Sparianthis Simon, 1880,

Rheims, Cristina A., 2020, Revision of the spider genus Sparianthis Simon, 1880 (Araneae, Sparassidae Sparianthinae), Zootaxa 4890 (2), pp. 151-191: 153-157

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4890.2.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5EF7FF4A-0857-415F-B30F-DA2910F5B6EB

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4333404

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4E338797-8722-FFF7-D8E9-7DF6FA24F9D8

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scientific name

Sparianthis Simon, 1880
status

 

Sparianthis Simon, 1880 

Themeropis L. Koch, 1875  [preoccupied]. Keyserling 1880: 225 (in part)

Sparianthis Simon, 1880: 229  . Simon 1887: 472; 1898: 28, 70, 71, 73; Mello-Leit ã o 1918: 60; Petrunkevitch 1928: 157.

Pseudosparianthis Simon, 1887: 472  . Type species: Pseudosparianthis fusca Simon  (original designation). Simon 1898: 69–72; Mello-Leit ã o 1918: 60, 63; Petrunkevitch, 1928: 156. New synonymy

Sampaiosia Mello-Leit  ã o, 1930: 65. Type species: Sampaiosia crulsi Mello-Leit  ã o (monotypy). New synonymy

Type species Themeropis granadensis Keyserling  (original designation).

Emended diagnosis. Species of the genus Sparianthis  resemble those of the genera Diminutella  , Extraordinarius  and Neostasina  in having chelicerae with three promarginal and two retromarginal teeth ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1–6) and three pairs of ventral spines on leg tibiae I–II. They are distinguished from the latter genera in having two pairs of ventral spines on leg metatarsi I–II (one pair in the other genera). Additionally, they are distinguished from all Neotropical Sparianthinae  genera by the male palp with three prolateral spines on tibia (one in other genera) ( Figs 11View FIGURES 11–16, 26View FIGURES 26–31, 48View FIGURES 48–53) and female epigyne with median septum extending posteriorly beyond the epigastric furrow (not extending beyond the epigastric furrow in other genera) ( Figs 14View FIGURES 11–16, 36View FIGURES 32–38, 66View FIGURES 63–68).

Note. In the original description of the genus, Simon (1800) stated that teeth were absent in the retromargin of the chelicerae. Examination of the type specimens of both species included at the time ( S. granadensis  and S. amazonica  ), show that the retromargin is actually armed with two small teeth, which were overlooked by Simon.

