Dragmacidon durissimum ( Dendy, 1905 )

Alvarez, Belinda, De Voogd, Nicole J. & Soest, Van, 2016, Sponges of the family Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) in Indonesia, Zootaxa 4137 (4), pp. 451-477 : 460

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4137.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:55CA5F98-BBD2-41DC-974B-B904DE47B5BC

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5621784

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/4B1187F3-FFEF-F72A-FF70-C5F1BFDCC48B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Dragmacidon durissimum ( Dendy, 1905 )
status

 

Dragmacidon durissimum ( Dendy, 1905)

( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 , 6 View FIGURE 6 )

Thrinacophora durissima Dendy, 1905: 187

Sigmaxinella durissima .— Dendy 1922: 113

Axinella durissima .— Burton 1959: 259

Dragmacidon durissima .— Hallmann 1917: 639; Alvarez & Hooper 2002: 735 Dragmacidon durissimum .— Alvarez & Hooper 2009: 28

Material examined. ZMA Por. 0 0 460, Philippines, Sulu Archipelago, anchorage off N Ubian, Sulu Islands, 6.125 °N, 120.433 °E, 23 m depth, 28 June 1899, coll. Siboga Expedition. ZMA Por. 0 0 461, Indonesia, Banda anchorage, Maluku, 4.5398 °S, 129.9084 °E, 9 m depth, 22 November 1899, coll. Siboga Expedition. ZMA Por. 18621, Thailand, Ko Thai-ta-Mun, South of Ko Si-chang, Chonburi, Chon Buri, 13.1024 °N, 100.8077 °E, 5 m depth, 19 September 2001, coll. Sumaitt Putchakarn.

Description. Shape ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A). Massive, hemispherical.

Colour. Beige in ethanol.

Oscula. Inconspicuous, flushed, irregularly distributed, up to 5 mm diameter.

Surface. Papillose, uniformly covered with small short processes, blunt, with a dermal membrane stretching over conules.

Skeleton ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 B). Plumoreticulated with multispicular tracts, packed with spicules in all directions, vaguely plumose or plumo-echinated, 150–350 µm thick, connected by shorter and thick tracts nearly at right angles, forming an irregular reticulation of oval and large meshes. Main tracts projecting through surface and ending in surface conules or short processes.

Spicules ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 C–D, Table 5). Oxeas, 247.8–381 µm x 8.7–19 µm; Styles 196.3–370 µm x 8.9–20.7 µm; trichodragmata up to 15 um long, rare ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 C).

Specimen Locality Oxeas Styles Tricodragmata

ZMA Por. 460 Philippines 247.8–364.1 µm 196.3–338.4 µm ~ 15 x 5–10 µm

(320.8 ± 28.1) (274.7 ± 34.3)

x 8.7–16 µm (12.8 ± 1.8) x 8.9–20.7 µm (14.1 ± 2.7)

ZMA Por. 461 Maluku 283–381 µm (334.7 ± 21.2) 241.2–370.7 µm

(292.5 ± 30.9)

x 10.3–19 µm (12.5 ± 1.9) x 9.7–18.2 µm (13.5 ± 2.1)

ZMA Por. 18621 Thailand 232.6–361.5 µm 182.8–547.6 µm

(298.7 ± 34.7) (322.4 ± 79.3)

x 9.7–16.9 µm (13.4 ± 1.7) x 8.3–18.8 µm (14.4 ± 2.8)

QM G 300181 * Ashmore Reef, 229.8–312.7 µm (283.2 ± 18) 203.1–312.5 µm 15– 20 x 5–10 µm

WA by 7.4–19 µm (13.4 ± 3.1) (251.8 ± 33.4) by 11.7–

16.4µm (13.7 ± 1.2)

*Data from Alvarez & Hooper (2009)

Remarks. The material examined agrees in all its characteristics with Dragmacidon durissimum . It is very similar to D. austral e, in external and skeletal characteristics but can be differentiated from it by the presence of trichodragmata. As previously indicated ( Alvarez & Hooper 2009) these species are similar to the Western Atlantic D. reticulatum and the West African D. lunaecharta ( Ridley & Dendy, 1886) which are also distinguished by the presence of trichodragmata in the latter.

Distribution. Based on the material examined the distribution of Dragmacidon durissimum can be extended to Indonesia (i.e MEOW Banda Sea), Philippines (i.e. MEOW Palawan/ North Borneo) and Gulf of Thailand ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). These and records from Alvarez & Hooper (2009) indicate that this Indian Ocean species, has a wider distribution than previously thought.

ZMA

Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Halichondrida

Family

Axinellidae

Genus

Dragmacidon

Loc

Dragmacidon durissimum ( Dendy, 1905 )

Alvarez, Belinda, De Voogd, Nicole J. & Soest, Van 2016
2016
Loc

Axinella durissima

Burton 1959: 259
1959
Loc

Sigmaxinella durissima

Dendy 1922: 113
1922
Loc

Dragmacidon durissima

Alvarez 2009: 28
Alvarez 2002: 735
Hallmann 1917: 639
1917
Loc

Thrinacophora durissima

Dendy 1905: 187
1905