Hylomyrma margaridae Ulysséa, Ulyssea, 2021Hylomyrma mariae Ulysséa, Ulyssea, 2021Hylomyrma marielleae Ulysséa, Ulyssea, 2021

Ulysséa, Mônica Antunes, 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Hylomyrma Forel, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), with the description of fourteen new species, Zootaxa 5055 (1), pp. 1-137: 72-80

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5055.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C00259C2-CB84-42EA-AB16-38DD47153DC6

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5588530

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4A4D4F09-FFEF-FFE2-F0A5-F494FD6BFE48

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hylomyrma margaridae Ulysséa Hylomyrma mariae Ulysséa Hylomyrma marielleae Ulysséa
status

new species

Hylomyrma margaridae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 48 View FIGURE 48 , 49 View FIGURE 49 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Holotype: GUYANA: Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo: Acarai Mts., nr. New Romeo Camp , 1038m, 58°57.876′W, 1°20.066′N, 14.x.2006, T.R. Schultz, J. Sosa-Calvo, C.J. Marshall, R. Williams, 1° forest, leaf litter, Winkler sample, JSC061014- LS04 (1W) (USNMENT00688842) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (1W) (USNMENT00688836 MZHY195) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (2W 1Q, one worker covered with gold) (USNMENT00688820, USNMENT00688844, USNMENT00688842) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; same except 1050m, 58°57.876′W, 1°20.048′N, JSC061014-LS03 (1W) (USNMENT00688740) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps   FRENCH GUIANA: [Cayenne: Saint-Élie], Nouragues Station , FT2-Transition For., 4°09′N, 52°68′O, ix.2009, Sarah Groc & al, #5635, FT2 Tr5 W29 (1Q) ( MZSP67391 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; [Saint-Laurent-du-Maroni: Maripasoula], Mitaraka Mts, Plateau , 2.233158N - 54.44381W, 27.ii.2015, J. Orivel & F. Petitclerc cols., winkler 48h, C-P7-3, MI15-0079-15 (1W) ( MZSP67392 View Materials ) [ MZSP]. GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between striae smooth, striae crest punctuated; mesosoma covered with regular, longitudinal, parallel and thick striae; longitudinal striae on lateral of pronotum, mesepisternum and propodeum directed to propodeal spine; dorsal margin of petiole continuous, strongly convex; spiniform projection on mesoventral surface of petiole; node rounded with transverse striae anteriorly and longitudinal striae posteriorly on dorsum; subpostpetiolar process smooth, prominent, subtriangular; profemur posterior surface and protibia extensor surface mostly smooth, with few striae on basal and apical regions; striation on tergum of first gastral segment restricted to base.

Description. WORKER (n=3) ( Fig. 48A–C View FIGURE 48 ): HL (0.85–0.88); HW (0.79–0.82); ML (0.53–0.55); SL (0.58–0.59); MOD (0.20–0.21); PNW (0.58); WL (1.12–1.18); PSL (0.14–0.16); PL (0.53–0.57); PW (0.21–0.22); PPL (0.32– 0.34); PPW (0.29–0.30); GL (0.86–0.98); TL (4.21–4.50); CI (92.94–94.25); SI (71.95–73.41); OI (25.31–25.61). Small-sized. Shiny integument. Brownish body, darker gaster, yellowish appendices. Few thin and unbranched setae, long to midsized, suberect to subdecumbent.

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight. Mandible masticatory margin with 5 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of small teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 8–9 striae, regular to irregular, longitudinal, converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1 stria subdivided towards the posterior margin. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere of similar size or slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina straight. Eye dropshaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 9 ommatidia. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces smooth, striae with punctuated crests. Head laterodorsal sculpture converges to mandible insertion region; head lateral sculpture converges to eye margin; gena striate, 2–3 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with regular and longitudinal striae, thicker than head striation, transverse on pronotum anterior region (DV), longitudinal in the other regions (DV); longitudinal striae on lateral of pronotum, mesepisternum and propodeum directed to propodeal spine. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma continuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth longer and with rounded tip; ventral tooth shorter and blunt; dorsal tooth length similar to propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine short, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur and protibia mostly smooth, few striae on basal and apical regions.

Dorsal margin of petiole continuous, strongly convex; smooth spiniform projection on mesoventral surface; ventral surface smooth; first third of dorsal surface and parts of lateral surface smooth, other regions mostly striate, transverse and longitudinal striae. Longitudinal striae on postpetiole; subpostpetiolar process well-developed, subtriangular, smooth.

Tergum first gastral segment striation similar to that of postpetiole; striae short, restricted to base, length shorter than 1 / 4 of postpetiole length; sternum smooth.

QUEEN (n=2) ( Fig. 49A–C View FIGURE 49 ): HL (0.82–0.90); HW (0.80–0.86); ML (0.52–0.58); SL (0.54–0.60); MOD (0.24– 0.26); PNW (0.65–0.70); WL (1.20–1.36); PSL (0.20–0.22); PL (0.58–0.63); PW (0.24–0.26); PPL (0.36–0.38); PPW (0.33–0.34); GL (1.04–1.16); TL (4.52–5.01); CI (95.55–97.56); SI (67.50–69.76); OI (30–30.23). Small to midsized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 12 ommatidia. Anepisternum, katepisternum, axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with longitudinal and regular striae directed to propodeal spine, interspaces distinguishable. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet margaridae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Margarida Maria Alves (1933–1983), a Brazilian trade unionist and precursor in defending the rights of rural workers in Paraíba, northeast region of Brazil —“ Da luta   eu não fujo. É melhor morrer na luta   do que morrer de fome ”. Margarida was murdered for her activism on the 12 of August. Since the year 2000, thousands of women from all of the regions of the country gather every two years in a march for the equal rights for rural women that bears her name—“ Marcha das Margaridas ”.