Description. Coloration pattern generally similar in all species. Prosoma, chelicerae, legs and pedipalps varying from lighter, yellowish brown to dark brown. Opisthosoma pale to dark grayish-brown with dorsal dark gray ish-brown pattern and ventral V-shaped lines of muscle sigilla, pronounced in males, indistinct or barely distinct in females (e.g. Figs 17, 20View FIGURES 17–20, 54, 57View FIGURES 54–57, 128, 131View FIGURES 128–131). Total length of males 5.5–12.5, of females 6.1–16.0. Prosoma longer than wide; cephalic region as high as thoracic region; fovea conspicuous on posterior third of prosoma. Eight eyes arranged in two rows, both straight or slightly procurved; AME larger than ALE and farther apart from each other than from ALE; PME smaller than PLE and farther apart from each other than from PLE (e.g. Figs 17View FIGURES 17–20, 39View FIGURES 39–42, 54View FIGURES 54–57, 71View FIGURES 71–74). Clypeus low, less than AME diameter. Chelicerae longer than wide with three prolateral teeth, proximal one smallest, and two retrolateral denticles; intermarginal denticles absent; one escort seta ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1–6). Labium slightly longer than wide. Endites converging anteriorly, with dense scopulae on internal margin. Serrula with single row of denticles ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1–6). Sternum longer than wide, very slightly projected between coxae IV (e.g. Figs 18View FIGURES 17–20, 40View FIGURES 39–42, 87View FIGURES 86–89). Legs laterigrade; leg formula variable, mostly 2143. Trochanter with distal ventral margin straight. Metatarsi I–IV distally with trilobate membrane with median hook much smaller than lateral projections ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1–6). Metatarsi III–IV with distal ventral preening comb ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1–6) or single median spine. Tarsi and anterior half of metatarsi scopulate. Trichobothria present on dorsal tibiae, metatarsi and tarsi, arranged in several rows that converge to single row at proximal end of tarsi and metatarsi. Bothrium with proximal plate (PP), with several transverse ridges, projected over distal plate (DP) with single transverse ridge; setae base thickened in basal bulb ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 1–6). Tarsal organ capsulate with keyhole opening, located at distal end of tarsi ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 1–6). Tarsi with pair of pectinate claws with 7–9 small, slightly curved teeth and claw tufts ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 7–10). Leg spination pattern in males: femora I–III: p1-1-1, d0-1-1, r1-0-1; femur IV: p1-1-1, d0-1-1; r0-0-1; tibiae I–II: p1-0-1, r1-0-1, v2-2-2; tibiae III–IV: p1-0-1, d1-0-1, r1-0-1, v2-2-2; metatarsi I–III: p1-1-0, r1-1-0, v2-2-0; metatarsus IV: p1-1-1, r1-1-1, v2-2-0; in females: femora I–III p1-1-1, d0- 0-1, r1-0-0; femur IV: p1-1-1, d0-1-1, r0-0-1; tibiae I–II v2-2-2; tibia III p1-0-1, v2-2-2; tibia IV p1-0-1, r1-0-1, v 2-2-2; metatarsi I–II v2-2-0; metatarsus III p1-1-0, v2-2-0; metatarsus IV p1-1-1, r1-1-1, v2-2-0. Opisthosoma oval, longer than wide. Male epiandrous spigots absent ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 7–10). Six spinnerets: ALS contiguous, conical and bisegmented. Proximal segment elongate and cylindrical, distal segment short and truncated. PMS conical and short. PLS conical and bi-segmented. Proximal segment elongate and cylindrical, distal segment short and truncated. Female palp spination: femur: p0-0-1; d0-1-2; tibia p2-1-0; d0-1-0; r1-1-0; tarsus with single, pectinate claw, with 4–5 short, slightly curved teeth ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 7–10). Male palp spination: femur: p0-0-1; d0-1-2; tibia p2-1-0; tibia short, as long as or slightly longer than half cymbium length, prolateral spines long, 10–15 times longer than wide ( Figs 11View FIGURES 11–16, 63View FIGURES 63–68, 114View FIGURES 114–116) or short, up to 8 times longer than wide ( Figs 26View FIGURES 26–31, 48View FIGURES 48–53, 80View FIGURES 80–85); retrolateral spine strong, wider than prolaterals ( Figs 99View FIGURES 97–101, 104View FIGURES 102–108, 121View FIGURES 117–121, 124View FIGURES 122–127) or absent (e.g. Figs 13View FIGURES 11–16, 34View FIGURES 32–38, 82View FIGURES 80–85); RTA complex with three branches; dRTA triangular and concave in ventral view (mostly obscured by cymbium margin in ventral view), arising from distal retrolateral margin of tibia; vRTA slightly displaced, arising medial-ventrally from tibia; mRTA of variable shape arising retrolaterally from tibia, close to dRTA (e.g. Figs 13View FIGURES 11–16, 65View FIGURES 63–68), close to vRTA (e.g. Figs 28View FIGURES 26–31, 34View FIGURES 32–38, 104View FIGURES 102–108) or absent (e.g. Fig. 82View FIGURES 80–85); cymbium with bulged retro-proximal margin, large oval alveolus and rounded dorsal scopulae with distally curved sensory setae, at least ½ times longer than other cymbium setae, with tapering barbules along entire setae, and with distal region bearing large pore and single filiform projection, extending beyond tip of setae ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 7–10); subtegulum cup-shaped, visible retrolaterally in ventral view in unexpanded palp; tegulum distally plate-like, with (e.g. Figs 12View FIGURES 11–16, 27View FIGURES 26–31, 49View FIGURES 48–53) or without ( Figs 115View FIGURES 114–116, 123View FIGURES 122–127) retro-basal protrusion; TBE with large squared base (reduced in S. juruti  sp. nov., Fig 105View FIGURES 102–108) and apical projection of variable shapes (e.g. Figs 64View FIGURES 63–68, 115View FIGURES 114–116, 138View FIGURES 137–142); TBC keel-like (e.g. Figs 12View FIGURES 11–16, 64View FIGURES 63–68, 138View FIGURES 137–142), protruding at retrolateral end in some species ( Figs 115View FIGURES 114–116, 123View FIGURES 122–127); conductor 2–3 times longer than wide, hyaline, laminar, holding the tip of the embolus, arising from tegulum at 1 o’clock position; median apophysis cup-shaped, with distal margin medially indented, arising from tegulum at 2–3 o’clock position; embolus arising from tegulum at 9 o’clock position, simple and slender (e.g. Figs 12View FIGURES 11–16, 27View FIGURES 26–31, 49View FIGURES 48–53, 138View FIGURES 137–142), widened (e.g. Figs 33View FIGURES 32–38, 81View FIGURES 80–85), or with projections ( Figs. 35View FIGURES 32–38, 105View FIGURES 102–108). Female epigyne: divided into lateral lobes and median septum by lateral furrows; epigynal field bearing transversal furrow on anterior part, with lateral tips gently curved (e.g. Figs 14View FIGURES 11–16, 51View FIGURES 48–53, 66View FIGURES 63–68) or extending posteriorly, forming anterior atrium of variable shape (e.g. Figs 29View FIGURES 26–31, 36View FIGURES 32–38, 83View FIGURES 80–85); lateral lobes ventrally smooth or with secondary furrow that extends towards anterior furrow (in S. chickeringi  , Fig. 51View FIGURES 48–53), posterior margin bearing triangular projections; median septum of variable shape, extending posteriorly beyond epigastric furrow. Vulva: internal ducts variable, with first turn anteriad (e.g. Figs 15View FIGURES 11–16, 30View FIGURES 26–31, 52View FIGURES 48–53), mediad (e.g. Figs 37View FIGURES 32–38, 84View FIGURES 80–85, 91View FIGURES 90–92), posteriad ( Fig. 107View FIGURES 102–108) or laterad ( Fig. 126View FIGURES 122–127); glandular projection small, arising from duct at first turn (e.g. Figs 15View FIGURES 11–16, 52View FIGURES 48–53, 141View FIGURES 137–142) or closer to copulatory openings (e.g. Figs 107View FIGURES 102–108, 126View FIGURES 122–127); spermathecae of variable shape; fertilization ducts short and hook-shaped.

