Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae Neild & De Sousa,
Blandin, Patrick, Bristow, Roger, Neild, Andrew, Sousa, Juan Carlos De, Gareca, Yuvinka & Huertas, Blanca, 2014, Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): one or several species?, European Journal of Taxonomy 71, pp. 1-66: 41-42
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|Eryphanis zolvizora isabelae Neild & De Sousa|
HW projection moderately developed. No orange mark between veins R5-M1. The androconial patch is on average longer (mean: 9 mm) than in all other subspecies and is pale greyish-brown ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig). The violet iridescence on the FW is generally slightly stronger and distally more extensive than in E. z. reyi ssp. nov. The white patch in the VFW cell next to the base of Cu1-Cu2 is larger by 50%-100% than other subspecies ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig). On the VFW, the white Cu2-Cu1 spot in the basalmost angle formed by the cubital vein and Cu2 is relatively large and always present ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig). On the VFW, the black line at the base of cell M3-Cu1 is usually diffuse or poorly-defined in males ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig), and diffuse or nearly absent in females ( Fig. 8BView Fig), a difference with all other subspecies. The valva is regular, without swelling; the ridge bears a row of more than 6 spines, the size of which varies more or less regularly.
We name this subspecies in honour of the memory of Isabel Montesino de Romero (1931-2008). The Romero family collected the vast majority of the type series of both the Venezuelan subspecies described herein. The late Isabel, and her children Francisco (“Paco”) and María de la Concepción (“Conchita”), very kindly helped us in many ways during our protracted research for this paper, and we use this opportunity to thank them profusely for their great kindness and generosity.
Type material (12 specimens)
VENEZUELA: ♂, white label handwritten in black ink: // Choroní , 1450. [Vía Choroní 1450 m] [10°21’N 67°34’W] II-78 [Feb. 1978]. C. f. R. s. [collected by familia Romero ] // (R, to be donated to MIZA).GoogleMaps
VENEZUELA: ♂, // Choroní (arbol). [Vía Choroní, Aragua] [10°21’N 67°34’W], 6-70. [Jun. 1970] C. f. R. // 111-JCSC // (R); ♂, // Choroní. 1450. [Vía Choroní, Aragua, 1450 m] [10°21’N 67°34’W], 9-71. [Sep. 1971] C. flia. Romero // 117-JCSC // (MIZA); ♂, // Choroní 15. [Vía Choroní, Aragua] [10°22’N 67°35’W], 10-72. [Oct. 1972] C. f. R. // 112-JCSC // (R); ♂, // Choroní, 1250. [Vía Choroní, Aragua, 1250 m] [10°22’N 67°35’W], 9-76. [Sep. 1976] C. f. R. // (R); ♀, // R. Grande. [Rancho Grande, Aragua, 1150 m] [10°20’N 67°40’W], 8-65. [Aug. 1965] C. Eduardo // 118-JCSC // (MIZA); ♀, // [Choroní 21. [Vía Choroní, Aragua] [10°21’N 67°34’W], 8-70. [Aug. 1970] C. f. R. 1550 m. // 113-JCSC // (R); ♀, // Choroní. 1.400 s. [Vía Choroní, Aragua, 1400 m] [10°22’N 67°35’W], V-79.[May 1979] C. f. R. // (R); ♀, // Choroní 28. [Vía Choroní, Aragua] [10°22’N 67°35’W], 28-9-76. [28 Sep. 1976] C. f. R. 1150 m. Cara Norte // 114-JCSC // (R); ♀, //La Llanada. 1.650 mts. [Parque Nacional el Avila, Distrito Federal] [10°33’N 66°56’W], 29 Oct. 1989 // (MNHN, PBB 2322); ♀, // Colonia Tovar. 2.100 mts. [10°24’N 67°19’W], IV-93. [Apr. 1993] C. F. R. Edo. Aragua // (R); ♀, // Col. Tovar, 2.100 m, via Capachal. [Aragua] [10°24’N 67°19’W], 02-04-2010 [2 Apr. 2010] // (MCC).
