Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018 Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa, 2021

Ulysséa, Mônica Antunes, 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Hylomyrma Forel, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), with the description of fourteen new species, Zootaxa 5055 (1), pp. 1-137: 121-126

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5055.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C00259C2-CB84-42EA-AB16-38DD47153DC6

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5589184

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4A4D4F09-FFD0-FFD2-F0A5-F15DFCEBFDD8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018 Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa
status

new species

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018  

Figures 76 View FIGURE 76 , 86 View FIGURE 86 (map)

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018: 203   (W). Holotype: BRAZIL: Bahia: Ibicuí, Serra das Piabas, 14°51′57.93″S, 40° 2′34.54″W, elev. 1070 m, 12.v.2017, Lacau S., Neves M.S., Rocha I.N., Oliveira M.L., Silveira B.A., Rodrigues F.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14015869 (1W) [CPDC] [examined by image]. GoogleMaps   Paratypes: same data as holotype, LBSA_SA_14016086, LBSA_SA_14016087, LBSA_SA_14016088, LBSA_SA_14016089, LBSA_SA_14016093, LBSA_SA_14016094, LBSA_SA_14016095, LBSA_SA_14016096, LBSA_SA_14016097 (9W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14016091 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image] GoogleMaps   ; same locality as holotype, 02.v.2017, LBSA_SA_14016100, LBSA_SA_14016101, LBSA_SA_14016102 (3W) [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it has not deposited there] [not examined] GoogleMaps   ; LBSA_SA_14016092, LBSA_SA_14016099, LBSA_SA_14016103 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; same locality as holotype, 29.vi.2008, Silva Jr M.R., Godinho L.B., Lacau S., Prado J.V., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14016104, LBSA_SA_14016105, LBSA_SA_14016109, LBSA_SA_14016110, LBSA_SA_14016111, LBSA_SA_14016115, LBSA_SA_14016116, LBSA_SA_14016117, LBSA_SA_14016118, LBSA_SA_14016119, LBSA_SA_14016120, LBSA_SA_14016123, LBSA_SA_14016124, LBSA_SA_14016125, LBSA_SA_14016126, LBSA_SA_14016128, LBSA_SA_14016129, LBSA_SA_14016162, LBSA_SA_14014791 (19W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14011273 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image]   ; LBSA_SA_14016106, LBSA_SA_14016107, LBSA_ SA_14016108 (3W) [ MZSP] [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it was not deposited there] [not examined]   ; LBSA_SA_14016112, LBSA_SA_14016113, LBSA_SA_14016114 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; 14°54′50.06′′S, 40°2′9.49″W, 951 m alt., 19.xi.2004, Jahyny B.J., Lacau S., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols, LBSA_SA_14011396, LBSA_SA_14011397 (2W) [ CPDC] [not examined]. GoogleMaps  

Worker ( Fig. 76A–C View FIGURE 76 ) Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between striae smooth, striae crest smooth; mesosoma covered with concentric and elliptical, regular and thick striae; longitudinal striae on lateral of pronotum and mesepisternum in part continuing transversely on propodeum and in part continuing on propodeal spine; transverse carina inconspicuous; propodeal spine midsized; dorsal margin of petiole continuous, strongly convex, mesoventral surface unarmed; petiole, postpetiole, subpostpetiolar process, profemur posterior surface, protibia extensor surface and tergum of first gastral segment smooth; subpostpetiolar process weak, convex.

QUEEN Unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. This species was named in honor of Dr. Claire Villemant, a French entomologist, curator of the Hymenoptera   Collection at Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris.

Comments. The diagnostic characters of this species are sufficient to easily distinguish it from most of its congeners. Still, Hylomyrma villemantae   is very similar to H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   . All three species have a strongly convex petiole, with indistinguishable petiolar peduncle and node, and the body mainly covered with regular and longitudinal striae. Even so, H. villemantae   can be easily distinguished from both (characteristic in parenthesis) in the striae on the head dorsum with smooth crests (vs. with punctuated crests), the mesosoma with few elliptical and concentric striae (vs. longitudinally striate), the longer propodeal spine (vs. shorter), the unarmed mesoventral surface of petiole (vs. armed), and the smooth dorsum of postpetiole and gaster (vs. with longitudinal striae). All three species are allopatric; H. villemantae   is recorded from Brazil (BA) ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ), whereas H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   occur in relatively close areas in northern South America (French Guiana, Guyana, and Venezuela) ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Distribution. This species occurs in Ibicuí and Itororó, Bahia, Brazil ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ).

