Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande Bristow,
Blandin, Patrick, Bristow, Roger, Neild, Andrew, Sousa, Juan Carlos De, Gareca, Yuvinka & Huertas, Blanca, 2014, Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): one or several species?, European Journal of Taxonomy 71, pp. 1-66: 34-36
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|Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande Bristow|
Eryphanis zolvizora casagrande Bristow ssp. nov.
HW projection only poorly developed; no R5-M1 orange mark on DFW ( Fig. 5CView Fig); there is a wide bridge in space Cu2-2A on the VFW formed by a complete white connection between the white stripes ( Figs 2iView Fig, 5CView Fig); the isolated white spot in the VFW cell is quite large and semicircular; the narrow outer white stripe on the VHW only just extends down to the smaller of the lower ocelli; the broader inner white stripe only extends as far as the larger of the lower ocelli ( Fig. 5CView Fig); the dark brown lines in the VHW cell and curved line above the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus are well developed, the distal lines form two conjoined elongate circles ( Fig. 5CView Fig). The valva axis has no swelling; the dorsal ridge has a row of more than 6 spines, diminishing towards the extremity ( Fig. 13DView Fig).
Named after Prof. Dr. Mirna Casagrande (Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil) in recognition of all her work on the brassolines.
Type material (3 specimens)
COLOMBIA: ♂, four white labels printed in black: // Nariño, Barbacoas, Altaquer, Reserva Río Ñambi. [1°15’N 78°07’W] Julio 24 de 1995 [24 Jul. 1995] G. Andrade-C. Leg. Altitud: 1425 m. // GAC: 7615// ICN-MHN-L 14791 // ICN 011101 // ( ICNO).GoogleMaps
COLOMBIA: ♂ // Nariño Ricaurte La Planada 01°05’06”N 77°53’06”W, 1800 m 8.ix.1994 [8 Sep. 1994], Julian Salazar, Leg. SM-4385 // IAvH 8238 // genit JFL 336 // ( IAvH); ♀ // Nariño La Planada Via Hondon 1°15’N 78°15’W 1930 m Malaise 16 x. 2. xi. 2000 [16 Oct.-2 Nov. 2000]. G. Oliva Leg. M. 139 // IAvH-E 67776 // genit JFL 337 // ( IAvH).
Other material examined
Because so few specimens have been seen from the west of Colombia (2 ♂♂, 1 ♀) and Ecuador, (1 ♂, 2 ♀♀) it is possible that, when more specimens are examined, the Ecuadorian population may prove to be a separate taxon. Therefore, the following specimens are not included in the type series:
ECUADOR: ♂, // Pichincha, Reserva Las Galarias [sic], Nunbird fr. 0°0’34”S, 78°43’50”W, 27.iv.2011 [27 Apr. 2011]/T Kell/#008/FLMNH-MGCL-15-11-26/DNA Voucher lep-04376 (FLMNH); ♀, // Huigra, 1220 m, [2°18’S 78°59’W] Nov. 1926, Coxey // (ANSP); ♀, // Pichincha Prov., Santo Domingo de los Colorados, alt. 200 m, Apr. 1982 // (LACM).
A male labelled “EKWADOR [sic], Prov. Zamora-Chinchipe, Valladolid, 17 05 1998 [17 May 1998], leg. K. Jasinski” (MZUJ), exhibits the white bridge on VFW, and the broader inner white stripe on VHW only extends as far as the larger of the lower ocelli, as in E. z. casagrande ssp. nov. Other features are consistent with the above diagnosis. Keith Willmott (pers. comm.) commented that the locality may be not reliable, and we suspect an inversion of labels with the E. z. greeneyi -like specimen, in the same collection, which bears a label from the western El Oro Province.
In addition, we have seen a web image of a male at Tandayapa Lodge (1600 m, Nov. 28 th 2007, W. Cook), and there is a picture of a male (presumably) in Silva (2011), taken at the Río Guajalito Reserve (1900 m, 12 Nov. 2009).