Comments. This species can be misidentified mainly as H. peetersi   and H. villemantae   . The three species are allopatric; H. villemantae   occurs in one locality in northeastern Brazil (BA) ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ), H. margaridae   occurs in Guyana and French Guiana ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), and H. peetersi   in areas near the Guyana - Venezuela border ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Hylomyrma margaridae   can be distinguished from H. peetersi   (characteristic in parentheses) in the striae on the laterals of mesosoma that are directed transversely towards the propodeal spine (vs. directed to the propodeal dorsum), the mesoventral surface of petiole armed with a conspicuous spine (vs. a subtriangular projection), the petiolar dorsum covered with both transverse and logitudinal striae (vs. entirely covered with transverse striae), and the prominent subpostpetiolar process (vs. weak). Hylomyrma margaridae   can be distinguished from H. villemantae   in the striae on the head dorsum with punctuated crests (vs. with smooth crests), the mesosoma longitudinally striate (vs. with few elliptical and concentric striae), the shorter propodeal spine (vs. longer), the armed mesoventral surface of petiole (vs. unarmed), and the smooth dorsum of postpetiole and gaster (vs. striate).

Hylomyrma margaridae   and H. lopesi   have similar shape and sculpture of the mesosoma. Nevertheless, H. margaridae   has a reniform eye (vs. oval eye of H. lopesi   ), the striae on the head dorsum with punctuated crests (vs. with smooth crests), and the continuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. discontinuous). The two species are allopatric ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ); H. margaridae   occurs in Guyana and French Guiana, and H. lopesi   in Brazil.

Regarding morphological variation, the queen collected in French Guiana has the petiolar node covered with concentric striae that circumscribe its anterodorsal, lateral and posterior regions.

Distribution. This species is known from the southern part of the Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo region in Guyana, and from the Réserve Naturelle Nationale des Nouragues, in the central region of French Guiana ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species has been recorded with winkler extractors in forested areas at high elevations ranging from 1038 to 1050 m in Guyana and at lower elevations in French Guiana (Nouragues Station is located at about 124 m and Mitaraka Mountain at 554 m).

Hylomyrma mariae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 50 View FIGURE 50 , 88 View FIGURE 88 (map)

Holotype: COLOMBIA: [Magdalena]: Cincinnati, Feby 1924, W.M. Mann (1W) [ USNM]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (3W) [ CASC, DZUP, IHVL]; (2W, one covered with gold) ( MZSP67393 View Materials , MZHY205) [ MZSP]; (4W) [ USNM]; San Pedro de La Sierra — Pico Yerbabuena, C. Kugler col., 2200m, berlesate rot. wood & humus, 18.feb.77, vial 13 (1W) [ MCZC]; same except 1730m, berlesate humus & lf. Litter, 18.feb.77 (1Q) [ MCZC]   .

Diagnosis. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum diverge towards posterior margin; rugose striae on mesosoma and petiole; promesonotal junction and metanotal groove distinguishable by a slight depression (LV) and altered sculpture (DV); dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; subtriangular projection on mesoventral surface of petiole; node ventral surface striate transversely; profemur posterior surface entirely striate; striae transverse and well-marked; protibia extensor surface entirely striate, striae weakly marked; long striae on first gastral tergite.

Description. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 50A–C View FIGURE 50 ): HL (0.99–1.04); HW (0.92–0.96); ML (0.60–0.65); SL (0.65–0.68); MOD (0.20–0.22); PNW (0.64–0.68); WL (1.26–1.32); PSL (0.32–0.37); PL (0.62–0.64); PW (0.25–0.27); PPL (0.30–0.32); PPW (0.34–0.36); GL (1.04–1.30); TL (4.85–5.23); CI (91.34–94.11); SI (69.47–70.83); OI (20.83– 23.91). Midsized. Shiny integument. Light brown body, darker gaster, yellowish leg. Thin and unbranched setae, long to midsized, suberect to subdecumbent.

Head subquadrate; posterior margin slightly concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus slightly convex medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 8–10 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 2–3 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye dropshaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Head lateral and laterodorsal regions with irregular striae converging to eye margin; rugose striae on anterior part of laterodorsal region; gena striate, 3–4 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with rugose striae of uniform thickness, mostly transverse on pronotum anterior region (DV), longitudinal in other regions (DV)., interspaces between rugose striae smooth. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove distinguishable by a slight depression (LV) and altered sculpture (DV). Transverse carina inconspicuous. Dorsal margin of mesosoma slightly discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and sharper than shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length around 1 /2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine long, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur ventral surface smooth, transverse striae well-marked on posterior surface; apical region of anterior and dorsal surfaces with irregular striae. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous. Subtriangular projection on mesoventral surface of petiole. Convex node; transverse striae on ventral and anterior surfaces weakly marked; rugose striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces. Postpetiole and subpostpetiolar process with regular and longitudinal striae; subpostpetiolar process weak, convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; longitudinal striae on tergum slightly longer than postpetiole length; sternite entirely striate on basal region.

QUEEN (n=1): HL 1.06; HW 1.01; ML 0.66; SL 0.70; MOD 0.24; PNW 0.80; WL 1.50; PSL 0.42; PL 0.70; PW 0.30; PPL 0.36; PPW 0.42; GL 1.26; TL 5.54; CI 95.28; SI 69.30; OI 23.76. Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13 ommatidia. Longitudinal and irregular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture. Longitudinal and regular to irregular striae on anepisternum and katepisternum. Axilla and scutellum with same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermicular striae directed partly to propodeal dorsum and partly to propodeal spine. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet mariae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. The specific epithet is named after Maria do Espírito Santo da Silva (1956–2011), a Brazilian conservationist and environmentalist who campaigned against logging in the Amazon rainforest. Maria and her husband, José Cláudio Ribeiro da Silva (1957–2011), extracted sustainable rainforest products, such as oils and nuts. Both were murdered for their activism in name of the Brazilian Amazon conservation.

