostly purplish, lateral margins green; sparsely punctate on disc, I> 2 PD, sparser on disc posterior to median line, mostly smooth in between, imbricate anteriorly, contiguously punctate on lateral surfaces, anterior border weakly punctate, imbricate in between; setae length <OD. Scutellum medial furrow inconspicuous; golden with purplish iridescences; sparsely puncticulate; with tiny setae intermixed with longer dark setae (4 OD). Mesepisternum green with golden reflection; preepisternum densely punctate near pronotal lobe; hypoepimeral area densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, smooth in between; below scrobe densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, imbricate in between, ventrally crowded punctate; with long setae (2 OD). Mid leg: coxa black with green reflection; trochanter black; ventral margin not swollen, almost straight; femur black with green reflection, not flattened, mesofemoral brush yellowish; tibia black; tarsus dark brown; white to yellowish setae on both. Tegula dark brown with anterior green spot. Metanotum with dense tiny setae intermixed with longer white setae (= 3 OD). Metepisternum green; densely punctate, becoming crowded punctate to rugose above superior metapleural pit. Hind leg: coxa green, anterior and posterior surfaces ventrally separated by a smoothly curved area; trochanter black with golden reflection; setae length = 3 OD; femur black; tibia black; tarsus dark brown; outer surfaces without dark setae. Metapostnotum green; shorter than scutellum; entirely filled with radiating carinae. Propodeum green with golden reflection; with tiny and long (2 OD) setae intermixed; posterior surface with tiny and larger punctures intermixed, imbricate to rugulose in between; lateral carinae ending below propodeum half; lateral surfaces imbricate among punctures.

Metasoma. T1 anterior surface punctate, smooth in between; mostly green with golden and purplish iridescences, base darkened; with dense coverage of tiny decumbent setae among long setae. T1 dorsal surface sparsely punctate on disc, I> 3 PD, imbricate in between, coarser and denser punctation on lateral surfaces; mostly green with golden reflection; tiny setae dorsally, long setae (= OD) on lateral surfaces; apex inflexed, black. T2 mostly green with purplish iridescence near apical margin; sparsely punctate on disc, coarser and denser punctation on lateral surfaces, mostly smooth, imbricate near base; marginal area with punctate portion shorter than apical black band on sublateral surfaces; tiny decumbent setae near base and on lateral surfaces, long setae (2 OD) on lateral surfaces. T3 weakly punctate, imbricate in between; mostly green with golden reflection, apical band black; tiny setae apex not reaching apical margin sublaterally. T4 minutely punctate, imbricate in between; mostly green with golden reflection, apical band black; mostly with tiny decumbent setae, long setae (3 OD) scattered on disc and lateral surfaces. T5 black; pseudopygidial area not covered by scale-like setae, colliculate integument exposed. Pygidial plate black, apex rounded. S1 without elevation; green; long setae (> 3 OD) medially, margin tiny decumbent setae. S2 mostly black, apical band yellowish; medioapical margin sharp; punctate, microreticulate in between; long setae (> 3 OD). S3–4 as S2. S5 apical margin widely rounded; black; long setae (> 3 OD). S6 black; long dark setae on apex.

Description. Ƌ. Measurements. Maximum interocular distance: 1.27–1.49 (x‾ = 1.34, n = 10); head length: 1.84–2.20 (x‾ = 1.93, n = 10); clypeus width: 0.44–0.56 (x‾ = 0.49, n = 10); clypeus length: 0.50–0.60 (x‾ = 0.54, n = 10); clypeoantennal distance: 0.30–0.40 (x‾ = 0.32, n = 10); clypeus ocellar distance: 1.00–1.28 (x‾ = 1.09, n = 10); intertegular distance: 1.18–1.49 (x‾ = 1.32, n = 10); T1 width: 1.60–2.08 (x‾ = 1.77, n = 10); T2 width: 1.72–2.20 (x‾ = 1.89, n = 10); scape length: 0.52–0.68 (x‾ = 0.58, n = 10); body length: 7.00–9.00 (x‾ = 7.70, n = 10).

Head. Labrum basal surface yellowish. Mandible mostly yellowish, apex brown. Clypeus mostly golden with copper reflection, apex yellowish, apical border exposed, yellowish; densely punctate, I = 0.5 PD, punctures large, smooth in between; setae length = 2 OD. Epistomal angle acute, protruding over clypeus. Supraclypeal area copper with green reflection; densely punctate, imbricate in between. Paraocular area golden with green reflection; densely punctate, smooth in between; long setae (2 OD) intermixed with tiny setae. Antennae: scape dark brown; pedicel longer than F1; mostly black, apex brownish; F1 light brown; shorter than F2; F3 longer than wide; remaining flagellomeres mostly dark brown, ventrally light brown. Frons with green and golden reflections intermixed; contiguously to crowded punctate; setae length = 1–2 OD. Gena with copper and golden reflections. Post gena mostly copper with golden reflection, darkened near hypostoma; loosely imbricate, some scattered punctures; abundant long setae up to 3 OD.