The FW length in the holotype is 58 mm, in the paratype 62 mm. The values of the P index are estimated at 5.5 mm in the holotype and 4.4 mm in the Ecuadorian specimen from Las Gralarias. These values are close to those observed in E. z. greeneyi ; possibly, the HW projection should be more pronounced than in E. z. opimus . There is no R5-M1 orange mark on DFW; the orange DFW band is either moderate (HT; Fig. 5CView Fig) or well developed and composed of five spots of variable size which are just contiguous, being separated only by the veins; in that way, E. z. casagrande ssp. nov. may differ from E. z. greeneyi , where the spots are often separated. The iridescence is extremely faint. The androconial patch of the holotype is less lemon-coloured than in E. z. opimus ( Fig. 5CView Fig); however, the paratype male and the single Ecuadorian male examined have a very pale cream androconial patch ( Fig. 5DView Fig). The ground colour of the verso is lighter, more yellowish than in E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. The isolated white spot in the VFW cell is quite large and semicircular. On the VFW, there is no white spot in the angle formed by the cubital vein and Cu2; the complete white connection between the white stripes in space Cu2-2A delimits half-a-circle (up against Cu2) with a chestnut-brown inner core and a dark brown outer ring ( Fig. 5CView Fig). The narrow outer white stripe on the VHW only just extends down to the smaller of the lower ocelli; the broader inner white stripe only extends as far as the larger of the lower ocelli. The dark brown lines in the VHW cell and curved line above the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus are well developed; the distal lines form two conjoined elongate circles ( Fig. 5CView Fig). The costal ocellus on the VHW has a narrow, offwhite outer ring; the black ring is almost complete. In the holotype, on the VHW, the largest diameter of Cu1-Cu2 ocellus measures 10.1 mm (cf. Table 5); it is weakly larger in the paratype; thus, there is no indication of a difference with either E. z. greeneyi or E. z. opimus . Genitalia are similar to those of E. z. greeneyi and other subspecies from the Northern Andes, while they strongly differ from the genitalia of E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. ( Fig. 13D-FView Fig).
Note. One striking feature of the male from Las Gralarias, Ecuador, is the circular orange spot with a large dark brown core in space M3-Cu1 of the dorsal forewing band ( Fig. 5DView Fig). This is unique amongst all the E. zolvizora specimens examined. However, a smaller dark brown point is present in one male from the Río Aguacatal (eastern slope of the Colombian western cordillera), collected by Fassl (USNM), a male from “Cali” in MNHN (PBB 1406), and two males of E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. from the upper Río Nieva (Amazonas, Peru) in MNHN (PBGL 471 and 518).
The paratype female FWL is 62 mm; Ecuadorian females range from 60 to 67 mm. The ventral surface shows the same diagnostic features as the male. However, on VHW, the inner white stripe goes slightly beyond the ocelli, but remains shorter than in all other subspecies ( Fig. 7DView Fig). The markings in the VHW cell of the Huigra female are rather faint, but this specimen is fairly old and worn ( Fig. 7EView Fig). The dorsal branches of the inward projections of the sterigma are similar to those of E. z. greeneyi , as they have irregular outlines, but they are more distant from the internal side of the arch, as in E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. and E. z. opimus ( Fig. 15JView Fig).
Specimens have been caught or seen in April, July, September, October and November.
Colombia. Nariño Department of south-west Colombia between 1380 and 1930 m.
Ecuador. E. z. casagrande ssp. nov. presumably extends in suitable habitat throughout the western slopes from the Colombian border to the extreme south of the country at heights of 1200 m to 1800 m; the Santo Domingo specimen at 200 m is an anomaly and may be from a higher altitude along the road to Quito.
Specimens of E. zolvizora from south-western Colombia and western Ecuador are characterized by a wide ‘bridge’ in space Cu2-2A on the VFW formed by a complete white connection between the white stripes, delimiting half-a-circle (up against Cu2) with a chestnut-brown inner core and a dark brown outer ring; in that way, E. z. casagrande ssp. nov. differs from its near neighbours E. z. opimus in the Cauca Valley, Colombia, and E. z. greeneyi in the Oriente of Ecuador, as well as from all other subspecies, except E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov., where we know 3 (of 35) specimens having a white bridge (MNHN: PBB 2310, PBGL 521 and PBGL 705). We consider that the presence of a wide, white bridge is the principal diagnostic character of E. z. casagrande ssp. nov., but suggesting a closer affinity with E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. than E. z. greeneyi . However, the male genitalia are similar to those of E. z. greeneyi .
There are specimens of E. zolvizora collected in the 19 th and early 20 th century labelled from the western Ecuadorian village of ‘Balzapamba’. Like many specimens supposedly from this locality, they are from eastern Ecuador and are in fact E. z. greeneyi .
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