Comments. Hylomyrma mariae   is similar to H. adelae   and H. dandarae   . Hylomyrma mariae   differs from H. adelae   (characteristics in parentheses) in the irregular divergent-longitudinal striae on the head dorsum (vs. rugose striae), the distinct metanotal groove (vs. indistinct), the longer propodeal spine (vs. shorter), the profemur posterior surface with striae weakly marked (vs. well-marked), and the dorsum of petiole with rugose striae (vs. irregular and transverse striae). The two species are allopatric; Hylomyrma mariae   occurs in northern Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ), and H. adelae   in Bolivia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ). Hylomyrma mariae   differs from H. dandarae   in the drop-shaped eye (vs. oval), the shorter petiolar node (vs. longer), and the long striae on tergum of the first gastral segment that extends up to its first third (vs. short striae). The two species occur in Colombia ( Figs. 83 View FIGURE 83 , 88 View FIGURE 88 ).

Distribution. Hylomyrma mariae   is known from northern Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ).

Natural history. This species is only known from its type locality, and inhabits areas at elevations between 1340 and 2200 m. Most specimens were collected from rotten wood, humus, and leaf-litter submitted to Berlese-Tüllgren funnels.

Additional material examined (19 workers): COLOMBIA: [Magdalena]: Cincinnati [pueblo, 11°09′N 74°08′W], Feby 1924, W.M. Mann (3W, two without head, one without postpetiole and gaster) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; Cuchilla S.[San] Lorenzo, vic. El Campano, 1340m, rainf., C. Kugler & W.L. Brown cols. (15W) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; El Campano, 1740m, 16.june.1976, Brown & Kugler cols., berlesate (1W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps  

Hylomyrma marielleae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 51 View FIGURE 51 , 52 View FIGURE 52 , 80C View FIGURE 80 , 85 View FIGURE 85 (map)

Holotype: BRAZIL: PA[Pará]: Primavera , PBA-Projeto Primavera, 1°02′48″S, 47°9′25″W, 16–26.xi.2013, M. Souza col., Área / Winkler A /01 (1W) ( MZSP67394 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: AC[Acre]: Mâncio Lima, P.N. da Serra do Divisor , 245m, 7°26′58.81″S, 73°39′37.83″W, 15–18.xi.2016, R.M. Feitosa, T.S. Silva & A.C. Ferreira cols. (1W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; TO[Tocantins]: Araguacema, Senhor do Bonfim , 08°40′20″S, 49°25′53″W, 16–30.xi.2005, Semidecídua, Silva R.R. & Feitosa R.M., Winkler (1Q) ( MZSP67395 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Winkler 7 (1W) ( MZSP67396 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 6 (1W) ( MZSP67397 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Babaçulândia, 07°02′19″S, 47°52′03.4″W, 01–09.vi.2005, Silva R.R. & Feitosa R.M., Winkler 13 (1W) ( MZSP67398 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Winkler 16 (1W covered with gold) ( MZSP67399 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 12 (1Q) ( MZSP67400 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 4 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; RO[Rondônia]: Porto Velho, Área Abunã , A9P4, 09°38′03.3″S, 65°26′23.9″W, 17–27.vii.2013, Mazão G.R. & Probst R.S. cols. (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Área Mutum , M7P2, 09°35′41.6″S, 65°03′54.2″W, 03.iii.2015, winkler 1 (1W) (MZHY106) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; MT[Mato Grosso]: Diamantino, Faz. Junqueira Vilela , 11km NE casa, 17–18.july.1973, W.L. Brown col. (1W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallel towards posterior margin; long scape; vermicular striae on mesosoma; dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; ventral surface entirely striate; transverse striae; postpetiole covered with thick, regular and longitudinal striae, slightly anastomosed; subpostpetiolar process sculptured on laterobasal region, midbasal region smooth; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; body with many thick and unbranched setae.

Description. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 51A–C View FIGURE 51 ): HL (0.90–0.96); HW (0.80–0.88); ML (0.60–0.64); SL (0.75–0.86); MOD (0.24–0.27); PNW (0.60–0.65); WL (1.20–1.30); PSL (0.31–0.34); PL (0.52–0.54); PW (0.20–0.22); PPL (0.30–0.32); PPW (0.29–0.32); GL (1.06–1.20); TL (4.58–4.93); CI (88.89–92.63); SI (88.37–100); OI (27.90– 30.68). Small to midsized. Shiny integument. Bicolored body, brownish, lighter head and gaster, yellowish appendices. Many thick and unbranched setae ( Fig. 80C View FIGURE 80 ), long to midsized, erect to decumbent.

