Eryphanis zolvizora zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877),

Blandin, Patrick, Bristow, Roger, Neild, Andrew, Sousa, Juan Carlos De, Gareca, Yuvinka & Huertas, Blanca, 2014, Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): one or several species?, European Journal of Taxonomy 71, pp. 1-66: 26-28

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Eryphanis zolvizora zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877)


Eryphanis zolvizora zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877) 

Figs 3AView Fig 1View Fig, 4View Fig A-B, 7A, 10A, 15A

Pavonia zolvizora Hewitson, 1877  . Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies selected chiefly from the collections of W. Wilson Saunders and William C. Hewitson. Vol. IV, London, John Van Voorst, ( Morphinae  : Pavonia  II, plate [6]).

Caligo zolvizora  – Kirby 1877: 847. — Weymer & Maasen 1890: 62.

Pavonia zolvizora  – Kirby 1879: 110.

Eryphanis zolvizora zolvizora  – Stichel 1904: 33; 1909: 157; 1932: 157. — Fruhstorfer 1912: 312. — Casagrande 2004: 203.

Eryphanis zolvizora  – D’Abrera 1987: 406. — Penz 2008: 14, figs 1 G, 2 G, 4 G, 5 G, 6 G (re-description).


Poorly developed HW projection ( Figs 1aView Fig, 4A-BView Fig); moderately developed oblique orange spot on DFW between the R 5 and M 1 veins ( Figs1bView Fig, 4A-BView Fig); VHW costal ocellus circled by a brown, incomplete ring without white scales ( Figs 2lView Fig, 4A-BView Fig); large Cu1-Cu2 ocellus (average widest diameter: 12mm) ( Figs 2mView Fig, 4A-BView Fig). The valva is characterized by a subterminal swelling, where the ridge has 2-3 strong teeth; beyond, a smooth rounded gap followed by a row of small regular spines. Gnathos is relatively small, its ventral region being reduced ( Figs 3 A 1View Fig, 10 AView Fig).

Type material

Lectotype, here designated

♂, two white labels, printed and written in black: // Bolivia (Buckley) [hand written] Hewitson Coll. 79-69. Pavonia  [printed] zolvizora Hew.  2 [hand written]// B. M. Type No. Rh [printed] 6110 Pavonia zolvizora  ♂ Hew. [hand written]// ( BMNH).


Paralectotype, here designated

♂, one label, hand written in black: //Hewitson 1// ( BMNH).

Type locality




The FWL varies from 57 to 67 mm. The hindwing projection is poorly developed (average P = 3.3; n = 14; cf. Table 3). Between the R 5 and M 1 veins there is an oblique orange spot forming the proximal branch of the submarginal band. The DFW five submarginal orange spots are large, but clearly separated by the veins ( Figs 1cView Fig, 4A-BView Fig). Their form and size are variable (however, the M 3-Cu1 spot is generally triangular, rarely crescent-like), but they are never strongly reduced. The wings on the dorsal surface are dark brown, with a weak violet iridescence on FW and absent on HW ( Fig. 4A-BView Fig). The androconial patch in the anal area of the DHW is 6.0-8.0 mm long (cf. Table 4); its colour is a bright creamy, pale citrus yellow, sometimes weakly greyish, thus less bright ( Fig. 4A-BView Fig). The underside is strongly patterned ( Fig. 4A-BView Fig); the ochre-brown background often shows a yellowish tinge on the distal part of the wings, notably on FW margins; the colour of the median area is a contrasting ochre-brown. In the VFW cell, the isolated white spot is more often small or medium; however, it is sometimes elongated and in contact with a chain of whitish spots connected with the white distal limit of the cell ( Figs 2gView Fig, 4 A-BView Fig). There is no white spot in the angle formed by the cubital vein of the VFW cell and Cu2, or it is extremely small ( Figs 2hView Fig, 4 A-BView Fig). On the VFW, the two white stripes are clearly separated in the cell Cu2-2 A; the inner margin of the distal stripe, which generally forms a small, blunt tooth, is underlined by a thick black line ( Figs 2iView Fig, 4 A-BView Fig). On the VHW, the white stripes extend far beyond the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus, notably the distal one, which reaches vein 2 A ( Figs 2jView Fig, 4 A-BView Fig). Dark brown lines are well developed in the HW cell, as well as a dark brown curved line above the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus ( Figs 2kView Fig, 4 A-BView Fig). The VHW costal ocellus is circled by a brown, incomplete ring, a little paler than the median area; there are no white scales on this ring; the black ring is generally complete ( Fig. 4 A-BView Fig). The Cu1-Cu2 ocellus is large ( Fig. 4BView Fig); its widest diameter (Φ) generally varies between 10.5 and 14.5 mm (cf. Table 5; NB: in the lectotype, the ocellus is relatively small, see Fig. 4AView Fig, an uncommon feature). The genitalia do not present significant individual variations.


The FWL varies from 62 to 68 mm. The hindwing projection is as reduced as in males. The basal 2/3 rd of the dorsal surface is a lighter brown than in males, with a distal violet tinge on the DFW and DHW, brighter than in the male ( Fig.7AView Fig). On the DFW, the orange spots exhibit the same characteristics as in males. The ventral surface can be lighter than in males, notably on the distal parts ( Fig. 7AView Fig), but some specimens are hardly different from males. The sterigma has inward projections with short, pointed ventral branches (sometimes with 2 points) and long, narrow dorsal branches which are dorsally oriented and can cross in the middle ( Fig. 15AView Fig).