Other material examined
Included in the measurements but excluded from the type series: ♂, // Mexico // Druce Coll. ex Kaden Coll. // Eryphanis zolvizora Hew. Godman-Salvin Coll. 1919 .-6. // BMNH (E) #808093 // (BMNH).
The FWL varies from 57 to 66 mm (mean: 63.3 mm; n = 6). The holotype FWL is 60 mm. The hindwing projection is developed to an average degree (P = 4.1; n = 5; cf. Table 3), similar to specimens from Colombia. There is no orange mark between veins R5-M1 ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig). The holotype ( Fig. 6CView Fig) and some of the paratypes have five submarginal orange spots which meet at the veins (but these are separated from each other by the vein itself, which is dark brown); however, although the form and size of these spots are variable, they are well-developed in all but one of the known specimens; therefore, it is likely that this character falls into the variation observed in populations from the Northern Andes and northern Peru. The violet iridescence on the DFW is generally slightly stronger and distally more extensive than in E. z. reyi ssp. nov. and E. z. opimus . The length of the DHW androconial patch is on average longer than in all other subspecies, with a mean of 9.0 mm (n = 6; cf. Table 4), and the patch is pale greyish-brown ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig), while it is a bright creamy white in all other subspecies, except in some rare individuals. Ground colour of the ventral surface as in other subspecies of the Northern Andes (except some darker specimens in E. z. greeneyi ). The white patch on the FWV cell next to the base of Cu1-Cu2 is roughly subtriangular or in the form of an inverted heart-shape; it is distinctly larger (50%-100%) than in any other subspecies ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig). On the VFW, the white Cu2-Cu1 spot in the basalmost angle formed by the cubital vein and Cu2 is relatively large and always present ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig). On the VFW, the black line at the base of cell M3-Cu1 is usually diffuse or poorly defined in males (it is narrow, but well defined, in all other subspecies). On the VFW, the white vertical stripes in cell Cu2-2A are generally connected by a thin black horizontal line ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig). On the VHW, the black designs in the cell and the curved line anterior to the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus are fainter than in E. z. opimus , but almost similar to those of E. z. reyi ssp. nov. In most specimens, the anterior VHW ocellus is encircled by an outer pale/ off-white circle, contrasting with the background more than in E. z. opimus ; the black ring is complete ( Fig. 6C-DView Fig), being dissimilar to E. z. reyi ssp. nov. in which it is usually broken at the costal margin. On average, the VHW Cu1-Cu2 ocellus (Φ average value: 8.7 mm; n = 5; cf. Table 5) is probably similar to that of E. z. reyi ssp. nov. and perhaps of E. z. greeneyi , but smaller than in all other subspecies. The valva is regular, without swelling; the ridge bears a row of more than 6 spines, the size of which varies more or less regularly ( Fig. 14D-FView Fig); the gnathos is generally slightly smaller than in E. z. opimus ; there is no noticeable difference with E. z. reyi ssp. nov.
Female FWL length varies from 63 mm to 68.5 mm (n = 6). The dorsal and ventral surfaces show the same diagnostic features as in the male. The violet-blue dorsal iridescence on both the FW and HW is usually a more extensive, lighter and bluer tint than the one observed on E. z. reyi ssp. nov. ( Fig. 8BView Fig). The inward projections of the sterigma are narrower than in E. z. opimus and E. z. reyi ssp. nov. and the bases of the dorsal branches are widely separated from the internal side of the arch ( Fig. 15M-OView Fig); nevertheless, the extremities of these branches are close to it and clearly cross in 3 of the 4 dissected specimens; in this way, E. z. isabelae ssp. nov. possibly differs from other subspecies.
Specimens have been collected in February, April, May, and June, but the majority were taken in August, September and October. With the exception of February, which is usually (but not always!) dry, these months fall within the rainy season.
Venezuela. This taxon appears to be endemic to the Cordillera de la Costa in northern Venezuela, where it has been recorded from approximately 1150 m to at least 2100 m.
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