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of small teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 8–10 striae, regular and longitudinal, converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1 sagittal stria. Long scape, surpassing head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, midsized, larger diameter with 11 ommatidia. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallel towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae; anastomosed striae on posterior region. Sculpture on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; longitudinal striae predominate on laterodorsal region; anastomosed striae predominate on lateral and lateroventral regions; gena striate, 6–9 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, almost reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with vermicular striae of uniform thickness, interspaces smooth. Promesonotal junction distinguishable by a slight depression (LV); metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and sharper than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth shorter than 1 / 3 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine long, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur with transverse to inclined striae weakly marked. Protibia smooth.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; transverse striae on its entire ventral surface. Node with regular and transverse striae on anterior surface, striation on anterior surface continuing transversely on lateral surface to ventral surface, striae weakly marked; vermicular striae on dorsal surface. Postpetiole covered with thicker, regular and longitudinal striae, slightly anastomosed; subpostpetiolar process weak, straight, with the same sculpture of laterobasal region of postpetiole, sculpture weakly marked, midbasal region smooth.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; longitudinal striae on tergum 1 / 3 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, restricted to laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 52A–C View FIGURE 52 ): HL (0.94–1); HW (0.85–0.88); ML (0.62–0.64); SL (0.78–0.84); MOD (0.30); PNW (0.72–0.74); WL (1.42–1.48); PSL (0.34–0.36); PL (0.62–0.64); PW (0.23–0.24); PPL (0.37–0.38); PPW (0.33–0.35); GL (1.30–1.44); TL (5.29–5.52); CI (88–91.66); SI (88.63–95.45); OI (34.09–35.29). Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 15–16 ommatidia. Striae on scutum anastomosed anteriorly and irregular posteriorly, going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture. Longitudinal and regular striae on anepisternum, logitudinal and irregular to vermicular striae on katepisternum, interspaces distinguishable in both. Axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermicular striae directed in part to propodeal dorsum and in part to propodeal spine. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet marielleae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -ae to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Marielle Franco (1979–2018), born Marielle Francisco da Silva, a black Brazilian woman, politician, feminist, and human rights activist, whose assassination, motivated by her positions and actions against all forms of discrimination, happened during her mandate as a representative in Rio de Janeiro local Assembly.

Comments. Hylomyrma marielleae   is similar to H. longiscapa   regarding the body size and the sculpture pattern. However, H. marielleae   can be easily distinguished from H. longiscapa   (characteristic in parentheses) in the thick and dark setae (vs. thin and light), and the transverse striae on the ventral surface of petiole weakly marked (vs. well-marked). Both species have broad distribution in the center-north of South America, however H. longiscapa   occurs in many localities in eastern portions of Brazil (from northeast to southeast regions) ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ) where H. marielleae   does not occur ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ). One queen collected in French Guiana [USNMENT00536047] has lighter setae when compared to the other specimens evaluated here.

Distribution. Hylomyrma marielleae   is known from Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits sites at elevations between 120 and 590 m in tropical rainforest, semideciduous forest, bamboo forests, crops, and pastures. There is no further information available regarding the H. marielleae   biology, besides nesting in the leaf-litter or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers, given that specimens were collected with winkler extractors.

Additional material examined (31 workers, 3 queens): BOLIVIA: Cochabamba: Villa Tunari , 67.5k E Valle Sajta, 6.ii.99, R. Anderson, #18525, 17°06′19″S, 64°46′57″W, Lowland rain forest, litter, #18525 (3W) [ UTEP, CASC, MZSP]. GoogleMaps   ECUADOR: [Sucumbíos]: Cuyabeno , 12/10-05/11/94, J.P. Caldwell, #10349 (1W) [ CEPLAC] GoogleMaps   ; Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 18.vi.1976, B-348, S. & J. Peck (6W 1Q) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 25.vi.1976, B-355 (2W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps   FRENCH GUIANA: [Cayenne]: Nouragues Field Station, H Trail , 153m, 52°40.834′W, 4°5.196′N, 1.viii.2005, T.R. Schultz, J.S. LaPolla, D. Price, 1° forest, litter sample, Winkler sample, TRS050801-03-LS07 (1W) (USNMENT00536053) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; same data (2Q) (USNMENT00536047, USNMENT00536048) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; Nouragues, Fourmis de litière, 4°04′58″N, 52°40′28″O, 120-160m, 29.iii.2006, Jérôme Orivel (+ autres), FL-WTr25 (1W) [ MZSP]. GoogleMaps   PERU: Cusco: Estación Biológica Villa Carmen, 590m, -12.902437° -71.407672° + 300m, bamboo forest, 2° vegetation, 5-15.viii.2013, Ant Course cols. (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; same except w03 (3W) (MZHY68, MZHY103) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; successional vegetation, crops and pasture (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; 525m, -12.888005° -71.401526° + 300m, riparian successional vegetation, 8.viii.2013, Lattke 3385 (6W) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Madre de Dios: Los Amigos Field Station, Trail 3, Huangana , 277m, 70°6′3.1W, 12°34′8.4S, 9.x.2004, T.R. Schultz, C. Marshall, J. Sosa-Calvo, 1° forest, litter sample, =JSC041009-02, TRS041009-01-LS02 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; same except Trail 6, =JSC041006- 12, TRS041006-01-LS12 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; 180m, Sachavacayoc Center , 34.39k SW Puerto Maldonado, 21.vii.2012, W. & E. Mackay, #24994, 12°51′10.9″S, 69°22′2.5″W, litter extraction, Tropical rain forest, seasonally flooded reddishbrn clay (2W) [ MZSP, IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; same except AW10S (1W) [ UNMSM] GoogleMaps   ; Pasco: nr. Pozuzo, steep 1° for. above farms, 1000m, 4-6.vi.81, berl. lf. lit., C. Kugler & R.R. Lambert cols. (1W) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Hylomyrma mariae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 50 View FIGURE 50 , 88 View FIGURE 88 (map)

Holotype: COLOMBIA: [Magdalena]: Cincinnati, Feby 1924, W.M. Mann (1W) [ USNM]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (3W) [ CASC, DZUP, IHVL]; (2W, one covered with gold) ( MZSP67393 View Materials , MZHY205) [ MZSP]; (4W) [ USNM]; San Pedro de La Sierra — Pico Yerbabuena, C. Kugler col., 2200m, berlesate rot. wood & humus, 18.feb.77, vial 13 (1W) [ MCZC]; same except 1730m, berlesate humus & lf. Litter, 18.feb.77 (1Q) [ MCZC]   .