Composition. Twelve species: Sparianthis beebei  sp. nov.; S. boraris  sp. nov.; S. caracarai  sp. nov.; S. chickeringi ( Gertsch, 1941)  comb. nov.; S. crulsi  (Mello-Leit ã o, 1930) comb. nov.; S. granadensis ( Keyserling, 1880)  ; S. humaita  sp. nov.; S. juazeiro  sp. nov.; S. juruti  sp. nov.; S. megalopalpa ( Caporiacco, 1954)  comb. nov.; S. picta ( Simon, 1887)  comb. nov.; and S. ravida ( Simon, 1898)  comb. nov..

Distribution. Neotropical region, northern South America, Panama and the isles of St. Vincent and Trinidad ( Figs 143–144View FIGURES 143–144).

Monophyly and relationships. In the absence of a phylogenetic analysis, not much can be said about the relationships between Sparianthis  and the remaining Sparianthinae  genera. The presence of two pairs of ventral spines on metatarsi I–II and three spines on prolateral male palpal tibia suggest a close relationship with the non-Neotropical genera Pleorotus  , Rhacocnemis  and Stipax  . Nevertheless, cheliceral dentition (three prolateral and two retrolateral teeth), three pairs of ventral spines on tibiae I–II, as well as a hyaline conductor in the male palp suggests it is most likely closer to the Neotropical Neostasina  and Diminutella  . Even more so, the similarities between the male palps of species of Sparianthis  and Neostasina  (with the presence of a bulged retro-proximal margin of the cymbium and a retro-proximal protrusion in the tegulum) suggest they might be closely related genera genera. Nevertheless, further phylogenetic studies will be needed to clarify the position of the genus within the subfamily and corroborate these suggestions.