Natural history. The biology of this species remains unknown. Type specimens were collected in leaf-litter with winkler extractors, at elevations between 951 and 1070 m in the region known as “ Serra   das Piabas”, a fragment of Atlantic forest in the Brazilian state of Bahia.

Additional material examined (1 worker): BRAZIL: BA[Bahia]: Itororó, [área] C, 08.08.00, 14.57.31S, 40.02.33W, Santos J.R.M. dos (1W) (MZHY199) [ MZSP]   .

Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 77 View FIGURE 77 , 78 View FIGURE 78 , 80D View FIGURE 80 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Holotype: ECUADOR: Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 25.vi.1976, B-355, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00524688) [ MCZC]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (5W) (MCZENT00525482, MCZENT00524690, MCZENT00525503, MCZENT00525523, MCZENT00524689) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525522 MZSP67462 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525518 MZHY196) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT 00525524) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525517) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525521) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525519) [ CASC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 18.vi.1976, B-348 (4W) (MCZENT00525501, MCZENT00524677, MCZENT00524676, MCZENT00525499) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525506 MZSP67463 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1Q) (MCZENT00524678 MZSP67464 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; 20km S of Tena , 600m, 11Jul 1976, B360, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00525490) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; Pichincha: Centr. Cient. R. Palenque , 20.xii.1980, Sonia Sandoval col., Bosque primario cerrado, 584 (1W covered with gold) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; Los Rios: C.C.R. Palenque , 79°45′10″W, 01°25′56″S, 02MAR1979, S. Sandoval (1Q) ( QCAZ I 114012 View Materials ) [ QCAZ] GoogleMaps   ; Pastaza: 22km SW Puyo, 15 July 1976, B-362, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1Q) (MCZENT00524681) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on head dorsum and mesosoma; petiole anterior surface well-marked; transverse striae on node ventral surface; longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole and tergum of first gastral segment; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex; profemur posterior surface mostly smooth; protibia extensor surface entirely striate; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; setae with 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis.

Description. WORKER (n=3) ( Fig. 77A–C View FIGURE 77 ): HL (0.94–1.04); HW (0.90–1.04); ML (0.66–0.70); SL (0.68–0.80); MOD (0.26–0.27); PNW (0.64–0.74); WL (1.24–1.40); PSL (0.28–0.38); PL (0.59–0.64); PW (0.24–0.27); PPL (0.36–0.40); PPW (0.36–0.38); GL (1.02–1.12); TL (4.94–5.20); CI (95.74–100.97); SI (73.07–77.67); OI (25– 28.90). Medium to large-sized. Shiny integument. Head, postpetiole and gaster dark brown, lighter mesosoma, leg and petiole. Thin and branched setae, long to midsized, erect to subdecumbent; 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis ( Fig. 80D View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus concave medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 5 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1–2 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Head dorsum with vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces smooth. Striae on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; very thin striae with interspaces indistinguishable (microsculpture) superimposed on vermicular to vermiculatedareolated striae (macrosculpture); gena striate, with the same striation of head lateral, 2–3 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on mesosoma, interspaces between thicker striae smooth on mesosoma dorsum and filled with thinner striae on mesosoma lateral. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma continuous, slightly convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length 1 / 2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine midsized, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa with thin and transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Irregular to regular transverse striae on profemur dorsal surface; posterior surface mostly smooth; anterior and ventral surface completely smooth. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous, smooth dorsum. Node with irregular and transverse striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface; vermiculated-areolated striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces; irregular and transverse striae on ventral surface, interspaces distinguishable. Longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole; subpostpetiolar process striae restricted to lateral region; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; long striae on tergum, 1 / 4 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering the laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 78A–C View FIGURE 78 ): HL (0.98–1.12); HW (1.01–1.10); ML (0.66–0.74); SL (0.76–0.90); MOD (0.28– 0.33); PNW (0.80–0.96); WL (1.48–1.72); PSL (0.35–0.43); PL (0.66–0.74); PW (0.26–0.30); PPL (0.40–0.44); PPW (0.40–0.49); GL (1.40–1.64); TL (5.58–6.40); CI (98.09–103.06); SI (75.24–81.81); OI (27.20–30). Largesized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13–14 ommatidia. Longitudinal, irregular to vermicular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum, katepisternum, axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermiculated-areolated, thicker striae directed mostly to propodeal dorsum, interspaces between striae smooth. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet virginiae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Virginia Leone Bicudo (1910–2003), a sociologist and psychoanalyst born in São Paulo, daughter of an Italian immigrant and a black Brazilian. She was the first non-medical practitioner to be recognized as a psychoanalyst, therefore essential for the development and institutionalization of psychoanalysis in Brazil. She was a pioneer in the study of relations between races, which was the subject of her dissertation in 1945.