Diagnosis. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum diverge towards posterior margin; rugose striae on mesosoma and petiole; promesonotal junction and metanotal groove distinguishable by a slight depression (LV) and altered sculpture (DV); dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; subtriangular projection on mesoventral surface of petiole; node ventral surface striate transversely; profemur posterior surface entirely striate; striae transverse and well-marked; protibia extensor surface entirely striate, striae weakly marked; long striae on first gastral tergite.

Description. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 50A–C View FIGURE 50 ): HL (0.99–1.04); HW (0.92–0.96); ML (0.60–0.65); SL (0.65–0.68); MOD (0.20–0.22); PNW (0.64–0.68); WL (1.26–1.32); PSL (0.32–0.37); PL (0.62–0.64); PW (0.25–0.27); PPL (0.30–0.32); PPW (0.34–0.36); GL (1.04–1.30); TL (4.85–5.23); CI (91.34–94.11); SI (69.47–70.83); OI (20.83– 23.91). Midsized. Shiny integument. Light brown body, darker gaster, yellowish leg. Thin and unbranched setae, long to midsized, suberect to subdecumbent.

Head subquadrate; posterior margin slightly concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus slightly convex medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 8–10 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 2–3 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye dropshaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Head lateral and laterodorsal regions with irregular striae converging to eye margin; rugose striae on anterior part of laterodorsal region; gena striate, 3–4 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with rugose striae of uniform thickness, mostly transverse on pronotum anterior region (DV), longitudinal in other regions (DV)., interspaces between rugose striae smooth. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove distinguishable by a slight depression (LV) and altered sculpture (DV). Transverse carina inconspicuous. Dorsal margin of mesosoma slightly discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and sharper than shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length around 1 /2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine long, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur ventral surface smooth, transverse striae well-marked on posterior surface; apical region of anterior and dorsal surfaces with irregular striae. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous. Subtriangular projection on mesoventral surface of petiole. Convex node; transverse striae on ventral and anterior surfaces weakly marked; rugose striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces. Postpetiole and subpostpetiolar process with regular and longitudinal striae; subpostpetiolar process weak, convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; longitudinal striae on tergum slightly longer than postpetiole length; sternite entirely striate on basal region.

QUEEN (n=1): HL 1.06; HW 1.01; ML 0.66; SL 0.70; MOD 0.24; PNW 0.80; WL 1.50; PSL 0.42; PL 0.70; PW 0.30; PPL 0.36; PPW 0.42; GL 1.26; TL 5.54; CI 95.28; SI 69.30; OI 23.76. Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13 ommatidia. Longitudinal and irregular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture. Longitudinal and regular to irregular striae on anepisternum and katepisternum. Axilla and scutellum with same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermicular striae directed partly to propodeal dorsum and partly to propodeal spine. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet mariae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. The specific epithet is named after Maria do Espírito Santo da Silva (1956–2011), a Brazilian conservationist and environmentalist who campaigned against logging in the Amazon rainforest. Maria and her husband, José Cláudio Ribeiro da Silva (1957–2011), extracted sustainable rainforest products, such as oils and nuts. Both were murdered for their activism in name of the Brazilian Amazon conservation.

Comments. Hylomyrma mariae   is similar to H. adelae   and H. dandarae   . Hylomyrma mariae   differs from H. adelae   (characteristics in parentheses) in the irregular divergent-longitudinal striae on the head dorsum (vs. rugose striae), the distinct metanotal groove (vs. indistinct), the longer propodeal spine (vs. shorter), the profemur posterior surface with striae weakly marked (vs. well-marked), and the dorsum of petiole with rugose striae (vs. irregular and transverse striae). The two species are allopatric; Hylomyrma mariae   occurs in northern Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ), and H. adelae   in Bolivia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ). Hylomyrma mariae   differs from H. dandarae   in the drop-shaped eye (vs. oval), the shorter petiolar node (vs. longer), and the long striae on tergum of the first gastral segment that extends up to its first third (vs. short striae). The two species occur in Colombia ( Figs. 83 View FIGURE 83 , 88 View FIGURE 88 ).

Distribution. Hylomyrma mariae   is known from northern Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ).

Natural history. This species is only known from its type locality, and inhabits areas at elevations between 1340 and 2200 m. Most specimens were collected from rotten wood, humus, and leaf-litter submitted to Berlese-Tüllgren funnels.

Additional material examined (19 workers): COLOMBIA: [Magdalena]: Cincinnati [pueblo, 11°09′N 74°08′W], Feby 1924, W.M. Mann (3W, two without head, one without postpetiole and gaster) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; Cuchilla S.[San] Lorenzo, vic. El Campano, 1340m, rainf., C. Kugler & W.L. Brown cols. (15W) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; El Campano, 1740m, 16.june.1976, Brown & Kugler cols., berlesate (1W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps  

Hylomyrma marielleae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 51 View FIGURE 51 , 52 View FIGURE 52 , 80C View FIGURE 80 , 85 View FIGURE 85 (map)

