Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya Blandin,

Blandin, Patrick, Bristow, Roger, Neild, Andrew, Sousa, Juan Carlos De, Gareca, Yuvinka & Huertas, Blanca, 2014, Revisiting the Andean butterfly Eryphanis zolvizora group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae): one or several species?, European Journal of Taxonomy 71, pp. 1-66: 30-32

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2014.71

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F667B43B-86A3-4D7D-9A22-021E52CDA30F

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3851870

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/506287BE-FF90-FFE5-FE2B-FE966A27932C

treatment provided by

Tatiana

scientific name

Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya Blandin
status

ssp. nov.

Eryphanis zolvizora chachapoya Blandin  ssp. nov.

Figs 3AView Fig 2View Fig, 4D-FView Fig, 7BView Fig, 9View Fig, 12View Fig, 15B-HView Fig

Diagnosis

HW projection is strongly pronounced ( Figs 1aView Fig, 4D, FView Fig); on the DFW the R5-M1 orange patch is often missing or very reduced ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig); on the VFW the two white stripes are generally separated in the cell Cu2-2A, but the inner margin of the distal stripe forms a projection towards the outer black margin of the proximal stripe ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig); the dark brown lines on the VHW cell and the curved line above the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus are faint or absent ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig); the VHW costal ocellus is circled by a clear ring contrasting with the median area; in many specimens it is widely covered with white scales ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig); large VHW Cu1-Cu2 ocellus (average widest diameter: 10 mm). The valva axis has no swelling, or only a weak one; the ridge usually with a pronounced swelling, bearing 2-3 very strong spines; towards the extremity there is more often a gap, followed by a short distal row of short spines diminishing towards the extremity; gnathos is large and its ventral region is strongly developed ( Fig. 12View Fig).

Etymology

Named after the pre-Inca Chachapoya civilization which existed in northern Peru, mainly in the present Amazonas and San Martín Departments; the Chachapoyas were also called “Warriors of the Clouds”.

Type material (23 specimens)

Holotype

PERU: ♂, a white label printed in black ink: // PERU, AM [Amazonas], Valle de Huamanpata , Lejia 0620/7727 [6°20’S 77°27’W] 2150m 23.x.2005 [23 Oct. 2005] L. Campos // ( MJP).GoogleMaps 

Paratypes

PERU: ♂, // San Francisco, Chanchamayo, Junín, Pérou, Jan. 1964, Mme Harris leg. // PBB 1407 // ( MNHN, PBB); ♂, // Oxapampa, La Suiza   GoogleMaps 2180m Estado Pasco, Peru [10°36’S 75°29’W] 5.–13.Junio 2002 [5-13 Jun. 2002] Bernhard Wenczel   GoogleMaps // ( UFPC); ♂, // Huancabamba, 6800 ft, [10°23’S 75°33’W], Pasco [ Peru] // BMNH VIAL 8224 // BMNH (E)# 806245 // ( BMNH); ♂, // Cushi [Pasco, Peru], 1820 m, (W. Hoffmans) // BMNH (E)# 806246; VIAL 8225 // ( BMNH); ♂, // Cushi [Pasco, Peru], 1900 m, [9°58’S 75°42’W], (W. Hoffmans) // ( BMNH); ♂, // Panao Huanuco-Peru 3.000 m, [9°54’S 75°58’W], I-1982 [Jan. 1982] Schunke Leg // ( UFPC); ♂, // Carpish, 2300 m, Huánuco, Pérou, Jan. 2006 // PBB 2284 // ( MNHN, PBB); ♂, // Cumpang   GoogleMaps, entre Tayabamba y Ongon, 2400-2700 m, [8°16’S 77°00’W], 21/10/79 [21 Oct. 1979], T. Parker, leg. (La Libertad) [ Peru] // genitalia MJPZOLV 004PB // ( MJP); ♂, // Environs de Mendoza, [06°23’S 77°27W], Amazonas, Pérou, Jun. 1994, B. Calderón leg.// PBB 1900 // ( MNHN, PBB); ♂, // San José de Molinopampa, 2200-2400 m, [06°12’ 77°34’W], 2005, Amazonas, Pérou, B. Calderón leg. // PBGL 166 // ( MNHN, CG); ♂, // San José de Molinopampa, 2200-2400 m, [06°12’ 77°34’W], 2008, Amazonas, Pérou // PBB 2309 // ( MNHN, PBB); ♂, // Le long de l’alto río Nieva   GoogleMaps, 2250 m, [05°42’40”S 77°47’15”W], 4-9 Mar. 2009, Amazonas, Pérou, José Ananias Tafur leg. // PBGL 471 // ( MNHN, CG); ♂, // Alto Nieva   GoogleMaps, 1900 m, [05°39’S 77°47’W], sans date [without date], Amazonas, Pérou // PBB 2157 // ( MNHN, PBB); ♂, // Alto Nieva   GoogleMaps, 1900 m, [05°39’S 77°47’W], Dec. 2012, Amazonas, Pérou, Joël Clever Pintado leg. // PBGL 706 // ( MNHN, CG); ♂, // Villa Hermosa   GoogleMaps, 1500 m, [05°36’S 77°47’W], Dec. 2010, Amazonas, Pérou, Joël Clever Pintado leg. // PBGL 594 // ( MNHN, CG); ♀, // Cushi, 1900 m, [9°58’S 75°42’W], Prov. Pasco Peru (W. Hoffmans) // BMNH (E)# 806247 VIAL 8226 // ( BMNH); ♀, // Carpish , 2300 m, Huánuco, Pérou, Jul. 2005 // PBB 2285 // ( MNHN, PBB); ♀, // San José de Molinopampa   GoogleMaps, 2200-2400 m, [6°12’S 77°34’W], 5 Jan. 2007, Amazonas, Pérou, B. Calderon leg. // PBGL 198 // ( MNHN, CG); ♀, // Alto Nieva   GoogleMaps, 1900-2000 m, [5°39’00”S 77°46’30”W], Mar. 2010, Amazonas, Pérou, Joël Clever Pintado leg. // PBGL 519 // ( MNHN, CG); ♀, // Nieva   GoogleMaps, 1900 m, [5°40’S 77°36’W], Sep. 2011, Amazonas, Pérou, Joël Clever Pintado leg. // PBGL 596 // ( MNHN, CG); ♀, río Jenesis [sic], env. 1400 m, [5°32-33’S 77°48-49’W], 11/2012 [Nov. 2012], Amazonas, Peru, Joël Clever Pintado leg. // ( MJP); ♀, // San Augustín   GoogleMaps, 1400-1500 m, [5°47’S 77°30’W], Setiembre 2012 [Sep. 2012], San Martín, Peru, Joël Clever Pintado leg. // ( MJP).