Flight periods

Eryphanis z. zolvizora  has been collected from January to May and from September to November.


Bolivia. For a long time, the distribution of E. z. zolvizora  was poorly known, as most specimens had been essentially collected near the roads from Cochabamba to Villa Tunari (Cochabamba Department), and in some localities in the “Coroico – Caranavi” area (La Paz Department). Recent collecting by Bolivian entomologists has provided new localities, notably in Santa Cruz Department, where the area of Manchones represents the southernmost locality (ca. 18°45’S) known. Reliable altitudes range from 1000 m to 2600 m. We suppose that E. z. zolvizora  exists locally in all cloud forests along the northern part of the Bolivian Andes. Referring to Fruhstorfer (1912), Penz (2008) suggests that perhaps E. zolvizora  ( E. z. zolvizora  according to our conception) reaches southern Peru. However, all specimens we know from southern Peru (Puno Department) belong to E. z. inca ssp. nov. Nevertheless, it should be noted that there is no information about populations existing near the Bolivian-Peruvian border.


The species name zolvizora  (originally described in the genus Pavonia  ) was authored by Hewitson in his Illustrations of new species of exotic butterflies selected chiefly from the collections of W. Wilson Saunders and William C. Hewitson, issued in five volumes between 1852 and 1877 ( Lamas et al. 1995). The date of publication of zolvizora  is variously given as 1876 (e.g. in Stichel 1909) or 1877 (e.g. in Lamas et al. 1995), and the volume of the publication is given as IV (published 1867 - 1871 according to the date on the title page) ( Stichel 1932) or V (published 1872 - 1876 according to the date on the title page) ( Stichel 1909; Lamas et al. 1995). The contents of the 5 volumes of ‘ Illustrations’ were issued, unpaginated (1286 pp – including blank pages and 300 plates), in a series of unnumbered parts. The text for zolvizora  is on the reverse of the page with Pavonia seleucida  which has ‘Published January 1 st 1877 ’ printed at the bottom. Two copies of ‘ Illustrations’ inspected by the authors (at the USNM Library available online ( and in the UMO Library, Oxford), have the text preceded by two plates. However, two copies inspected at the BMNH, including Lord Rothschild’s bequest copy, have the text before the plates. The first plate is of P. seleucida  (with the page note ‘W.C. Hewitson del et lith Oct. 1876 ’), the second of P. zolvizora  (with the page note ‘W.C. Hewitson del et lith Nov. 1876 ’). The original copy acquired by the BMNH has the date of publication of the text of P. zolvizora  pencilled in as ‘ 1.i. 1877 ’ (recorded also in Griffin 1932). The USNM copy has the dates of publication of the plates pencilled in as Jan. 1 1877 (presumably after Griffin 1932). This date for plates and text would suggest that they belong to Vol. V, but in the Systematic Index for all five volumes Pavonia  I ([pl. 5], P. seleucida  ) and II ([pl. 6], P. zolvizora  ) are clearly part of Vol. IV, supposedly published 1867 -71. However, in Vol. 5, under ‘CORRECTIONS’ it states that ‘ An index  is given by which the binder will be able to arrange the plates ’. It is possible that some copies of The Illustrations were bound in the order that they were issued or acquired by the different libraries, which could account for Pavonia  being included in Vol. V, rather than in Vol. IV where the Index indicates it was intended to be published. In summary, as the plates and parts in the various volumes of the 4 sets examined were not bound in order as they were issued, but according to the order laid down by Hewitson, it seems to us to be correct to regard P. zolvizora  as part of Vol. IV (as in all 4 copies examined), and we regard the name P. zolvizora  to have been published on the 1 Jan. 1877 (but see Lamas et al. 1995).

The specimen identified as the type of E. zolvizora  at the BMNH, a male collected by C. Buckley ( Fig. 4AView Fig), has no precise locality, being labelled as follows: “ Bolivia (Buckley) Hewitson Coll. 79-69. Pavonia zolvizora Hew.  2”. Following Kirby’s catalogue of Hewitson’s Butterflies at the BMNH ( Kirby 1879: 110), it is known that there is another specimen labelled ‘Hewitson 1’, part of the type series at the BMNH; it was found during recent curation conducted by BH. Therefore, these two specimens are syntypes. The specimen we have chosen to be the lectotype was formerly considered to be the holotype. Consequently, the second specimen is a paralectotype.


United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]














Eryphanis zolvizora zolvizora (Hewitson, 1877)

Blandin, Patrick, Bristow, Roger, Neild, Andrew, Sousa, Juan Carlos De, Gareca, Yuvinka & Huertas, Blanca 2014

Eryphanis zolvizora

Penz C. 2008: 14
D'Abrera B. 1987: 406

Eryphanis zolvizora zolvizora

Casagrande M. M. 2004: 203
Stichel H. 1932: 157
Fruhstorfer H. 1912: 312
Stichel H. 1909: 157
Stichel H. 1904: 33

Pavonia zolvizora

Kirby W. F. 1879: 110

Caligo zolvizora

Weymer G. & Maasen J. P. 1890: 62
Kirby W. F. 1877: 847

Pavonia zolvizora