Eryphanis zolvizora opimus Staudinger, 1887,

Blandin, Patrick, Bristow, Roger, Neild, Andrew, Sousa, Juan Carlos De, Gareca, Yuvinka & Huertas, Blanca, 2014, Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): one or several species?, European Journal of Taxonomy 71, pp. 1-66: 36-38

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.71

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F667B43B-86A3-4D7D-9A22-021E52CDA30F

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3851864

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/506287BE-FFAE-FFDF-FDCD-FBC16A709556

treatment provided by

Tatiana

scientific name

Eryphanis zolvizora opimus Staudinger, 1887
status

 

Eryphanis zolvizora opimus Staudinger, 1887 

Figs 5E-FView Fig, 7FView Fig, 13G-IView Fig, 15KView Fig

Eryphanis opimus Staudinger, 1887: 217  .

Eryphanis zolvizora opimus  – Stichel 1904: 33; 1909: 157, fig. 36; 1932: 75. — Fruhstorfer 1912: 312. — D’Abrera 1987: 406-407. — Casagrande 2004: 203.

Eryphanis opimus ( Staudinger, 1887)  [sic] – Penz 2008: 15-15 View Cited Treatment , figs 1I, 4I, 5I (status revised and redescription).

Diagnosis

HW projection only poorly developed; a faint orange spot between the R5-M1 veins is present in some specimens; the DFW band generally with five well developed, almost contiguous, crescent-shaped spots ( Fig. 5EView Fig) (however, there are some specimens with small, sometimes blurred, disjunct spots; cf. Fig. 5FView Fig); on the VFW, in space Cu2-2A, the inner margin of the distal white stripe forms a projection that does not reach the black border of the proximal white stripe; in the VHW cell the dark brown lines and curved line above the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus are well developed ( Fig. 5E-FView Fig). The valva axis has no swelling; the dorsal ridge has a row of more than 6 spines, dimimishing towards the extremity ( Fig. 13GView Fig).

Type material

Lectotype, here designated

COLOMBIA: ♂, dirty white, rectangular label: // Manizales , Cauca [handwritten in dark brown ink, followed by an indecipherable abbreviation: S?hl.]// ( ZMHB). 

Paralectotype, here designated

COLOMBIA: ♂, dirty white, rectangular label: // Manizales, Cauca [handwritten in dark brown ink, followed by an indecipherable abbreviation: S?hl.]// ( ZMHB).

Type locality

Manizales ( Colombia).

Description

Male

The FWL varies from 58 to 66 mm. Average P = 3.9 (n = 6; cf. Table 3); it is possible that there is no significant difference with other populations from the Northern Andes, except E. z. greeneyi  . In some specimens, there is a faint orange spot between the R5-M1 veins, making a very weak projection of the proximal branch of the submarginal band ( Fig. 5EView Fig); this feature has not been observed in other specimens from the Northern Andes. The DFW band varies from well developed, with five barely contiguous spots, to five small disjunct spots in some specimens, that we consider to be individual variations, like similar specimens from northern Peru, Ecuador and Venezuela. The violet iridescence is a little more pronounced than that of E. z. greeneyi  , but less than in E. z. reyi ssp. nov. and E. z. isabelae ssp. nov. (cf. Fig. 6View Fig). The androconial patch is a bright creamy, pale citrus yellow. The background colour of the ventral surface has a lighter yellowish aspect than in E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. ( Fig. 5EView Fig). On the VFW, the isolated white spot in the cell is medium to large, with a variable, roughly oval, triangular or crescent-like shape; there is sometimes a small white spot in the angle formed by the cubital vein and Cu2 ( Fig. 5E-FView Fig); in space Cu2-2A, the inner margin of the distal white stripe forms a projection that does not reach the black border of the proximal white stripe, and is often less pronounced than in E. z. greeneyi  ( Fig. 5E-FView Fig). On the VHW, the white stripes extend far beyond the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus, notably the distal one, which reaches vein 2A; in the cell, the dark brown lines and curved line above the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus are well developed; the costal VHW ocellus has an incomplete pale circle, sometimes partially covered with white scales; the black ring is complete and sometimes thicker than in any other subspecies ( Fig. 5E-FView Fig). The VHW Cu1-Cu2 ocellus (Φ average value: 10.7 mm; n = 6; cf. Table 5) is larger, on the average, than that of E. z. greeneyi  and E. z. reyi ssp. nov., and much larger than in E. z. isabelae ssp. nov. Genitalia exhibit weak individual variations ( Fig. 13G-IView Fig). The valva is regular, without a swelling; the ridge bears a row of more than 6 spines, the size of which varies more or less regularly; the gnathos is larger than those in E. z. zolvizora  , and sometimes smaller than in E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov.

