Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758,

Maxwell, Stephen J., Dekkers, Aart M., Rymer, Tasmin L. & Congdon, Bradley C., 2019, Laevistrombus Abbott 1960 (Gastropoda: Strombidae): Indian and southwest Pacific species, Zootaxa 4555 (4), pp. 491-506: 496-497

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4555.4.2

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scientific name

Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758
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Laevistrombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 

Figures 4View FIGURE 4 & 5 A –DView FIGURE 5

Synonymy 1758 Strombus (Ampliati) canariu Linnaeus, 10 th edn., p. 745, no. 438. = Strombus (Ampliati) canarium Linnaeus, 1767, p. 1211  , no. 507, partly. Gmelin 1791, p. 3517, no. 24, partly. = Lambis canarium Gmelin—Röding 1798, p. 65  , nos. 828 and 829. = Strombus canarium Born, 1778, p. 279  . Dillwyn 1817, p. 670. Gould 1833, p. 85. Quoy & Gaimard 1834, p. 73, no. 9, pl. 51,

fig. 10. Anton 1839, p. 85, no. 2807. Kiener 1843, p. 33, pl. 29, fig. 1. Hanley 1856, p. 124, pl. 25, fig. 27. Martens 1889,

p. 189, in part. Mohanraj et al. 2010, p. 205, pl. 1. = Gallinula canarium Linnaeus—Mörch 1852, p. 61  . = Strombus (Gallinula) canarium Linnaeus  — Adams & Adams 1858, p. 259. = Harpago canarium Linnaeus—Hanley 1860, p. 74  . = Strombus (Strombus) canarium Linnaeus  — Tryon 1885, pp. 110 and 136, pl. 2, fig. 19. = Strombus (Laevistrombus) canarium Linnaeus  — Abbott 1960, p. 48. Wagner & Abbott 1978, p. 09–653. Walls 1980, pp. 75

and 76. 1777 Alata gallinula gibba Martini, p. 107, pl. 79, fig. 818. = Strombus ( Gallinula  ) gibbus Martini—Adams & Adams 1858, p. 259. = Strombus gibbus Martini—Abbott 1960, p. 49. = Epidromis gibba Seba—Adam & Leloup 1938, p. 109. = Strombus gibbus Tapparone-Canefri—Dodge 1956, p. 275. = Strombus gibbus Issel & Tapparone-Canefri—Wagner and Abbott 1978, p. 09–654. Walls 1980, p. 189. Man in ‘T Veld & de

Turck 1998, p. 95. 1777 Alata tenuis Martini, p. 168, pl. 89, fig. 876. 1791 Strombus (Ampliati) latissimus Gmelin, 13 th edn., p. 3516, no. 21β, partly.

Linnaeus (1758) provided six literary illustrations, some of which support the hypothesis that the species intended was the Indian and Sri Lankan L. canarium  ( Figure 4View FIGURE 4). The reference to “Argenv. Conch t. 17, f. Q” is interpreted as coming from d'Argenville (1742) L’ Histoire Naturelle Eclaircie dans deux de ses Parties Principales La Lithologie et la Conchyliologie dont l’une Traite des Pierres et l’autre des Conquillages shows an illustration of L. canarium  ( Figure 4AView FIGURE 4). The final reference provided by Linnaeus is to “Klein. Ostr t. 4, f. 73” refers to Klein (1753) Tentamen Methodi Ostracologicae. This illustration differs from L. vanikorensis  in having a blunter spire and a greatly inflated body whorl, with rounded lip and no pattern, which is more indicative of L. turturella  ( Figure 4BView FIGURE 4). The Petiver (1709–1711) Catalogus Classicus and Topicus, t. 98, f. 11 reference by Linnaeus can be attributed to L. canarium  , determined by the overall shape, the shift in pattern on the presutural ramp, and the shortened spire ( Figure 4CView FIGURE 4). The reference to “Gualt. Test. t. 32, f. N” points to an image from Gualtieri (1742) Index Testarum Conchyliorum  , which shows both dorsal and ventral sides of the shell ( Figure 4DView FIGURE 4). The outer lip of this specimen is not fully calloused, but the short spire and broad and inflated body whorl indicates the Gualtieri (1742) images are illustrations of L. canarium  . Two images from Rumphius (1705, 1741) D’Amboinsche Rariteitkamer cited as “Rumph. Mus. t. 36, f. X” and “ t. 36, f. N” deal with two different species. The plate 36 figure N is probably L. vanikorensis  , given the locality of Amboina ( Ambon)  ( Figure 4EView FIGURE 4). While plate 36 figure X illustrates Dolomena septimus Duclos, 1844  which is the only non - Laevistrombus  cited by Linnaeus (1758) ( Figure 4FView FIGURE 4).

Type material. To stabilise the nomenclature we hereby select a syntype from the Linnaean Collection (London) {A – F 0 0 20064 specimen 1} lot LSL. 435, as lectotype of L. canarium Linnaeus, 1758  .

Type locality. Abbott (1960) designated for L. canarium  Ambon as the type location based on “ O. Asiae” in the Linnaeus (1758) text. However, images from the Linnaean Society Collection clearly conform to the Indian examples of L. canarium  (http://linnean-online.org/17229/ accessed 12/02/2017). Furthermore, the Ambon specimens at hand are Strombus taeniatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1834  . Therefore, we redesignate the type locality of L. canarium  to Keelamlarai, India, and base our comparisons on specimens from there.

Description. “488. S. testae labro rotundato brevi retuso, spiraque laevi ” (Linnaeus 1758, p. 745). The Strombus shell lip is round, short and blunted; the spire is smooth (Translation SM).

Distribution. Laevistrombus canarium  is restricted to India and Sri Lanka. Records: India —Keelarkarai (AMD x 4; SM x 2; TM x2); Kottaipattinam (AMD x 2); Rameswaren (AMD x 5; SM x 4). Sri Lanka — Trimcomalee (AMD x 1).