Comments. Hylomyrma virginiae   is not known to co-occur with H. mitiae   or H. sagax   , but all three occur in northwestern South America. Hylomyrma virginiae   has been recorded in Ecuador (both sides of The Andes) and in western Colombia ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), whereas H. sagax   is restricted to southeast Colombia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ), and H. mitiae   only occurs in French Guiana ( Fig. 87 View FIGURE 87 ). Hylomyrma virginiae   is typically smaller (TL 4.94–5.20 mm, WL 1.24–1.40 mm) than H. mitiae   (TL 5.27–5.52 mm, WL 1.41–1.52 mm). Also, the gena and laterodorsal region of the head are covered by very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae (vs. very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces between the vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae in H. mitiae   ) (not seen in SEM images of H. mitiae   due to coating artifacts), the indistinct metanotal groove (vs. distinguished by slight depression), the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous), and the weak and slightly convex subpostpetiolar process (vs. very prominent and subtriangular). Hylomyrma virginiae   can be distinguished from H. sagax   (characteristic in parentheses) in the medium lateral teeth at clypeus anterior margin (vs. well-developed teeth), the propodeal spine comparatively shorter and thicker (vs. longer and needle-like), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

There are relatively few specimens collected of this species; most were sampled in Limoncocha, Ecuador. Specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have a more developed propodeal spine and subpostpetiolar process, and the anterior surface of petiolar node is slightly marked. These characteristics may lead to the misidentification of these specimens as H. sagax   , but their body size and sculpture are more similar to those found in H. virginiae   specimens recorded in Ecuador.

Distribution. Hylomyrma virginiae   is known from Colombia and Ecuador ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species occurs in tropical rainforests and areas of bamboo ( Guadua sp.   ) plantations, at elevations between 250 and 850 m. Specimens were collected in the leaf-litter, which suggests that nests are located in fallen logs, rotten wood, between leaves, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers.

Additional material examined (8 workers): COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito , 1–4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (6W) [ MCZC]; same except 610m, by river (1W) [ MCZC]; 850m, on ridge, litter (1W) [ MCZC]   .

Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 77 View FIGURE 77 , 78 View FIGURE 78 , 80D View FIGURE 80 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Holotype: ECUADOR: Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 25.vi.1976, B-355, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00524688) [ MCZC]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (5W) (MCZENT00525482, MCZENT00524690, MCZENT00525503, MCZENT00525523, MCZENT00524689) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525522 MZSP67462 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525518 MZHY196) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT 00525524) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525517) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525521) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525519) [ CASC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 18.vi.1976, B-348 (4W) (MCZENT00525501, MCZENT00524677, MCZENT00524676, MCZENT00525499) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525506 MZSP67463 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1Q) (MCZENT00524678 MZSP67464 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; 20km S of Tena , 600m, 11Jul 1976, B360, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00525490) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; Pichincha: Centr. Cient. R. Palenque , 20.xii.1980, Sonia Sandoval col., Bosque primario cerrado, 584 (1W covered with gold) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; Los Rios: C.C.R. Palenque , 79°45′10″W, 01°25′56″S, 02MAR1979, S. Sandoval (1Q) ( QCAZ I 114012 View Materials ) [ QCAZ] GoogleMaps   ; Pastaza: 22km SW Puyo, 15 July 1976, B-362, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1Q) (MCZENT00524681) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on head dorsum and mesosoma; petiole anterior surface well-marked; transverse striae on node ventral surface; longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole and tergum of first gastral segment; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex; profemur posterior surface mostly smooth; protibia extensor surface entirely striate; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; setae with 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis.