Mesosoma. Pronotum lateral angle with a projected acute tip. Fore leg: coxa ventrally green; trochanter dark with weak green reflection; femur brown with green reflection; slightly swollen; tibia and tarsus yellow; white to yellowish setae on both. Mesoscutum copper with golden reflection; punctate on disc, I = PD, sparser posterior to median line, contiguously punctate on lateral surfaces, anterior border punctate, imbricate in between; setae length = 0.5–1 OD. Scutellum medial furrow inconspicuous; green with golden reflection; mostly punctate, punctures coarse, denser punctation medially; longer setae (3 OD) near apex. Mesepisternum golden with copper reflection; preepisternum densely punctate near pronotal lobe; hypoepimeral area densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, smooth in between; below scrobe densely punctate, I <0.5 PD, smooth in between. Mid leg: coxa black with weak green reflection; trochanter green; setae length 4 OD; femur brown with green reflection; not swollen; tibia and basitarsus light brown; white to yellowish setae on both. Tegula brown with anterior green spot. Metanotum with dense tiny setae intermixed with longer white setae (= 3 OD). Metepisternum green with golden reflection; punctate, smooth in between, crowded punctate to striate near hind wing. Hind leg: coxa and trochanter green; femur green; tibia light brown, anterior surface without abundant tiny setae among long setae; basitarsus more than 6.5x longer than maximum width, parallel sided; brown. Metapostnotum green; as long as metanotum; slightly concave; entirely filled with radiating carinae. Propodeum green with golden reflection; with tiny and long (3 OD) setae intermixed; posterior surface contiguously to crowded punctate; lateral carinae lamellate, ending below propodeum half; lateral surfaces imbricate among punctures.

Metasoma. T1 anterior surface punctate, I = PD, smooth in between; mostly green with golden reflection, base darkened; only with long setae, tiny decumbent setae absent. T1 dorsal surface sparsely punctate, I> PD, coarser and denser punctation on lateral surfaces, with an impunctate area near apical margin medially; mostly green with golden reflection; tiny setae on disc, lateral surfaces with longer setae (2 OD); apex inflexed, black. T2 mostly green with golden reflection, dorsally darkened; marginal area dark; sparsely punctate on disc, I = 2 PD, minutely and densely punctate near base, coarser punctation on lateral surfaces, mostly smooth in between, loosely imbricate near base; marginal area with punctate portion shorter than apical black band on sublateral surfaces; mostly with tiny setae, long setae (= OD) near margin and lateral surfaces, pre-marginal setae ending far from apical margin on sub-lateral surfaces. T3 punctate, imbricate in between; green with golden reflection, apical band black; mostly with tiny setae, long setae (2 OD) near margin and lateral surfaces. T4 weakly punctate, imbricate in between; mostly green with golden reflection, apical band black; mostly with tiny setae, long setae (3 OD) scattered on disc and lateral surfaces. T5 mostly green with golden reflection, apical band black; long setae (2 OD) intermixed with tiny setae. T6 brown; mostly with long setae (<3 OD). T7 light brown. S1 without elevation; mostly green, apex brown; with long plumose setae (2 OD) medially, margin with tiny decumbent setae. S2 mostly dark brown, apical band yellowish; medioapical margin sharp; punctate, microreticulate in between; with long plumose setae (2 OD), tiny setae on apex. S3 mostly dark brown with green reflection, apical band yellowish; medioapical margin slightly rounded; punctate, microreticulate in between; with long plumose setae (2 OD), tiny setae on apex. S4 mostly dark brown with green reflection, apical band yellowish; medioapical margin almost straight; punctate, microreticulate in between; with long plumose setae (2 OD), tiny setae on apex. S5 dark brown; not depressed transversally on median surface; homogeneously pilose, without glabrous patch medially. S6 black; setae length = OD, tiny setae on apex. S7 lateral apodemes longer than half S8 width. S8 anterior projection less than four times longer than apical width; posterior margin acuminate.

Genitalia: gonobase 2 times wider than long; gonobase ventral arms slightly curved on apex. Gonocoxite about 1.5 times longer than wide. Gonostylus, dorsal surface glabrous. Ventral process of gonostylus: inner lobe spatulate, slightly expanded; with short setae and tiny bristles intermixed; outer lobe with short setae with length = 0.4x inner lobe size. Gonapophysis ventral prong poorly produced; dorsal bridge margin weakly projected; ventral bridge absent; apodeme narrow and weakly hooked.

Distribution. This species is found in the Brazilian states of Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondônia, and S„o Paulo. There are also records from the Misiones province in Argentina and from Paraguay.

Subgenus Augochlora (Oxystoglossella) Eickwort, 1969

Augochlora (Oxystoglossella) Eickwort, 1969: 422 . Type species: Augochlora (Oxystoglossella) cordiaefloris Cockerell, 1907 , by original designation.

Augochlora (Aethechlora) Moure & Hurd, 1987: 275 . Type species: Augochlora matucanensis Cockerell, 1914 , by monotypy.

Diagnosis. Oxystoglossella females can be separated from Augochlora s. str. by the mandible preapical tooth small and rounded, produced far from mandible apex ( Fig. 1A View FIGURE 1 ); T3 with abundant tiny setae reaching apical margin sublaterally (characteristic shared with A. hestia sp. nov.); and the T5 pseudopygidial area covered by scale-like decumbent setae pointing towards midline. Males of Oxystoglossella are diagnosed by the T2 with premarginal setae almost reaching apical margin on sublateral surfaces and the gonostylus outer lobe of ventral process with setae longer than inner lobe. Additional common features of Oxystoglossella species when compared with Augochlora s.str. are the smaller size, the frequent lack of bluish iridescences, relative smaller punctations on the entire body, and male light yellowish hind basitarsus (usually darker on Augochlora s.str.).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Halictidae

Genus

Augochlora

Loc

Augochlora (Augochlora) thusnelda ( Schrottky, 1909 )

Lepeco, Anderson & Gonçalves, Rodrigo Barbosa 2020
2020
Loc

Augochlora (Aethechlora)

Moure, J. S. & Hurd, P. D. 1987: 275
1987
Loc

Augochlora (Oxystoglossella)

Eickwort, G. C. 1969: 422
1969
Loc

Oxystoglossa thusnelda

Schrottky, C. 1909: 140
1909