The monophyly of Sparianthis  , on the other hand, seems to be well substantiated. As pointed out in previous taxonomical papers dealing with Sparianthinae  genera (e.g. Rheims & Alayón 2016; Rheims 2019), species tend to be conservative and rarely deviate from the generic bauplan. In the case of Sparianthis  , both male and female genitalia show characters that are not found in other Sparianthinae  genera, such as the TBE with large squared base and apical projection, TBC keel-like, vRTA arising medial-ventrally from the palpal tibia and the presence of an anterior atrium in the female epigyne. Based on these characters, I am convinced that this is a distinct lineage within Sparianthinae  and that future phylogenetic studies will corroborate its generic status.

Identification key for all known species of Sparianthis 

1 Males .............................................................................................. 2

- Females........................................................................................... 11

2(1) Palpal tibia with medial-retrolateral, strong spine ( Figs 104View FIGURES 102–108, 124View FIGURES 122–127)............................................... 3

- Palpal tibia without medial-retrolateral, strong spine ( Figs 13View FIGURES 11–16, 23View FIGURES 21–25, 50View FIGURES 48–53)............................................ 4

3(2) Medial-retrolateral spine two times longer than wide; TBE small, triangular, with apical projection (ap) short and laminar; embolus with subdistal pointed projection ( Figs. 102–105View FIGURES 102–108)....................................... S. juruti  sp. nov.

- Medial-retrolateral spine at least three times longer than wide; TBE squared, with apical projection widened and twisted; embolus short, with wide ventral hyaline membrane ( Figs 123–124View FIGURES 122–127)................................ S. picta  comb. nov.

4(2) mRTA present; embolus slender, not abruptly narrowed medially (e.g. Figs 28View FIGURES 26–31, 50View FIGURES 48–53)................................. 5

- mRTA absent; embolus wider at base and abruptly narrowed medially ( Fig. 82View FIGURES 80–85)..................... S. humaita  sp. nov.

5(4) mRTA larger than dRTA ( Figs 28View FIGURES 26–31, 116View FIGURES 114–116).................................................................... 6

- mRTA smaller than dRTA (e.g. Figs 13View FIGURES 11–16, 34View FIGURES 32–38, 50View FIGURES 48–53)............................................................. 7

6(5) vRTA single branched; mRTA bifid (best seen in retrolateral view); TBC with retrolateral part protruding distally; TBE with apical projection long, cylindrical, widened at tip and with subapical prong ( Figs 115–116View FIGURES 114–116).... S. megalopalpa  comb. nov.

- vRTA bifid (best seen in retrolateral view); mRTA single branched; TBC keel-like, not protruding; TBE simple, with apical projection short and laminar ( Figs 27–28View FIGURES 26–31)................................................... S. boraris  sp. nov.

7(5) mRTA arising at base of dRTA ( Figs 13View FIGURES 11–16, 65View FIGURES 63–68)................................................................ 8 mRTA arising medially from retrolateral tibia, closer to vRTA (e.g. Figs 50View FIGURES 48–53, 104View FIGURES 102–108, 139View FIGURES 137–142).............................. 9

8(7) TBE with apical projection short and laminar ( Fig. 64View FIGURES 63–68)........................................ S. crulsi  comb. nov.

- TBE with apical projection resembling a fishtail ( Figs 12–13View FIGURES 11–16)................................... S. beebei  sp. nov.

9(7) Embolus simple, slender, with no projections or small sub-apical tooth-like projection ( Figs 49View FIGURES 48–53, 138View FIGURES 137–142)................. 10

- Embolus wide, with subapical keel-like projection ( Figs 33, 35View FIGURES 32–38)................................ S. caracarai  sp. nov.

10(9) TBE with apical projection short and laminar; TBC wide, keel-like, embolus with small sub-apical tooth-like projection ( Figs 138–139View FIGURES 137–142)........................................................................... S. ravida  comb. nov.

- TBE with apical projection gutter-shaped; TBC reduced to small keel, embolus with no projections ( Figs 49–50View FIGURES 48–53)......................................................................................... S. chickeringi  comb. nov.