Female

Only 6 females are known (labelled from ‘Calima Valley, Cauca River’; Calima, 45km W of Buga; Río Agua; ‘Rio Aguatal’; Colombia Ost; and ‘Colombie’). The FWL varies from 66 to 70 mm. The diagnostic characters correspond to those of the males ( Fig. 7FView Fig). On the dorsal surface, the FW band is composed of five narrow crescentic orange spots that just touch each other (the band is slightly narrower than that of most E. z. greeneyi  females). There is the faintest hint of a sixth orange spot between the R5-M1 nerves ( Fig. 7FView Fig). There is a strong purplish sheen in the middle of both the FW and HW. As in the male, on the VFW, in space Cu2-2A, the inner margin of the distal white stripe forms a projection that does not reach the black border of the proximal white stripe (an exception is the female from Río Aguacatal), unlike in E. z. reyi ssp. nov. and E. z. isabelae ssp. nov. The dorsal branches of the inward projections of the sterigma have a regular outline, in this way being different from E. z. greeneyi  and more similar to E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov., but their extremities are notably less distant from the internal side of the arch than in females from northern Peru ( Fig. 15KView Fig); nevertheless, the differences with one of the E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. females (cf. Fig. 15HView Fig) are weak. Female genitalia of E. z. opimus  do differ markedly from those of other Northern Andean females, except one female of E. z. reyi ssp. nov. which has thicker inward projections and shorter dorsal branches (cf. Fig. 15LView Fig).

Flight periods

The only ten dates that we have are from May to November.

Distribution

Colombia. The only specimens with reliable data are from the Cauca Valley, and from Río Aguacatal (this name has often been misspelt on data labels as Aquatil, Aquatal, Aguatal, Aguaca, and similar), on eastern slopes of the western cordillera. It is unfortunate that, of the many specimens of E. z. opimus  that we have seen, only five reliable localities can be confirmed in the Cauca Valley: Calima Valley, on the west side of the valley (i.e. east side of the western cordillera); and Armenia, Pereira, Manizales, and Mesopotamia, on the east side of the valley (i.e. west side of central cordillera). Fassl (1915a: 10) shows opimus  on both sides of the western cordillera at heights between 2000 and 2500 m, but we have not seen any E. zolvizora  specimen from these altitudes on the west side of the western cordillera, although specimens labelled ‘Cali, 1000 m’ in the MNHN and MPM were probably collected along the road from Cali to Buenaventura on the Pacific slope, as well as the ‘Buenaventura-Queremal’ male in the IAvH. Reliable altitudes range from 900 to 2500 m.

Remarks

The taxon E. opimus  was described by Staudinger (1887), on the basis of three syntypes (males), two from Manizales ( Colombia) and one from Chanchamayo ( Peru). After Stichel (1904), it was considered as a subspecies of E. zolvizora  , until Penz (2008) revised its status. The name opimus  has always been used for Colombian specimens ( Stichel 1904, 1909, 1932; Fruhstorfer 1912; Fassl 1914, 1915 a, 1915b; D’Abrera 1987). Staudinger noted differences between the Peruvian syntypic specimen and the Colombian ones. It should be noted that none of the syntypes match the figured specimen (fig. 36) in Stichel (1909). To stabilize the situation, we have designated as lectotype the undamaged Manizales syntype. The other Manizales specimen is therefore a paralectotype. As indicated previously, it is likely that the syntype from Chanchamayo belongs to E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Lepidoptera

Family

Nymphalidae

Genus

Eryphanis

Loc

Eryphanis zolvizora opimus Staudinger, 1887

Blandin, Patrick, Bristow, Roger, Neild, Andrew, Sousa, Juan Carlos De, Gareca, Yuvinka & Huertas, Blanca 2014
2014
Loc

Eryphanis opimus ( Staudinger, 1887 )

Penz C. 2008: 15
Staudinger, 1887
2008
Loc

Eryphanis zolvizora opimus

Casagrande M. M. 2004: 203
D'Abrera B. 1987: 406
Fruhstorfer H. 1912: 312
Stichel H. 1909: 157
Stichel H. 1904: 33
1904
Loc

Eryphanis opimus

Eryphanis opimus Staudinger, 1887: 217 .