Holotype: BRAZIL: PA[Pará]: Primavera , PBA-Projeto Primavera, 1°02′48″S, 47°9′25″W, 16–26.xi.2013, M. Souza col., Área / Winkler A /01 (1W) ( MZSP67394 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: AC[Acre]: Mâncio Lima, P.N. da Serra do Divisor , 245m, 7°26′58.81″S, 73°39′37.83″W, 15–18.xi.2016, R.M. Feitosa, T.S. Silva & A.C. Ferreira cols. (1W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; TO[Tocantins]: Araguacema, Senhor do Bonfim , 08°40′20″S, 49°25′53″W, 16–30.xi.2005, Semidecídua, Silva R.R. & Feitosa R.M., Winkler (1Q) ( MZSP67395 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Winkler 7 (1W) ( MZSP67396 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 6 (1W) ( MZSP67397 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Babaçulândia, 07°02′19″S, 47°52′03.4″W, 01–09.vi.2005, Silva R.R. & Feitosa R.M., Winkler 13 (1W) ( MZSP67398 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Winkler 16 (1W covered with gold) ( MZSP67399 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 12 (1Q) ( MZSP67400 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 4 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; RO[Rondônia]: Porto Velho, Área Abunã , A9P4, 09°38′03.3″S, 65°26′23.9″W, 17–27.vii.2013, Mazão G.R. & Probst R.S. cols. (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Área Mutum , M7P2, 09°35′41.6″S, 65°03′54.2″W, 03.iii.2015, winkler 1 (1W) (MZHY106) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; MT[Mato Grosso]: Diamantino, Faz. Junqueira Vilela , 11km NE casa, 17–18.july.1973, W.L. Brown col. (1W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallel towards posterior margin; long scape; vermicular striae on mesosoma; dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; ventral surface entirely striate; transverse striae; postpetiole covered with thick, regular and longitudinal striae, slightly anastomosed; subpostpetiolar process sculptured on laterobasal region, midbasal region smooth; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; body with many thick and unbranched setae.

Description. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 51A–C View FIGURE 51 ): HL (0.90–0.96); HW (0.80–0.88); ML (0.60–0.64); SL (0.75–0.86); MOD (0.24–0.27); PNW (0.60–0.65); WL (1.20–1.30); PSL (0.31–0.34); PL (0.52–0.54); PW (0.20–0.22); PPL (0.30–0.32); PPW (0.29–0.32); GL (1.06–1.20); TL (4.58–4.93); CI (88.89–92.63); SI (88.37–100); OI (27.90– 30.68). Small to midsized. Shiny integument. Bicolored body, brownish, lighter head and gaster, yellowish appendices. Many thick and unbranched setae ( Fig. 80C View FIGURE 80 ), long to midsized, erect to decumbent.

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of small teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 8–10 striae, regular and longitudinal, converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1 sagittal stria. Long scape, surpassing head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, midsized, larger diameter with 11 ommatidia. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallel towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae; anastomosed striae on posterior region. Sculpture on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; longitudinal striae predominate on laterodorsal region; anastomosed striae predominate on lateral and lateroventral regions; gena striate, 6–9 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, almost reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with vermicular striae of uniform thickness, interspaces smooth. Promesonotal junction distinguishable by a slight depression (LV); metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and sharper than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth shorter than 1 / 3 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine long, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur with transverse to inclined striae weakly marked. Protibia smooth.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; transverse striae on its entire ventral surface. Node with regular and transverse striae on anterior surface, striation on anterior surface continuing transversely on lateral surface to ventral surface, striae weakly marked; vermicular striae on dorsal surface. Postpetiole covered with thicker, regular and longitudinal striae, slightly anastomosed; subpostpetiolar process weak, straight, with the same sculpture of laterobasal region of postpetiole, sculpture weakly marked, midbasal region smooth.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; longitudinal striae on tergum 1 / 3 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, restricted to laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 52A–C View FIGURE 52 ): HL (0.94–1); HW (0.85–0.88); ML (0.62–0.64); SL (0.78–0.84); MOD (0.30); PNW (0.72–0.74); WL (1.42–1.48); PSL (0.34–0.36); PL (0.62–0.64); PW (0.23–0.24); PPL (0.37–0.38); PPW (0.33–0.35); GL (1.30–1.44); TL (5.29–5.52); CI (88–91.66); SI (88.63–95.45); OI (34.09–35.29). Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 15–16 ommatidia. Striae on scutum anastomosed anteriorly and irregular posteriorly, going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture. Longitudinal and regular striae on anepisternum, logitudinal and irregular to vermicular striae on katepisternum, interspaces distinguishable in both. Axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermicular striae directed in part to propodeal dorsum and in part to propodeal spine. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet marielleae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -ae to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Marielle Franco (1979–2018), born Marielle Francisco da Silva, a black Brazilian woman, politician, feminist, and human rights activist, whose assassination, motivated by her positions and actions against all forms of discrimination, happened during her mandate as a representative in Rio de Janeiro local Assembly.

Comments. Hylomyrma marielleae   is similar to H. longiscapa   regarding the body size and the sculpture pattern. However, H. marielleae   can be easily distinguished from H. longiscapa   (characteristic in parentheses) in the thick and dark setae (vs. thin and light), and the transverse striae on the ventral surface of petiole weakly marked (vs. well-marked). Both species have broad distribution in the center-north of South America, however H. longiscapa   occurs in many localities in eastern portions of Brazil (from northeast to southeast regions) ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ) where H. marielleae   does not occur ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ). One queen collected in French Guiana [USNMENT00536047] has lighter setae when compared to the other specimens evaluated here.

Distribution. Hylomyrma marielleae   is known from Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits sites at elevations between 120 and 590 m in tropical rainforest, semideciduous forest, bamboo forests, crops, and pastures. There is no further information available regarding the H. marielleae   biology, besides nesting in the leaf-litter or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers, given that specimens were collected with winkler extractors.