11(1) Anterior furrow with lateral tips extending posteriorly, forming anterior atrium (e.g. Figs 29View FIGURES 26–31, 70View FIGURES 69–70, 83View FIGURES 80–85).................. 12

- Anterior furrow with lateral tips gently curved or straight, not extending posteriorly (e.g. Figs 14View FIGURES 11–16, 51View FIGURES 48–53, 66View FIGURES 63–68).............. 18

12(11) Anterior atrium with transversal grooves ( Figs 83View FIGURES 80–85, 106View FIGURES 102–108)..................................................... 13

- Anterior atrium smooth (e.g. Figs 29View FIGURES 26–31, 125View FIGURES 122–127, 140View FIGURES 137–142)............................................................ 14

13(12) Anterior atrium anteriorly rounded ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 102–108); vulva with internal ducts slender, half the width of spermathecae; first turn posteriad ( Figs. 107–108View FIGURES 102–108).................................................................... S. juruti  sp. nov.

- Anterior atrium pentagonal ( Fig. 83View FIGURES 80–85); internal ducts thick, as wide as spermathecae; first turn laterad ( Figs 84–85View FIGURES 80–85)............................................................................................. S. humaita  sp. nov.

14(12) Anterior atrium wider than long; median septum light bulb-shaped ( Figs 70View FIGURES 69–70, 125View FIGURES 122–127)................................. 15

- Anterior atrium as wide as long or slightly longer than wide, median septum not light bulb-shaped ( Figs 29View FIGURES 26–31, 36View FIGURES 32–38, 140View FIGURES 137–142).... 16

15(14) Anterior atrium oval; leg metatarsi I–II with three pairs of ventral spines ( Fig. 125View FIGURES 122–127)................. S. picta  comb. nov.

- Anterior atrium sub-rectangular ( Figs 69–70View FIGURES 69–70); leg metatarsi I–II with two pairs of ventral spines.......... S. granadensis 

16(14) Anterior atrium as large as or slightly larger than median septum ( Figs 29View FIGURES 26–31, 140View FIGURES 137–142); internal ducts slender, half spermathecae width; first turn anteriad ( Figs 30View FIGURES 26–31, 141View FIGURES 137–142)........................................................................ 17

- Anterior atrium smaller than median septum ( Fig. 36View FIGURES 32–38); ducts as wide as spermathecae; first turn mediad ( Figs 37–38View FIGURES 32–38).......................................................................................... S. caracarai  sp. nov.

17(16) Median septum anteriorly narrowed, with posterior margin straight or slightly sinuous ( Fig. 140View FIGURES 137–142); spermathecae rounded ( Fig. 141View FIGURES 137–142)............................................................................... S. ravida  comb. nov.

- Median septum widest anteriorly, with posterior margin rounded ( Fig. 29View FIGURES 26–31); spermathecae elongate ( Fig. 30View FIGURES 26–31)... S. boraris  sp. nov.

18(11) Lateral furrows reaching anterior furrow ( Figs 14View FIGURES 11–16, 51View FIGURES 48–53, 90View FIGURES 90–92).................................................... 19

- Lateral furrows distinctly separated from anterior furrow ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 63–68).............................. S. crulsi  comb. nov.

19(18) Anterior furrow straight or with gently bent lateral tips; lateral lobes smooth ( Figs 14View FIGURES 11–16, 90View FIGURES 90–92).......................... 20

- Anterior furrow medially indented; lateral lobes bearing secondary furrows ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 48–53).......... S. chickeringi  comb. nov.

20(19) Median septum cup-shaped, constricted at posterior fourth ( Fig. 14View FIGURES 11–16); internal ducts with first turn anteriad; spermathecae rounded ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 11–16)........................................................................ S. beebei  sp. nov.

- Median septum hour glass-shaped, medially constricted ( Fig. 90View FIGURES 90–92); internal ducts with first turn mediad; spermathecae oval ( Fig. 91View FIGURES 90–92)..................................................................................................................................................................................... S. juazeiro  sp. nov.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Sparassidae

Loc

Sparianthis Simon, 1880

Rheims, Cristina A. 2020
2020
Loc

Pseudosparianthis

Petrunkevitch, A. 1928: 156
Simon, E. 1898: 69
Simon, E. 1887: 472
1887
Loc

Themeropis L. Koch, 1875

Keyserling, E. 1880: 225
1880
Loc

Sparianthis

Petrunkevitch, A. 1928: 157
Simon, E. 1898: 28
Simon, E. 1887: 472
Simon, E. 1880: 229
1880