Magnolia quetzal A.Vázquez, Véliz & Tribouillier, 2013

Vázquez-García, J. Antonio, Véliz-Pérez, Mario Esteban, Tribouillier-Navas, Erick & Muñiz-Castro, Miguel A., 2013, Magnolia quetzal and Magnolia mayae, a new species and a new record, respectively, for the flora of Guatemala, Phytotaxa 76 (1), pp. 1-6 : 2

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.76.1.1


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Magnolia quetzal A.Vázquez, Véliz & Tribouillier

sp. nov.

Magnolia quetzal A.Vázquez, Véliz & Tribouillier View in CoL , sp. nov. ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 )

Type:— GUATEMALA. Quiché: Municipio Chajul, Finca La Perla, 1585 m, 15°36'22.1907" N, 91°6'45.7700"W, en bosque nuboso dominado por Pseudolmedia glabrata y Guatteria grandiflora , 7 October 2012 (fl & fr), Tribouillier & Pedro 664 (holotype BIGU, isotype IBUG).

Diagnosis: —In terms of leaf size and low carpel number, it is similar to M. morii ( Lozano-Contreras (1994: 113) Govaerts in Frodin & Govaerts (1996: 71), from Panama and Costa Rica; however, it differs from the latter in having much larger flowers (3.4–3.8 versus 1.3 cm), thinner leaf blades (chartaceous and acute at the base versus coriaceous and cuneate at the base), usually longer petioles (2.5–5.0 versus 3.0– 3.5 cm), greater number of stamens (42 versus 24), larger fruits (7.0–7.5 × 3.2–3.5 versus 3.8 × 0.9 cm) and larger number of carpels (8–10 versus 6).

Trees (5–) 8–20 m, 15–48(–80) cm diameter, twig internodes (0.40–)1.70–2.30 × 0.25–0.40 cm, glabrous; leaf blades (7.5–)15.0–20.0 × 6.9–8.1 cm, elliptic to lanceolate, occasionally obovate, acute at the base, apex usually acute, occasionally obtuse and rarely emarginate, glabrous at both surfaces, chartaceous; petioles 2.5–5.0 × 0.1–0.7 cm, glabrous, secondary nerves 8–9; flower length 3.4–3.8 cm; sepals 3, oblong-obovate, concave, gradually attenuate at base, the base 0.6 cm wide; petals 6, 3.4–3.8 × 1.9–2.0 cm, obovate, concave, abruptly attenuate at base, the bases 0.4–0.5 cm wide, white to pinkish; gynoecium 2.10 × 1.25 cm, white, with glabrous beaked carpels; stamens 42, 7.5 × 1.9–2.0 mm, linear, obtuse at the apex; fruit 7.0–7.5 × 3.2–3.5 cm, green, glabrous, fruit axis 3.4–4.7 × 0.9 cm; carpels 8–10, 3.5–4.5 × 1.1–1.6 cm, beaked, glabrous, vshaped after dehiscence, lateral walls wing-like, extending horizontally; seeds 10.0–11.0 × 5.5–6.0 mm, prismatic-triangular, covered with a scarlet red sarcotesta, dark maroon to black without sarcotesta, opaque.

Phenology:— Flowering from March to April and fruiting in May, occasional flowers and fruits may occur during the summer (June–August) and early autumn (September–October).

Distribution ecology, ethnobotany and conservation status:—Known only from Quiché, Mpio. Chajul ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ), growing between 1300 and 2100 m, in bosque nuboso (cloud forest) with Hieronyma oblonga Müll.Arg. , Alfaroa guatemalensis (Standl.) L.O.Williams & Ant.Molina , Pseudolmedia glabrata (Liebm.) C.C.Berg , Vochysia guatemalensis Standl. , Persea spp ., Guatteria grandiflora Donn.Sm. , Cyathea divergens var. tuerckheimii (Maxon) R.M.Tryon and Geonoma undata Klotsch. Magnolia quetzal seems to be confined to an area of 4 km 2, within communal forests; however, it should be looked for in the neighboring Visis Cabá Biosphere Reserve. The species has an aggregated pattern. Germination takes nearly 40 days, and the pattern of its density includes a) seedlings 104/ha, b) saplings 28/ha and c) adult trees 26/ha, the later> 10 cm dbh. This species is locally known as “limoncillo” and is largely used for firewood. The species is threatened due to forest conversion to agriculture; it is currently being propagated at the Finca-Panchita Nursery in Chajul to aid in reforestation with native species.

Eponymy:— The epithet refers to the spectacular national bird of Guatemala, a species of trogon highly regarded among Mesoamerican cultures by pre-Columbian Quiche Mayas, in a region where this tree species is endemic; coincidently, this Magnolia species shares the three basic colors of quetzal feathers: green (fruit and leaves), white (petals and sepals) and red (sarcotesta of seeds). In addition, the name also refers to the son of the first author, Antonio Quetzalcóatl Vázquez González.

Additional specimens examined:— GUATEMALA. Quiché: Mpio. Chajul, Finca La Perla , 15°36'18.9752" N, 91°6'40.5209"W, 1643 m elevation, 21 March 2009 (fl), Tribouillier 355 ( BIGU) GoogleMaps ; same locality, 1600 m elevation, 15°36'18.9756" N, 91°6'40.5180"W, 21 March 2009 (fl), Tribouillier & Pedro 332, 339 ( BIGU) GoogleMaps ; same locality, 2 May 2009 (fr), Tribouillier & Pedro 549 ( BIGU) GoogleMaps .

Notes: —Using the key provided below, M. quetzal can be identified within the context of other oligocarpic (10 carpels or less) species of section Talauma subsection Talauma in Mesoamerica: M. cochranii A.Vázquez (2012: 96) , from Honduras; M. chiriquiensis A.Vázquez (2012: 94) from Panama, and M. morii from Panama ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Magnolia quetzal has the largest fruits (7.0– 7.5 cm) in this group.


Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala


Universidad de Guadalajara

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