Additional material examined (31 workers, 3 queens): BOLIVIA: Cochabamba: Villa Tunari , 67.5k E Valle Sajta, 6.ii.99, R. Anderson, #18525, 17°06′19″S, 64°46′57″W, Lowland rain forest, litter, #18525 (3W) [ UTEP, CASC, MZSP]. GoogleMaps   ECUADOR: [Sucumbíos]: Cuyabeno , 12/10-05/11/94, J.P. Caldwell, #10349 (1W) [ CEPLAC] GoogleMaps   ; Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 18.vi.1976, B-348, S. & J. Peck (6W 1Q) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 25.vi.1976, B-355 (2W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps   FRENCH GUIANA: [Cayenne]: Nouragues Field Station, H Trail , 153m, 52°40.834′W, 4°5.196′N, 1.viii.2005, T.R. Schultz, J.S. LaPolla, D. Price, 1° forest, litter sample, Winkler sample, TRS050801-03-LS07 (1W) (USNMENT00536053) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; same data (2Q) (USNMENT00536047, USNMENT00536048) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; Nouragues, Fourmis de litière, 4°04′58″N, 52°40′28″O, 120-160m, 29.iii.2006, Jérôme Orivel (+ autres), FL-WTr25 (1W) [ MZSP]. GoogleMaps   PERU: Cusco: Estación Biológica Villa Carmen, 590m, -12.902437° -71.407672° + 300m, bamboo forest, 2° vegetation, 5-15.viii.2013, Ant Course cols. (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; same except w03 (3W) (MZHY68, MZHY103) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; successional vegetation, crops and pasture (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; 525m, -12.888005° -71.401526° + 300m, riparian successional vegetation, 8.viii.2013, Lattke 3385 (6W) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Madre de Dios: Los Amigos Field Station, Trail 3, Huangana , 277m, 70°6′3.1W, 12°34′8.4S, 9.x.2004, T.R. Schultz, C. Marshall, J. Sosa-Calvo, 1° forest, litter sample, =JSC041009-02, TRS041009-01-LS02 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; same except Trail 6, =JSC041006- 12, TRS041006-01-LS12 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; 180m, Sachavacayoc Center , 34.39k SW Puerto Maldonado, 21.vii.2012, W. & E. Mackay, #24994, 12°51′10.9″S, 69°22′2.5″W, litter extraction, Tropical rain forest, seasonally flooded reddishbrn clay (2W) [ MZSP, IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; same except AW10S (1W) [ UNMSM] GoogleMaps   ; Pasco: nr. Pozuzo, steep 1° for. above farms, 1000m, 4-6.vi.81, berl. lf. lit., C. Kugler & R.R. Lambert cols. (1W) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Hylomyrma marielleae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 51 View FIGURE 51 , 52 View FIGURE 52 , 80C View FIGURE 80 , 85 View FIGURE 85 (map)

Holotype: BRAZIL: PA[Pará]: Primavera , PBA-Projeto Primavera, 1°02′48″S, 47°9′25″W, 16–26.xi.2013, M. Souza col., Área / Winkler A /01 (1W) ( MZSP67394 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   . Paratypes: AC[Acre]: Mâncio Lima, P.N. da Serra do Divisor , 245m, 7°26′58.81″S, 73°39′37.83″W, 15–18.xi.2016, R.M. Feitosa, T.S. Silva & A.C. Ferreira cols. (1W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; TO[Tocantins]: Araguacema, Senhor do Bonfim , 08°40′20″S, 49°25′53″W, 16–30.xi.2005, Semidecídua, Silva R.R. & Feitosa R.M., Winkler (1Q) ( MZSP67395 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Winkler 7 (1W) ( MZSP67396 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 6 (1W) ( MZSP67397 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Babaçulândia, 07°02′19″S, 47°52′03.4″W, 01–09.vi.2005, Silva R.R. & Feitosa R.M., Winkler 13 (1W) ( MZSP67398 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Winkler 16 (1W covered with gold) ( MZSP67399 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 12 (1Q) ( MZSP67400 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Winkler 4 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; RO[Rondônia]: Porto Velho, Área Abunã , A9P4, 09°38′03.3″S, 65°26′23.9″W, 17–27.vii.2013, Mazão G.R. & Probst R.S. cols. (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; same except Área Mutum , M7P2, 09°35′41.6″S, 65°03′54.2″W, 03.iii.2015, winkler 1 (1W) (MZHY106) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; MT[Mato Grosso]: Diamantino, Faz. Junqueira Vilela , 11km NE casa, 17–18.july.1973, W.L. Brown col. (1W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallel towards posterior margin; long scape; vermicular striae on mesosoma; dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; ventral surface entirely striate; transverse striae; postpetiole covered with thick, regular and longitudinal striae, slightly anastomosed; subpostpetiolar process sculptured on laterobasal region, midbasal region smooth; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; body with many thick and unbranched setae.

Description. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 51A–C View FIGURE 51 ): HL (0.90–0.96); HW (0.80–0.88); ML (0.60–0.64); SL (0.75–0.86); MOD (0.24–0.27); PNW (0.60–0.65); WL (1.20–1.30); PSL (0.31–0.34); PL (0.52–0.54); PW (0.20–0.22); PPL (0.30–0.32); PPW (0.29–0.32); GL (1.06–1.20); TL (4.58–4.93); CI (88.89–92.63); SI (88.37–100); OI (27.90– 30.68). Small to midsized. Shiny integument. Bicolored body, brownish, lighter head and gaster, yellowish appendices. Many thick and unbranched setae ( Fig. 80C View FIGURE 80 ), long to midsized, erect to decumbent.