Other material examined

Data on the 21 specimens not included in the paratypes are given in Appendix 2. Among them, a male in MJP, labelled “Rio Perené (Junín)” (genitalia MJPZOLV 006PB) has an unreliable locality (Gerardo Lamas, pers. comm.). One of the syntypes of E. z. opimus  from Chanchamayo (in ZMHB) has the HW projection as well developed as in E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. (estimated value of P index  : 5.8). The inner projection of the distal white stripe on VFW is well developed. The ring of the VHW costal ocellus is whitish and contrasts strongly with the brown median area, and the diameter of the Cu1-Cu2 VHW ocellus is 10.5 mm. These features are comparable with E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov., but not with E. z. inca ssp. nov.

Description

Male

The FWL varies from 55 to 65 mm. The holotype FWL is 61 mm. Average P = 5.5 (n = 27; cf. Table 3). On the DFW the R5-M1 orange patch is often missing or very reduced. The other orange marks are well separated; their size is very variable; the violet iridescence is less pronounced than in E. z. inca ssp. nov.; the androconial patch is a bright creamy, pale citrus yellow ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig). The background colour of the ventral surface is generally darker than in E. z. inca ssp. nov.; the isolated white spot in the VFW cell is of medium size, more or less oval, or irregular; there is no white spot in the angle formed by the cubital vein of the VFW cell and Cu2, or it is extremely small ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig). On the VFW the two white stripes are generally separated in the cell Cu2-2A; nevertheless, the inside margin of the distal stripe forms a marked inner projection, which often connects with the outside black margin of the proximal stripe ( Fig. 4EView Fig); exceptionally (3 of 35 specimens), the projection is filled with white scales and forms a complete bridge between the two white stripes, as in E. z. casagrande ssp. nov. ( Fig. 2iView Fig). On the VHW, the white stripes extend far beyond the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus, notably the distal one, which reaches vein 2A. The dark brown lines on the VHW cell and curved line above the Cu1-Cu2 ocellus are very faint or even absent ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig). The VHW costal ocellus is circled by a clear ring contrasting with the median area; moreover, in many specimens it is widely covered with white scales ( Figs 2lView Fig, 4D-FView Fig). On average, the VHW Cu1-Cu2 ocellus (Φ average value: 10.0 mm; n = 31; cf. Table 5) is clearly smaller than in E. z. inca ssp. nov. ( Fig. 4D-FView Fig). The valva axis has no swelling, or only a weak one; the ridge more often has a pronounced swelling, bearing 2-3 very strong spines; towards the extremity, there is more often a clear gap, followed by a short distal row of short spines, the size of which reduces towards the extremity; gnathos is large, and its ventral region is strongly developed ( Fig. 12View Fig). Individual variations of the valvae have been observed within a local population, but diagnostic characters are not blurred (cf. Fig. 9View Fig).

Female

The FWL varies from 61 to 67 mm. Diagnostic characters correspond to those of the males ( Fig. 7BView Fig). The violet iridescence is limited but bright. The underside is lighter than in males. The dorsal branches of the sterigma inner projections are generally shorter than in E. z. zolvizora  and E. z. greeneyi  , and they are more separated from the internal side of the arch; nevertheless, there are individual variations, and one specimen has the sterigma similar to that of E. z. zolvizora  specimens ( Fig. 15B-HView Fig).

Flight periods

Specimens have been collected in January, March, June, July, September, October, November and December.

Distribution

Peru. E. z. chachapoya ssp. nov. is distributed from Junín Department (central Peru) to Amazonas and San Martín Departments (northern Peru).

Remarks

This taxon is created for populations from central to northern Peru, which are clearly distinct from E. z. zolvizora  and E. z. inca ssp. nov. considering wing characters as well as genitalia. Wing characters are closer to the Ecuadorian E. z. greeneyi  , but the male genitalia are clearly distinct.

MNHN

France, Paris, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

UFPC

Brazil, Parana, Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Parana

BMNH

United Kingdom, London, The Natural History Museum [formerly British Museum (Natural History)]