Description. WORKER (n=3) ( Fig. 77A–C View FIGURE 77 ): HL (0.94–1.04); HW (0.90–1.04); ML (0.66–0.70); SL (0.68–0.80); MOD (0.26–0.27); PNW (0.64–0.74); WL (1.24–1.40); PSL (0.28–0.38); PL (0.59–0.64); PW (0.24–0.27); PPL (0.36–0.40); PPW (0.36–0.38); GL (1.02–1.12); TL (4.94–5.20); CI (95.74–100.97); SI (73.07–77.67); OI (25– 28.90). Medium to large-sized. Shiny integument. Head, postpetiole and gaster dark brown, lighter mesosoma, leg and petiole. Thin and branched setae, long to midsized, erect to subdecumbent; 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis ( Fig. 80D View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus concave medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 5 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1–2 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Head dorsum with vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces smooth. Striae on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; very thin striae with interspaces indistinguishable (microsculpture) superimposed on vermicular to vermiculatedareolated striae (macrosculpture); gena striate, with the same striation of head lateral, 2–3 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on mesosoma, interspaces between thicker striae smooth on mesosoma dorsum and filled with thinner striae on mesosoma lateral. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma continuous, slightly convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length 1 / 2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine midsized, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa with thin and transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Irregular to regular transverse striae on profemur dorsal surface; posterior surface mostly smooth; anterior and ventral surface completely smooth. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous, smooth dorsum. Node with irregular and transverse striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface; vermiculated-areolated striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces; irregular and transverse striae on ventral surface, interspaces distinguishable. Longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole; subpostpetiolar process striae restricted to lateral region; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; long striae on tergum, 1 / 4 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering the laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 78A–C View FIGURE 78 ): HL (0.98–1.12); HW (1.01–1.10); ML (0.66–0.74); SL (0.76–0.90); MOD (0.28– 0.33); PNW (0.80–0.96); WL (1.48–1.72); PSL (0.35–0.43); PL (0.66–0.74); PW (0.26–0.30); PPL (0.40–0.44); PPW (0.40–0.49); GL (1.40–1.64); TL (5.58–6.40); CI (98.09–103.06); SI (75.24–81.81); OI (27.20–30). Largesized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13–14 ommatidia. Longitudinal, irregular to vermicular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum, katepisternum, axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermiculated-areolated, thicker striae directed mostly to propodeal dorsum, interspaces between striae smooth. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet virginiae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Virginia Leone Bicudo (1910–2003), a sociologist and psychoanalyst born in São Paulo, daughter of an Italian immigrant and a black Brazilian. She was the first non-medical practitioner to be recognized as a psychoanalyst, therefore essential for the development and institutionalization of psychoanalysis in Brazil. She was a pioneer in the study of relations between races, which was the subject of her dissertation in 1945.

Comments. Hylomyrma virginiae   is not known to co-occur with H. mitiae   or H. sagax   , but all three occur in northwestern South America. Hylomyrma virginiae   has been recorded in Ecuador (both sides of The Andes) and in western Colombia ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), whereas H. sagax   is restricted to southeast Colombia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ), and H. mitiae   only occurs in French Guiana ( Fig. 87 View FIGURE 87 ). Hylomyrma virginiae   is typically smaller (TL 4.94–5.20 mm, WL 1.24–1.40 mm) than H. mitiae   (TL 5.27–5.52 mm, WL 1.41–1.52 mm). Also, the gena and laterodorsal region of the head are covered by very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae (vs. very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces between the vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae in H. mitiae   ) (not seen in SEM images of H. mitiae   due to coating artifacts), the indistinct metanotal groove (vs. distinguished by slight depression), the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous), and the weak and slightly convex subpostpetiolar process (vs. very prominent and subtriangular). Hylomyrma virginiae   can be distinguished from H. sagax   (characteristic in parentheses) in the medium lateral teeth at clypeus anterior margin (vs. well-developed teeth), the propodeal spine comparatively shorter and thicker (vs. longer and needle-like), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

There are relatively few specimens collected of this species; most were sampled in Limoncocha, Ecuador. Specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have a more developed propodeal spine and subpostpetiolar process, and the anterior surface of petiolar node is slightly marked. These characteristics may lead to the misidentification of these specimens as H. sagax   , but their body size and sculpture are more similar to those found in H. virginiae   specimens recorded in Ecuador.

Distribution. Hylomyrma virginiae   is known from Colombia and Ecuador ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species occurs in tropical rainforests and areas of bamboo ( Guadua sp.   ) plantations, at elevations between 250 and 850 m. Specimens were collected in the leaf-litter, which suggests that nests are located in fallen logs, rotten wood, between leaves, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers.

Additional material examined (8 workers): COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito , 1–4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (6W) [ MCZC]; same except 610m, by river (1W) [ MCZC]; 850m, on ridge, litter (1W) [ MCZC]   .

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

QCAZ

Museo de Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Loc

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018 Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa

Ulysséa, Mônica Antunes 2021
2021
Loc

Hylomyrma villemantae

Neves, M. S. & Jahyny, B. J. B. & Lacau, L. S. R. & D'Esquivel, M. S. & Oliveira, M. L. & Delabie, J. H. C. & Lacau, S. 2018: 203
2018