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of small teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 8–10 striae, regular and longitudinal, converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1 sagittal stria. Long scape, surpassing head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, midsized, larger diameter with 11 ommatidia. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallel towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae; anastomosed striae on posterior region. Sculpture on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; longitudinal striae predominate on laterodorsal region; anastomosed striae predominate on lateral and lateroventral regions; gena striate, 6–9 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, almost reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with vermicular striae of uniform thickness, interspaces smooth. Promesonotal junction distinguishable by a slight depression (LV); metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and sharper than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth shorter than 1 / 3 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine long, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur with transverse to inclined striae weakly marked. Protibia smooth.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; transverse striae on its entire ventral surface. Node with regular and transverse striae on anterior surface, striation on anterior surface continuing transversely on lateral surface to ventral surface, striae weakly marked; vermicular striae on dorsal surface. Postpetiole covered with thicker, regular and longitudinal striae, slightly anastomosed; subpostpetiolar process weak, straight, with the same sculpture of laterobasal region of postpetiole, sculpture weakly marked, midbasal region smooth.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; longitudinal striae on tergum 1 / 3 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, restricted to laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 52A–C View FIGURE 52 ): HL (0.94–1); HW (0.85–0.88); ML (0.62–0.64); SL (0.78–0.84); MOD (0.30); PNW (0.72–0.74); WL (1.42–1.48); PSL (0.34–0.36); PL (0.62–0.64); PW (0.23–0.24); PPL (0.37–0.38); PPW (0.33–0.35); GL (1.30–1.44); TL (5.29–5.52); CI (88–91.66); SI (88.63–95.45); OI (34.09–35.29). Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 15–16 ommatidia. Striae on scutum anastomosed anteriorly and irregular posteriorly, going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture. Longitudinal and regular striae on anepisternum, logitudinal and irregular to vermicular striae on katepisternum, interspaces distinguishable in both. Axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermicular striae directed in part to propodeal dorsum and in part to propodeal spine. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet marielleae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -ae to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Marielle Franco (1979–2018), born Marielle Francisco da Silva, a black Brazilian woman, politician, feminist, and human rights activist, whose assassination, motivated by her positions and actions against all forms of discrimination, happened during her mandate as a representative in Rio de Janeiro local Assembly.

Comments. Hylomyrma marielleae   is similar to H. longiscapa   regarding the body size and the sculpture pattern. However, H. marielleae   can be easily distinguished from H. longiscapa   (characteristic in parentheses) in the thick and dark setae (vs. thin and light), and the transverse striae on the ventral surface of petiole weakly marked (vs. well-marked). Both species have broad distribution in the center-north of South America, however H. longiscapa   occurs in many localities in eastern portions of Brazil (from northeast to southeast regions) ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ) where H. marielleae   does not occur ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ). One queen collected in French Guiana [USNMENT00536047] has lighter setae when compared to the other specimens evaluated here.

Distribution. Hylomyrma marielleae   is known from Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, French Guiana, and Peru ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits sites at elevations between 120 and 590 m in tropical rainforest, semideciduous forest, bamboo forests, crops, and pastures. There is no further information available regarding the H. marielleae   biology, besides nesting in the leaf-litter or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers, given that specimens were collected with winkler extractors.

Additional material examined (31 workers, 3 queens): BOLIVIA: Cochabamba: Villa Tunari , 67.5k E Valle Sajta, 6.ii.99, R. Anderson, #18525, 17°06′19″S, 64°46′57″W, Lowland rain forest, litter, #18525 (3W) [ UTEP, CASC, MZSP]. GoogleMaps   ECUADOR: [Sucumbíos]: Cuyabeno , 12/10-05/11/94, J.P. Caldwell, #10349 (1W) [ CEPLAC] GoogleMaps   ; Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 18.vi.1976, B-348, S. & J. Peck (6W 1Q) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 25.vi.1976, B-355 (2W) [ MCZC]. GoogleMaps   FRENCH GUIANA: [Cayenne]: Nouragues Field Station, H Trail , 153m, 52°40.834′W, 4°5.196′N, 1.viii.2005, T.R. Schultz, J.S. LaPolla, D. Price, 1° forest, litter sample, Winkler sample, TRS050801-03-LS07 (1W) (USNMENT00536053) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; same data (2Q) (USNMENT00536047, USNMENT00536048) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; Nouragues, Fourmis de litière, 4°04′58″N, 52°40′28″O, 120-160m, 29.iii.2006, Jérôme Orivel (+ autres), FL-WTr25 (1W) [ MZSP]. GoogleMaps   PERU: Cusco: Estación Biológica Villa Carmen, 590m, -12.902437° -71.407672° + 300m, bamboo forest, 2° vegetation, 5-15.viii.2013, Ant Course cols. (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; same except w03 (3W) (MZHY68, MZHY103) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; successional vegetation, crops and pasture (2W) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; 525m, -12.888005° -71.401526° + 300m, riparian successional vegetation, 8.viii.2013, Lattke 3385 (6W) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Madre de Dios: Los Amigos Field Station, Trail 3, Huangana , 277m, 70°6′3.1W, 12°34′8.4S, 9.x.2004, T.R. Schultz, C. Marshall, J. Sosa-Calvo, 1° forest, litter sample, =JSC041009-02, TRS041009-01-LS02 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; same except Trail 6, =JSC041006- 12, TRS041006-01-LS12 (1W) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; 180m, Sachavacayoc Center , 34.39k SW Puerto Maldonado, 21.vii.2012, W. & E. Mackay, #24994, 12°51′10.9″S, 69°22′2.5″W, litter extraction, Tropical rain forest, seasonally flooded reddishbrn clay (2W) [ MZSP, IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; same except AW10S (1W) [ UNMSM] GoogleMaps   ; Pasco: nr. Pozuzo, steep 1° for. above farms, 1000m, 4-6.vi.81, berl. lf. lit., C. Kugler & R.R. Lambert cols. (1W) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

UTEP

University of Texas at El Paso Biodiversity Collections

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma