Hylomyrma transversa Kempf, 1973Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa, Ulyssea, 2021

Ulysséa, Mônica Antunes, 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Hylomyrma Forel, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), with the description of fourteen new species, Zootaxa 5055 (1), pp. 1-137: 112-126

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5055.1.1

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DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5589180

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4A4D4F09-FFC7-FFDA-F0A5-F7ADFB81F9B4

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scientific name

Hylomyrma transversa Kempf, 1973 Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973 Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018 Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa
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new species

Hylomyrma transversa Kempf, 1973  

Figures 71 View FIGURE 71 , 72 View FIGURE 72 , 80H View FIGURE 80 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Hylomyrma transversa Kempf, 1973: 250   (W, Q). Holotype: PERU: [Loreto]: Islandia, 23.ix.1962, W.L. Brown col., varzia, litter (1W) ( MCZ35423 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].   Paratypes: same data as holotype (1Q) ( MCZ35423 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined];   (1W) ( MZSP67451 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined].  

Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallel towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae; mesosoma covered with striae of variable thickness assuming multiple directions, interspaces indistinguishable; transverse on mesonotum; dorsal margin of mesonotum straight; lateral of pronotum and mesepisternum with longitudinal striae in part continuing transversely on propodeum dorsum and in part continuing on propodeal spine; dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; petiole ventral surface entirely covered with transverse striae; regular to irregular and mostly transverse striae on dorsal surface of petiole, interspaces indistinguishable; subpostpetiolar process striate; profemur posterior surface and protibia extensor surface entirely striate; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; sternite striation weakly marked, covering all basal region; branched setae with multiple branches arising from the main axis; branches relatively long, subequal-sized; branched setae mainly in posterior and lateral regions of head, mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole.

Redescription. WORKER (n=4) ( Fig. 71A–C View FIGURE 71 ): HL 0.98 (0.88–0.98); HW 0.90 (0.82–0.90); ML 0.58 (0.54–0.58); SL 0.68 (0.64–0.70); MOD 0.27 (0.24–0.28); PNW 0.64 (0.60–0.64); WL 1.26 (1.15–1.26); PSL 0.28 (0.22–0.28); PL 0.56 (0.48–0.56); PW 0.24 (0.22–0.24); PPL 0.31 (0.30–0.32); PPW 0.36 (0.33–0.36); GL 1.06 (1.04–1.06); TL 4.75 (4.40–4.80); CI 91.83 (90.81–93.18); SI 75.55 (75.55–78.65); OI 30 (29.26–31.46). Small-sized. Integument shiny to subopaque. Body light brown, head and gaster darker. Many long to short setae, appressed to decumbent; unbranched setae mostly on head dorsum and leg; branched setae with multiple branches arising from the main axis; branches relatively long, subequal in size ( Fig. 80H View FIGURE 80 ); branched setae mainly in posterior and lateral regions of head, mesosoma, petiole and postpetiole.

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight to slightly concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with regular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces indistinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1–3 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere length 1 / 4 shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, midsized, larger diameter with 14 ommatidia. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, parallels towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner and regular to irregular striae. Head lateral and laterodorsal regions with the same striation of head dorsum, striae converging to eye margin; gena striate, regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus almost reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with striae of variable thickness assuming multiple directions, interspaces indistinguishable; transverse striae on pronotum anterior region (DV) continuing towards lateral of pronotum; longitudinal striae on promesonotal junction and metanotal groove; transverse striae on mesonotum; lateral of pronotum and mesepisternum with longitudinal striae in part continuing transversely on propodeum dorsum and in part continuing on propodeal spine. Dorsal margin of mesonotum straight. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove discernible by a depression and altered sculpture. Transverse carina inconspicuous. Dorsal margin of mesosoma discontinuous, dorsal margin of mesonotum straight. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and more acute than shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length is 1 / 2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine midsized, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa with transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Transverse striae on profemur. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; ventral surface entirely covered with transverse striae. Node with transverse striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface, interspaces distinguishable; regular to irregular and mostly transverse striae on dorsal surface, interspaces indistinguishable. Postpetiole and subpostpetiolar process with regular, longitudinal striae; subpostpetiolar process weak, straight to convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; striae length on tergum slightly longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering all basal region.

QUEEN (n=1, paratype) ( Fig. 72A–C View FIGURE 72 ): HL 0.98; HW 0.90; ML 0.60; SL 0.70; MOD 0.28; PNW 0.70; WL 1.40; PSL 0.26; PL 0.59; PW 0.27; PPL 0.36; PPW 0.36; GL 1.22; TL 5.15; CI 91.83; SI 77.77; OI 31.11. Midsized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 15 ommatidia. Longitudinal and regular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces indistinguishable. Longitudinal striae on anepisternum and katepisternum with interspaces indistinguishable, striae regular on anepisternum and mostly irregular on katepisternum. Axilla with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus conspicuous. Scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum, striae slightly irregular to vermicular on lateral regions. Transverse striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with longitudinal and mostly regular striae directed to propodeal dorsum, interspaces indistinguishable. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The name transversa   (Latin, transversus = transverse) refers to the conspicuous transverse striae on mesonotal dorsum.

Comments. This species is easily distinguished from all congeners by the transverse striae on the mesonotum, and the conspicuous branched setae. Still, H. transversa   resembles H. reitteri   , regarding the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole, and the head pattern of sculpturation. The two species are allopatric and have broad distributions; H. transversa   occurs in the center-northwest of South America ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), and H. reitteri   in the center-southeast of South America ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ). Hylomyrma transversa   can be easily distinguished from H. reitteri   (characteristic in parentheses) in the drop-shaped eye (vs. reniform), the transverse striae on the mesonotal dorsum (vs. longitudinal striae), and the striate ventral surface of petiole (vs. smooth surface).

Specimens of H. transversa   collected at Colombia’s Parque Nacional Natural Serranía de Chiribiquete have slightly thicker setae, lack branched setae, and the transverse striae on the mesonotum are more weakly marked. We found ten intercastes among specimens examined (four from Arquipélago de Anavilhanas, AM, Brazil; two collected at Rio Negro, and four sampled at Lower Rio Madidi, both in Bolivia), identified as such for being slightly larger than workers [(n=2), HL (0.98); HW (0.90–0.98); ML (0.60–0.64); SL (0.68–0.72); MOD (0.26–0.28); PNW (0.62–0.72); WL (1.24–1.30); PSL (0.24–0.28); PL (0.52–0.58); PW (0.22–0.28); PPL (0.30–0.32); PPW (0.32– 0.37); GL (0.94–1.13); TL (4.64–5.02)]; for having one central ocellus, and a discernible promesonotal junction and metanotal groove by a conspicuous depression. Moreover, the specimens from Lower Rio Madidi, Bolivia, have small protuberances on the mesonotum, in the region where wings would be inserted in queens.

Distribution. All known specimens were collected in northwestern South America (Brazilian Amazon, Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru) ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits areas of tropical rainforest. Five specimens were collected with pitfall traps, and another was allured by an attractive bait, which suggests that workers forage on forest floor and that nests are located in fallen logs, rotten wood, between leaves, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers.

Additional material examined (27 workers, 8 intercastes): BOLIVIA: [La Paz]: Lower Rio Madidi , W.M. Mann, Mulford BioExpt 1921–22, January (7W 2I) [ USNM]   ; same except Jan (4W 2I) [ USNM]   ; Rio Negro , W.M. Mann collector, Mulford Biological Exploration 1921–22, Jan (2I) [ MZSP]   ; same data (2W) [ CASC, DZUP]   . [ BRAZIL]: AM[Amazonas]: Itacoatiara, 3.319°S, 58.723°W, PLOT 63—isca #15. J.M.S. Vilhena, 6/114/03 (1W) (MZHY193) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Novo Airão, PNJ R. Unini, mg. esq., com Lago Pedras , 1°38′25″S, 61°39′19″W, Mata Primária, 20–23.xi.1995, Bindá + Alencar, Pitfall trap #5 (1W) [ INPA] GoogleMaps   ; same except Pitfall trap #7 (1W) [ INPA] GoogleMaps   ; Tarumã-Mirim, 31.iii.1976, Joaquim Dias (1W) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Rio Negro , Arquipélago d. Anavilhanas, iii.76, R. Negre, #13186 (2W 2I, one worker covered with gold) ( MZSP67452 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; PA[Pará]: Porto Trombetas, 01.08.92, Majer J.D., 4552, Jam76 (2W) [ CEPLAC] GoogleMaps   . COLOMBIA: Caquetá: [Puerto] Solano, PNN [Serranía de] Chiribiquete, R. Mesay, B. Caki , 300m, 0°14′24″N, 72°56′02″W, T. caída, T1.T3, 27.i.2000, F. Quebedo leg. (2W, one covered with gold) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; same except T1.T2 (1W) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; Cauca: Isla Gorgona , 14.xi.1987, M. Baena (1W) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; Guaviare: RN Nukak Maku , 02°10′40N, 71°11′25W, Cñ Cucuy Cr Moyano, Rebalse, F. Fernandez F.E., feb. 96 (1W without postpetiole and gaster) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; same data (1W) (MZHY221) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   .

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973  

Figures 73 View FIGURE 73 , 74 View FIGURE 74 , 75 View FIGURE 75 , 80F, 80J View FIGURE 80 , 81C View FIGURE 81 , 82C View FIGURE 82 , 88 View FIGURE 88 (map)

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973: 253   (W, Q). Holotype: BRIT. HONDURAS [ BELIZE: Cayo]: Belmopan , 7.viii.1972, S. & J. Peck, 2 nd growth forest, #244 (1W) ( MCZENT00035424 MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].   Paratypes: same data as holotype (1Q) ( MCZENT00594551 MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined]   ; (5W 2Q) ( MZSP67454 View Materials , MZSP67455 View Materials , MZSP67456 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; Caves Branch , viii.1972, S. & J. Peck (5W) ( MZSP67457 View Materials , MZSP67458 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; same data (10W 3Q) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined]   ; [Stann Creek]: Humming Bird Pass , 27mi NW Stann Creek, 19.viii.1972, S. & J. Peck, #246, forest litter, berlesate (1W) ( MZSP67459 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; same data (1W 1Q) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].   MEXICO: VeraCr.[Veracruz]: Pueblo Nuevo, nr. Tetzonapa, Aug.14 -53, E.O. Wilson col., #221, rain forest (1W) ( MZSP67460 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; same data (2W) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].  

Diagnosis. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum slightly diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae mostly smooth or filled with thinner striae; irregular striae on mesosoma mostly longitudinal, interspaces between thick and thin striae distinguishable by smooth areas; dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; petiole ventral surface almost entirely covered with transverse striae, anterior region smooth; node dorsal surface mostly covered with irregular striae; subpostpetiolar process smooth at middle and laterally striate; profemur and protibia mostly smooth; striae length on tergum slightly shorter than postpetiole length; branched setae of two types: 1) thin setae with multiple small branches of subequal size arising from the main axis; 2) thick setae flattened at its final half, with several branches of subequal size.

Redescription. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 73A–C View FIGURE 73 ): HL 0.94 (0.88–0.97); HW 0.86 (0.84–0.92); ML 0.56 (0.54–0.60); SL 0.60 (0.60–0.66); MOD 0.22 (0.22–0.25); PNW 0.62 (0.60–0.65); WL 1.20 (1.16–1.26); PSL 0.26 (0.22–0.26); PL 0.56 (0.52–0.60); PW 0.28 (0.25–0.28); PPL 0.32 (0.28–0.34); PPW 0.33 (0.33–0.35); GL 1 (1–1.14); TL 4.58 (4.40–4.88); CI 91.49 (91.30–95.83); SI 69.76 (69.56–75); OI 25.58 (23.80–27.17). Small-sized. Shiny integument. Brownish body, lighter appendices, darker gaster. Mostly thin setae, unbranched or branched, long to midsized, suberect to subdecumbent; branched setae of two types: 1) thin setae with multiple small branches of subequal size arising from the main axis, mostly in mesosoma ( Fig. 80F View FIGURE 80 ); 2) thick setae flattened in its final half, with several branches of subequal size, mainly in postpetiole and gaster ( Fig. 80J View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight to slightly concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of small teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 7–9 regular to irregular, longitudinal and thick striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces between thick striae mostly smooth. Frontal triangle with 1–3 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere as long as previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye reniform, midsized, larger diameter with 11 ommatidia. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, slightly divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae mostly smooth or filled with thinner and regular to irregular striae. Head lateral and laterodorsal regions with irregular to vermicular striae converging to eye margin; anterior laterodorsal region rugose; gena striate, 2–5 irregular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with irregular striae mostly longitudinal, interspaces between thick and thin striae distinguishable by smooth areas; transverse striae on pronotum anterior region (DV) directed towards lateral of pronotum, striae mostly longitudinal in other regions (DV). Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove discernible by a slight depression. Transverse carina inconspicuous. Dorsal margin of mesosoma discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length is slightly shorter than propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine short, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured. Procoxa with transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur and protibia mostly smooth.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; ventral surface almost entirely covered with transverse striae, anterior region smooth. Convex node; transverse, regular to irregular, striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface, interspaces distinguishable; mostly longitudinal, regular to irregular striae of variable thickness on dorsal surface, interspaces distinguishable. Postpetiole and lateral regions of subpostpetiolar process with regular, longitudinal, adjacent striae; subpostpetiolar process weak, straight to convex, smooth at middle.

First gastral segment striation thinner than postpetiole striae; striae length on tergum slightly shorter than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering all the basal region.

QUEEN (n=4) ( Fig. 74A–C View FIGURE 74 ): HL 0.98 (0.94–1); HW 0.90 (0.90–0.95); ML 0.61 (0.58–0.62); SL 0.66 (0.64– 0.70); MOD 0.26 (0.26–0.28); PNW 0.78 (0.74–0.82) CMS 1.44 (1.40–1.50); PSL 0.30 (0.26–0.30); PL 0.63 (0.63–0.70); PW 0.30 (0.28–0.30); PPL 0.34 (0.34–0.40); PPW 0.40 (0.38–0.42); GL 1.30 (1.24–1.36); TL 5.30 (5.18–5.58); CI 91.83 (91.83–95.92); SI 73.33 (71.11–73.68); OI 28.88 (28.88–29.78). Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 15 ommatidia. Longitudinal, regular to irregular and thick striae of variable thickness on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Longitudinal striae on anepisternum and katepisternum with interspaces distinguishable, striae mostly regular on anepisternum, irregular to vermicular on katepisternum. Axilla and scutellum with longitudinal, regular to irregular and slightly vermicular, with interspaces distinguishable. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and irregular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with longitudinal, mostly irregular to vermicular striae directed in part to propodeal dorsum and in part to propodeal spine, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Wings as in Fig. 81C. View FIGURE 81

MALE (first description) (n=1) ( Fig. 75A–C View FIGURE 75 ): HL 0.75; HW 0.68; ML 0.44; SL 0.25; MOD 0.30; PNW 0.62; WL 1.30; PL 0.54; PW 0.26; PPL 0.30; PPW 0.30; GL 1.06; TL 4.39; CI 90.66; SI 36.76; OI 44.11. Head, mesosoma and appendices light brown, other parts dark brown. Mandible with 5 teeth. Interspaces between thicker striae on head dorsum partly smooth and partly filled with thinner striae. Scutum mostly smooth on anterior region and with few thinner, regular to irregular striae on posterior region, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum mostly covered with longitudinal, regular and thinner striae, interspaces distinguishable; katepisternum mostly smooth. Scutellum with regular to irregular striae, thicker than scutum striae, interspaces distinguishable. Propodeum with irregular striae assuming multiple directions, interspaces distinguishable. Dorsal region of propodeal lobe forming a blunt tooth, ventral region rounded. Petiole dorsum covered with irregular striae assuming multiple directions, interspaces distinguishable. Postpetiole and gaster missing. Wings as in Fig. 82C View FIGURE 82 .

Etymology. Versutus (Latin) = crafty, sly. Probably the name versuta   refers to the difficulty in identifying this species, given its similarity with H. balzani   , according to comments made by Kempf (1973).

Comments. The study of the type specimens, in addition to specimens from Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, have allowed us to understand that this species has both unbranched and branched setae. The observation of the branched setae is difficult, because in some specimens the lateral branches are small, and also because sometimes both short and long branches collapse to the seta main axis, giving the wrong impression that the setae is unbranched and thick.

Hylomyrma versuta   is very similar to H. plumosa   . There are not great differences in body sculpture. In H. versuta   , the propodeum is laterally covered by thinner striae (microsculpture) with indistinguishable interspaces between irregular and thicker striae (macrosculpture), whereas H. plumosa   has thinner striae (microsculpture) with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on irregular and thicker striae (macrosculpture). The conspicuous and trifid setae of H. plumosa   are easily observed, but H. versuta   has unbranched and branched setae. Hylomyrma versuta   and H. plumosa   are restricted to Central America, co-occurring near La Virgen and in La Selva Biological Station, Heredia, Costa Rica. Hylomyrma plumosa   is only known from these two localities ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ), but H. versuta   has a broader distribution, from southern Mexico to western Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ). Molecular analysis using UCE and COI also confirms the proximity of these two species, with H. plumosa   sister to the H. cf. dentiloba   sp.2– H. versuta   clade ( Pierce et al. 2017). We emphasize that H. cf. dentiloba   sp.2 is understood here as the true H. dentiloba   , but the voucher specimens of sp.2 still need to be examined.

Pierce et al. (2017) stated that there are no known morphological differences between H. versuta   and H. dentiloba   , with both species being differentiated only in their geographical distribution. However, we found that H. versuta   can be distinguished from H. dentiloba   (the H. cf. dentiloba   sp.2) in the striation with distinguishable interspaces on the head dorsum (vs. striation with indistinguishable interspaces), the mesosoma and petiolar node covered by thinner striae with indistinguishable interspaces between on irregular and thicker striae (vs. thinner striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed irregular and thicker striae), the profemur predominantly smooth (vs. with regular and transverse striae weakly marked), the protibia predominantly smooth (vs. mainly covered with regular and weakly marked striae), and the longer striae on tergum of the first gastral segment (vs. shorter striae). Also, Hylomyrma versuta   can be distinguished from H. jeronimae   (the H. cf. dentiloba   sp.1) in the longitudinal striation on the mesosomal dorsum (vs. striae assuming multiple directions), the striae interspaces on the mesosoma distinguishable (vs. indistinguishable), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

Hylomyrma versuta   also resembles H. reitteri   (characteristic in parentheses), from which it can be distinguished in the irregular striae on the dorsum of head and mesosoma (vs. regular striae), the transverse striae on the ventral surface of petiolar node (vs. smooth surface), and the long striae on tergum of the first gastral segment (vs. short striae, restrict to its basal region). The two species are allopatric; Hylomyrma versuta   occurs in Central America and Colombia, and H. reitteri   in eastern Brazil and Paraguay.

There is morphological variation across the range of H. versuta   . Striae on the petiolar dorsum vary from being irregular and longitudinal or vermicular or transversal. The first two conditions are present in the type specimens of H. versuta   , and all three can be observed in the material from Chiquiri, Panama, and Costa Rica. Additionally, the striae on the mesosomal dorsum of the specimens from Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, vary from being more regular to irregular, and mostly longitudinal to forming semi-ellipses. The specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have an anteriorly divergent and posteriorly convergent striation on the most lateral regions of the mesial area of the head dorsum, and a drop-shaped eyes. Notwithstanding these two extremes of variation, and even being the first record to South America, we refer to the specimens from Colombia as H. versuta   until we have the opportunity to re-evaluate this material deposited at MCZC.

Intercastes are also present in this species, having the combination of the following characters: one inconspicuous central ocellus, and the metanotal groove discernible by a depression. In some specimens, darker areas on the head dorsum coincident with the ocelli location in winged queens are also observed.

Distribution. Hylomyrma versuta   is recorded in southern Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and western Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits sites at elevations between 50 and 1520 m. Most specimens were collected in the leaf-litter in wet montane forests, and a few were sampled in dry forest, bamboo, coffee and cardamom plantations. One specimen was collected from the stomach contents of Incilius coniferus (Cope, 1862)   in Nicaragua. Wilson observed a H. versuta   nest (firstly identified as H. columbica   and later as H. versuta   by Kempf) in captivity; workers captured flies, springtails, and other selected small invertebrates offered in the feeding chamber, where they fed directly the larvae ( Wheeler & Wheeler 1960).

Additional material examined (178 workers, 1male,16queens,21intercastes): BRIT. HONDURAS [ BELIZE: Cayo]: Caves Branch, 4–14.aug.1972, B-248, hi-canopy for., S. & J. Peck, berlese (1Q) [ MCZC]; Belmopan, 1- 15.aug.1972, B-243, sift under termite nest, Berlese, S. & J. Peck (1Q) [ MCZC]; Pine Mtn. Ridge Rubber Camp, Macal River, N 1651′57″, W88 58′3″, 415m, 21 Feb 1992, leg Gary D. Alpert (1W, lost specimen) [ MCZC]. COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito   GoogleMaps , 1-4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (17W) [ MCZC]. COSTA RICA: Alajuela: 27k N & 8k W San Ramón, 14.vi. 1997, 950m, R. Anderson, #18698B, 10°13′30″N, 84°35′30″W, wet premontane forest, litter, 97-014 A, E.B. San Ramón, #97-014B (1W) [ MZSP]; Guanacaste: Parque Rinco de la Vieja, F. Fernández, oct.96 (1W) [ IHVL]; Maritza Field Station   GoogleMaps , 850m, 13.ii.1996, R. Anderson, #17663, Dry and Wet montane, Forest litter (6W) [ MZSP]; same except 875m, #17736, Forest transition litter, sample B (9W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17736 (2W) [ UFSC, UFGD]; 875m, #96-009, #17678, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans. litter (1W) [ MZSP]; 17.ii.96, #17737, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans., sample C (1W) [ MZSP]; #17737 (2W) [ DZSP]; #17737 (2W) [ MCZC]; #17735, sample B (3W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; #17734, sample A (1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; #96-010, 13.ii. 96, 950m, #17667, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans. litter (5W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; 13.xi.1996, #17668 (4W, one covered with gold) ( MZSP67461 View Materials ) [ MZSP]; #96-019, 17.ii. 96, 875m, #17666 (9W) [ MZSP]; Pitilla Field Station   GoogleMaps , 600m, 2.v.1995, R. Anderson, #17723, Berlese   GoogleMaps leaf litter, old growth Dry   GoogleMaps tropical forest, sample C, litter (4W) [ MZSP]; same except #17720 (2W) [ USNM]; #17722 (1W) [ MZSP]; Cacao Field Station   GoogleMaps , 96-008, 850m, 13.ii.96, R. Anderson, #17681, Dry   GoogleMaps tropical wet montane forest trans. litter (5W) [ MZSP]; #17681 (3W) [ UTLP, IHVL, CASC]; Heredia: P. Viejo, La Selva Biol. Station   GoogleMaps , 3.june.1996, M.E. Kaspari col., MEK45148.00b, H. dentiloba M. Kaspari   comp. type MCZ (2W) [ MCZC]; 11km ESE La Virgem, 10.35, -84.05 + 2km, 300m, 10.iv.2004, ALAS #03/WF/02/all montane wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1Q 2W) ( MZSP67471 View Materials , MZSP67672 View Materials , MZHY87) [ MZSP]; La Selva Biological Station   GoogleMaps , 10.41639, -84.02 + 500m, 50m, 16.iii.2004, TEAM #AMI-1-W-006-05, mature wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1Q 2W) [ JTLC]; Puntarenas: Est   GoogleMaps . Biol. Las Cruces, 4k S San Vito, 1150m, 19.vi.98, R. Anderson, 8°47′3″N, 82°59′36″W, Upper wet montane forest, litter extraction, 18662B (2W) [ MZSP]; same except 18662A (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662D (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662G (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662H (3W) [ MZSP]; 5k SW Est. Biol. Las Cruces, 1400m, 22.vi.98, R. Anderson, 18665C, 8°47′13″N, 82°59′13″W, Wet cloud forest, litter extraction (2W) [ MZSP]; same except 18665E (2W) [ MZSP]; 18665D (1W) [ MZSP]; 18665I (1W) [ MZSP]; 18665H (1W) [ MZSP]; 1425m, 18666A (2W) [ MZSP]; 18666B (2W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; 1100m, 8°47′N, 82°59′W, Wet cloud for, litter, 18660 (2W) [ MZSP]; 11k SW Est. Biol. Las Cruces, 9.vii.1999, 1450m, R. Anderson, #19908, 8°46′43″N, 83°01′50″W, Wet cloud forest, litter, 99-124A (1W) [ MZSP]; same except 99-124C, #19910 (1Q) [ MZSP]; Estacion Biol. Las Alturas, 10.vii.1999, 1520m, R. Anderson, 8°56′56″N, 82°50′01″W, Upper montane/cloud forest transitional, litter, 99.126B, #19905 (1W) [ MZSP]; same except 99.126D, #19907 (1W) (MZHY211) [ MZSP]; 2k NE Alturas, 1520m, 20.vi.1998, R. Anderson, 8°56′56″N, 82°50′01″W, Upper montane/cloud forest transitional, litter extraction, 18663Q (1W) [ MZSP]. HONDURAS: Cortés: PN Cusuco, 15.48713, -88.23472 + 20m, 1330m, 30.v.2010, LLAMA, #Wa-C-06-1-11, mesophyll forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz: 22.5km SO Panzós, Finca Pablo Juc, Cancoy, 10-12.iii.2013, 15.23036, -89.71507, 811m, bosque, winkler, F. Pacay col., 303-5 (1W) [ MCZC]; same except 122- 9 (2W) [ MZSP]; Finca Miguel Putul Tut, Cancoy, 4-6.iv.2013, 15.23252, -89.71961, 905m, bosque, winkler, F. Pacay col., 133-4 (1W), 289-1 (1Q) [ MZSP]; 24km SO Panzós, Finca Edgar Caal   GoogleMaps , San Vicente   GoogleMaps I, 24-26.viii.2012, 15.2424942, -89.774883, 1116m, café, winkler, F. Pacay col., 209-4 (1W) [ UTEP]; same except 20-22.iii.2013, 15.24317, -89.77438, 1135m, cardamomo, winkler, E. Sierra col., 331-8 (1W) [ USNM]; Petén: 13km NW Machaquilá, 16.44522, -89.55024 + 50m, 400m, 27.v.2009, LLAMA, #Wa-B-06-1-11, tropical forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. MEXICO: Chiapas: 12 mi NW Ocozocoautla, 3200ft, 4-5.ix.73, A. Newton (1Q 2W, one worker covered with gold) ( MZSP67453 View Materials ) [ MZSP]; same except forest litter (2W) [ MZSP]; berl. log & leaf litter (2W) [ MIZA]; (1W 1Q) [ MCZC]; hojarasca, madera podrida, A. Newton (3W) [ MIZA]; Ocozingo, 2.june.1969, J.M. Campbell col. (2W) [ MCZC]; Vera Cr. [Cruz]: Pueblo Nuevo, nr. Tetzonapa, Aug. 14-53, E.O. Wilson, #221, rain forest (1W 1Q 1M) [ MCZC]. NICARAGUA: Masilena Creek: near Bluefields, stomach of Bufo coniferus, W.M. Wheeler   (1W) [ MZSP]; RAAN: PN Cerro Saslaya, 13.76810, -84.98546 + 10m, 360m, 7.v.2011, LLAMA, #Wa-D-02-1-50, mature wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. PANAMA: Chiriqui: La Fortuna   GoogleMaps , area Finca la Suisse   GoogleMaps , 11.vi.95, R. Anderson, #17838, Oak   GoogleMaps ridge, forest litter (5W 2I) [ MZSP]; same data (1W 1I) [ DZUP]; (2W) [ IHVL]; (2W) [ UFSC]; (2W) [ CASC]; same except 10.vi.95, #17787, sample C (1W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17787 (1W 1I) [ USNM]; #17787 (1W 1I) [ MCZC]; #17788, Oak   GoogleMaps ridge, bamboo forest litter, sample E (4W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17789, sample D (6W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17789 (2W) [ UTLP]; #17790, Raparina   GoogleMaps oak, forest litter, sample F (5W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17839, Oak forest   GoogleMaps litter, 1200m (6W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17839 (3W) [ UFGD]; 20.4km North San Felix, 950m, 08.vi.95, R. Anderson, #17768, Wet mountain   GoogleMaps forest litter, sample B (1W 3I) [ MZSP].

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018  

Figures 76 View FIGURE 76 , 86 View FIGURE 86 (map)

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018: 203   (W). Holotype: BRAZIL: Bahia: Ibicuí, Serra das Piabas, 14°51′57.93″S, 40° 2′34.54″W, elev. 1070 m, 12.v.2017, Lacau S., Neves M.S., Rocha I.N., Oliveira M.L., Silveira B.A., Rodrigues F.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14015869 (1W) [CPDC] [examined by image]. GoogleMaps   Paratypes: same data as holotype, LBSA_SA_14016086, LBSA_SA_14016087, LBSA_SA_14016088, LBSA_SA_14016089, LBSA_SA_14016093, LBSA_SA_14016094, LBSA_SA_14016095, LBSA_SA_14016096, LBSA_SA_14016097 (9W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14016091 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image] GoogleMaps   ; same locality as holotype, 02.v.2017, LBSA_SA_14016100, LBSA_SA_14016101, LBSA_SA_14016102 (3W) [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it has not deposited there] [not examined] GoogleMaps   ; LBSA_SA_14016092, LBSA_SA_14016099, LBSA_SA_14016103 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; same locality as holotype, 29.vi.2008, Silva Jr M.R., Godinho L.B., Lacau S., Prado J.V., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14016104, LBSA_SA_14016105, LBSA_SA_14016109, LBSA_SA_14016110, LBSA_SA_14016111, LBSA_SA_14016115, LBSA_SA_14016116, LBSA_SA_14016117, LBSA_SA_14016118, LBSA_SA_14016119, LBSA_SA_14016120, LBSA_SA_14016123, LBSA_SA_14016124, LBSA_SA_14016125, LBSA_SA_14016126, LBSA_SA_14016128, LBSA_SA_14016129, LBSA_SA_14016162, LBSA_SA_14014791 (19W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14011273 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image]   ; LBSA_SA_14016106, LBSA_SA_14016107, LBSA_ SA_14016108 (3W) [ MZSP] [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it was not deposited there] [not examined]   ; LBSA_SA_14016112, LBSA_SA_14016113, LBSA_SA_14016114 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; 14°54′50.06′′S, 40°2′9.49″W, 951 m alt., 19.xi.2004, Jahyny B.J., Lacau S., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols, LBSA_SA_14011396, LBSA_SA_14011397 (2W) [ CPDC] [not examined]. GoogleMaps  

Worker ( Fig. 76A–C View FIGURE 76 ) Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between striae smooth, striae crest smooth; mesosoma covered with concentric and elliptical, regular and thick striae; longitudinal striae on lateral of pronotum and mesepisternum in part continuing transversely on propodeum and in part continuing on propodeal spine; transverse carina inconspicuous; propodeal spine midsized; dorsal margin of petiole continuous, strongly convex, mesoventral surface unarmed; petiole, postpetiole, subpostpetiolar process, profemur posterior surface, protibia extensor surface and tergum of first gastral segment smooth; subpostpetiolar process weak, convex.

QUEEN Unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. This species was named in honor of Dr. Claire Villemant, a French entomologist, curator of the Hymenoptera   Collection at Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris.

Comments. The diagnostic characters of this species are sufficient to easily distinguish it from most of its congeners. Still, Hylomyrma villemantae   is very similar to H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   . All three species have a strongly convex petiole, with indistinguishable petiolar peduncle and node, and the body mainly covered with regular and longitudinal striae. Even so, H. villemantae   can be easily distinguished from both (characteristic in parenthesis) in the striae on the head dorsum with smooth crests (vs. with punctuated crests), the mesosoma with few elliptical and concentric striae (vs. longitudinally striate), the longer propodeal spine (vs. shorter), the unarmed mesoventral surface of petiole (vs. armed), and the smooth dorsum of postpetiole and gaster (vs. with longitudinal striae). All three species are allopatric; H. villemantae   is recorded from Brazil (BA) ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ), whereas H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   occur in relatively close areas in northern South America (French Guiana, Guyana, and Venezuela) ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Distribution. This species occurs in Ibicuí and Itororó, Bahia, Brazil ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ).

Natural history. The biology of this species remains unknown. Type specimens were collected in leaf-litter with winkler extractors, at elevations between 951 and 1070 m in the region known as “ Serra   das Piabas”, a fragment of Atlantic forest in the Brazilian state of Bahia.

Additional material examined (1 worker): BRAZIL: BA[Bahia]: Itororó, [área] C, 08.08.00, 14.57.31S, 40.02.33W, Santos J.R.M. dos (1W) (MZHY199) [ MZSP]   .

Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 77 View FIGURE 77 , 78 View FIGURE 78 , 80D View FIGURE 80 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Holotype: ECUADOR: Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 25.vi.1976, B-355, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00524688) [ MCZC]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (5W) (MCZENT00525482, MCZENT00524690, MCZENT00525503, MCZENT00525523, MCZENT00524689) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525522 MZSP67462 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525518 MZHY196) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT 00525524) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525517) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525521) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525519) [ CASC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 18.vi.1976, B-348 (4W) (MCZENT00525501, MCZENT00524677, MCZENT00524676, MCZENT00525499) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525506 MZSP67463 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1Q) (MCZENT00524678 MZSP67464 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; 20km S of Tena , 600m, 11Jul 1976, B360, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00525490) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; Pichincha: Centr. Cient. R. Palenque , 20.xii.1980, Sonia Sandoval col., Bosque primario cerrado, 584 (1W covered with gold) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; Los Rios: C.C.R. Palenque , 79°45′10″W, 01°25′56″S, 02MAR1979, S. Sandoval (1Q) ( QCAZ I 114012 View Materials ) [ QCAZ] GoogleMaps   ; Pastaza: 22km SW Puyo, 15 July 1976, B-362, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1Q) (MCZENT00524681) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on head dorsum and mesosoma; petiole anterior surface well-marked; transverse striae on node ventral surface; longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole and tergum of first gastral segment; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex; profemur posterior surface mostly smooth; protibia extensor surface entirely striate; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; setae with 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis.

Description. WORKER (n=3) ( Fig. 77A–C View FIGURE 77 ): HL (0.94–1.04); HW (0.90–1.04); ML (0.66–0.70); SL (0.68–0.80); MOD (0.26–0.27); PNW (0.64–0.74); WL (1.24–1.40); PSL (0.28–0.38); PL (0.59–0.64); PW (0.24–0.27); PPL (0.36–0.40); PPW (0.36–0.38); GL (1.02–1.12); TL (4.94–5.20); CI (95.74–100.97); SI (73.07–77.67); OI (25– 28.90). Medium to large-sized. Shiny integument. Head, postpetiole and gaster dark brown, lighter mesosoma, leg and petiole. Thin and branched setae, long to midsized, erect to subdecumbent; 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis ( Fig. 80D View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus concave medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 5 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1–2 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Head dorsum with vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces smooth. Striae on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; very thin striae with interspaces indistinguishable (microsculpture) superimposed on vermicular to vermiculatedareolated striae (macrosculpture); gena striate, with the same striation of head lateral, 2–3 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on mesosoma, interspaces between thicker striae smooth on mesosoma dorsum and filled with thinner striae on mesosoma lateral. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma continuous, slightly convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length 1 / 2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine midsized, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa with thin and transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Irregular to regular transverse striae on profemur dorsal surface; posterior surface mostly smooth; anterior and ventral surface completely smooth. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous, smooth dorsum. Node with irregular and transverse striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface; vermiculated-areolated striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces; irregular and transverse striae on ventral surface, interspaces distinguishable. Longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole; subpostpetiolar process striae restricted to lateral region; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; long striae on tergum, 1 / 4 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering the laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 78A–C View FIGURE 78 ): HL (0.98–1.12); HW (1.01–1.10); ML (0.66–0.74); SL (0.76–0.90); MOD (0.28– 0.33); PNW (0.80–0.96); WL (1.48–1.72); PSL (0.35–0.43); PL (0.66–0.74); PW (0.26–0.30); PPL (0.40–0.44); PPW (0.40–0.49); GL (1.40–1.64); TL (5.58–6.40); CI (98.09–103.06); SI (75.24–81.81); OI (27.20–30). Largesized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13–14 ommatidia. Longitudinal, irregular to vermicular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum, katepisternum, axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermiculated-areolated, thicker striae directed mostly to propodeal dorsum, interspaces between striae smooth. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet virginiae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Virginia Leone Bicudo (1910–2003), a sociologist and psychoanalyst born in São Paulo, daughter of an Italian immigrant and a black Brazilian. She was the first non-medical practitioner to be recognized as a psychoanalyst, therefore essential for the development and institutionalization of psychoanalysis in Brazil. She was a pioneer in the study of relations between races, which was the subject of her dissertation in 1945.

Comments. Hylomyrma virginiae   is not known to co-occur with H. mitiae   or H. sagax   , but all three occur in northwestern South America. Hylomyrma virginiae   has been recorded in Ecuador (both sides of The Andes) and in western Colombia ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), whereas H. sagax   is restricted to southeast Colombia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ), and H. mitiae   only occurs in French Guiana ( Fig. 87 View FIGURE 87 ). Hylomyrma virginiae   is typically smaller (TL 4.94–5.20 mm, WL 1.24–1.40 mm) than H. mitiae   (TL 5.27–5.52 mm, WL 1.41–1.52 mm). Also, the gena and laterodorsal region of the head are covered by very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae (vs. very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces between the vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae in H. mitiae   ) (not seen in SEM images of H. mitiae   due to coating artifacts), the indistinct metanotal groove (vs. distinguished by slight depression), the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous), and the weak and slightly convex subpostpetiolar process (vs. very prominent and subtriangular). Hylomyrma virginiae   can be distinguished from H. sagax   (characteristic in parentheses) in the medium lateral teeth at clypeus anterior margin (vs. well-developed teeth), the propodeal spine comparatively shorter and thicker (vs. longer and needle-like), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

There are relatively few specimens collected of this species; most were sampled in Limoncocha, Ecuador. Specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have a more developed propodeal spine and subpostpetiolar process, and the anterior surface of petiolar node is slightly marked. These characteristics may lead to the misidentification of these specimens as H. sagax   , but their body size and sculpture are more similar to those found in H. virginiae   specimens recorded in Ecuador.

Distribution. Hylomyrma virginiae   is known from Colombia and Ecuador ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species occurs in tropical rainforests and areas of bamboo ( Guadua sp.   ) plantations, at elevations between 250 and 850 m. Specimens were collected in the leaf-litter, which suggests that nests are located in fallen logs, rotten wood, between leaves, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers.

Additional material examined (8 workers): COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito , 1–4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (6W) [ MCZC]; same except 610m, by river (1W) [ MCZC]; 850m, on ridge, litter (1W) [ MCZC]   .

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973  

Figures 73 View FIGURE 73 , 74 View FIGURE 74 , 75 View FIGURE 75 , 80F, 80J View FIGURE 80 , 81C View FIGURE 81 , 82C View FIGURE 82 , 88 View FIGURE 88 (map)

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973: 253   (W, Q). Holotype: BRIT. HONDURAS [ BELIZE: Cayo]: Belmopan , 7.viii.1972, S. & J. Peck, 2 nd growth forest, #244 (1W) ( MCZENT00035424 MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].   Paratypes: same data as holotype (1Q) ( MCZENT00594551 MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined]   ; (5W 2Q) ( MZSP67454 View Materials , MZSP67455 View Materials , MZSP67456 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; Caves Branch , viii.1972, S. & J. Peck (5W) ( MZSP67457 View Materials , MZSP67458 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; same data (10W 3Q) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined]   ; [Stann Creek]: Humming Bird Pass , 27mi NW Stann Creek, 19.viii.1972, S. & J. Peck, #246, forest litter, berlesate (1W) ( MZSP67459 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; same data (1W 1Q) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].   MEXICO: VeraCr.[Veracruz]: Pueblo Nuevo, nr. Tetzonapa, Aug.14 -53, E.O. Wilson col., #221, rain forest (1W) ( MZSP67460 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined]   ; same data (2W) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].  

Diagnosis. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum slightly diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae mostly smooth or filled with thinner striae; irregular striae on mesosoma mostly longitudinal, interspaces between thick and thin striae distinguishable by smooth areas; dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; petiole ventral surface almost entirely covered with transverse striae, anterior region smooth; node dorsal surface mostly covered with irregular striae; subpostpetiolar process smooth at middle and laterally striate; profemur and protibia mostly smooth; striae length on tergum slightly shorter than postpetiole length; branched setae of two types: 1) thin setae with multiple small branches of subequal size arising from the main axis; 2) thick setae flattened at its final half, with several branches of subequal size.

Redescription. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 73A–C View FIGURE 73 ): HL 0.94 (0.88–0.97); HW 0.86 (0.84–0.92); ML 0.56 (0.54–0.60); SL 0.60 (0.60–0.66); MOD 0.22 (0.22–0.25); PNW 0.62 (0.60–0.65); WL 1.20 (1.16–1.26); PSL 0.26 (0.22–0.26); PL 0.56 (0.52–0.60); PW 0.28 (0.25–0.28); PPL 0.32 (0.28–0.34); PPW 0.33 (0.33–0.35); GL 1 (1–1.14); TL 4.58 (4.40–4.88); CI 91.49 (91.30–95.83); SI 69.76 (69.56–75); OI 25.58 (23.80–27.17). Small-sized. Shiny integument. Brownish body, lighter appendices, darker gaster. Mostly thin setae, unbranched or branched, long to midsized, suberect to subdecumbent; branched setae of two types: 1) thin setae with multiple small branches of subequal size arising from the main axis, mostly in mesosoma ( Fig. 80F View FIGURE 80 ); 2) thick setae flattened in its final half, with several branches of subequal size, mainly in postpetiole and gaster ( Fig. 80J View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight to slightly concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of small teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 7–9 regular to irregular, longitudinal and thick striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces between thick striae mostly smooth. Frontal triangle with 1–3 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere as long as previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye reniform, midsized, larger diameter with 11 ommatidia. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, slightly divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae mostly smooth or filled with thinner and regular to irregular striae. Head lateral and laterodorsal regions with irregular to vermicular striae converging to eye margin; anterior laterodorsal region rugose; gena striate, 2–5 irregular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with irregular striae mostly longitudinal, interspaces between thick and thin striae distinguishable by smooth areas; transverse striae on pronotum anterior region (DV) directed towards lateral of pronotum, striae mostly longitudinal in other regions (DV). Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove discernible by a slight depression. Transverse carina inconspicuous. Dorsal margin of mesosoma discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length is slightly shorter than propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine short, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured. Procoxa with transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur and protibia mostly smooth.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; ventral surface almost entirely covered with transverse striae, anterior region smooth. Convex node; transverse, regular to irregular, striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface, interspaces distinguishable; mostly longitudinal, regular to irregular striae of variable thickness on dorsal surface, interspaces distinguishable. Postpetiole and lateral regions of subpostpetiolar process with regular, longitudinal, adjacent striae; subpostpetiolar process weak, straight to convex, smooth at middle.

First gastral segment striation thinner than postpetiole striae; striae length on tergum slightly shorter than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering all the basal region.

QUEEN (n=4) ( Fig. 74A–C View FIGURE 74 ): HL 0.98 (0.94–1); HW 0.90 (0.90–0.95); ML 0.61 (0.58–0.62); SL 0.66 (0.64– 0.70); MOD 0.26 (0.26–0.28); PNW 0.78 (0.74–0.82) CMS 1.44 (1.40–1.50); PSL 0.30 (0.26–0.30); PL 0.63 (0.63–0.70); PW 0.30 (0.28–0.30); PPL 0.34 (0.34–0.40); PPW 0.40 (0.38–0.42); GL 1.30 (1.24–1.36); TL 5.30 (5.18–5.58); CI 91.83 (91.83–95.92); SI 73.33 (71.11–73.68); OI 28.88 (28.88–29.78). Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 15 ommatidia. Longitudinal, regular to irregular and thick striae of variable thickness on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Longitudinal striae on anepisternum and katepisternum with interspaces distinguishable, striae mostly regular on anepisternum, irregular to vermicular on katepisternum. Axilla and scutellum with longitudinal, regular to irregular and slightly vermicular, with interspaces distinguishable. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and irregular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with longitudinal, mostly irregular to vermicular striae directed in part to propodeal dorsum and in part to propodeal spine, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Wings as in Fig. 81C. View FIGURE 81

MALE (first description) (n=1) ( Fig. 75A–C View FIGURE 75 ): HL 0.75; HW 0.68; ML 0.44; SL 0.25; MOD 0.30; PNW 0.62; WL 1.30; PL 0.54; PW 0.26; PPL 0.30; PPW 0.30; GL 1.06; TL 4.39; CI 90.66; SI 36.76; OI 44.11. Head, mesosoma and appendices light brown, other parts dark brown. Mandible with 5 teeth. Interspaces between thicker striae on head dorsum partly smooth and partly filled with thinner striae. Scutum mostly smooth on anterior region and with few thinner, regular to irregular striae on posterior region, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum mostly covered with longitudinal, regular and thinner striae, interspaces distinguishable; katepisternum mostly smooth. Scutellum with regular to irregular striae, thicker than scutum striae, interspaces distinguishable. Propodeum with irregular striae assuming multiple directions, interspaces distinguishable. Dorsal region of propodeal lobe forming a blunt tooth, ventral region rounded. Petiole dorsum covered with irregular striae assuming multiple directions, interspaces distinguishable. Postpetiole and gaster missing. Wings as in Fig. 82C View FIGURE 82 .

Etymology. Versutus (Latin) = crafty, sly. Probably the name versuta   refers to the difficulty in identifying this species, given its similarity with H. balzani   , according to comments made by Kempf (1973).

Comments. The study of the type specimens, in addition to specimens from Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, have allowed us to understand that this species has both unbranched and branched setae. The observation of the branched setae is difficult, because in some specimens the lateral branches are small, and also because sometimes both short and long branches collapse to the seta main axis, giving the wrong impression that the setae is unbranched and thick.

Hylomyrma versuta   is very similar to H. plumosa   . There are not great differences in body sculpture. In H. versuta   , the propodeum is laterally covered by thinner striae (microsculpture) with indistinguishable interspaces between irregular and thicker striae (macrosculpture), whereas H. plumosa   has thinner striae (microsculpture) with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on irregular and thicker striae (macrosculpture). The conspicuous and trifid setae of H. plumosa   are easily observed, but H. versuta   has unbranched and branched setae. Hylomyrma versuta   and H. plumosa   are restricted to Central America, co-occurring near La Virgen and in La Selva Biological Station, Heredia, Costa Rica. Hylomyrma plumosa   is only known from these two localities ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ), but H. versuta   has a broader distribution, from southern Mexico to western Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ). Molecular analysis using UCE and COI also confirms the proximity of these two species, with H. plumosa   sister to the H. cf. dentiloba   sp.2– H. versuta   clade ( Pierce et al. 2017). We emphasize that H. cf. dentiloba   sp.2 is understood here as the true H. dentiloba   , but the voucher specimens of sp.2 still need to be examined.

Pierce et al. (2017) stated that there are no known morphological differences between H. versuta   and H. dentiloba   , with both species being differentiated only in their geographical distribution. However, we found that H. versuta   can be distinguished from H. dentiloba   (the H. cf. dentiloba   sp.2) in the striation with distinguishable interspaces on the head dorsum (vs. striation with indistinguishable interspaces), the mesosoma and petiolar node covered by thinner striae with indistinguishable interspaces between on irregular and thicker striae (vs. thinner striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed irregular and thicker striae), the profemur predominantly smooth (vs. with regular and transverse striae weakly marked), the protibia predominantly smooth (vs. mainly covered with regular and weakly marked striae), and the longer striae on tergum of the first gastral segment (vs. shorter striae). Also, Hylomyrma versuta   can be distinguished from H. jeronimae   (the H. cf. dentiloba   sp.1) in the longitudinal striation on the mesosomal dorsum (vs. striae assuming multiple directions), the striae interspaces on the mesosoma distinguishable (vs. indistinguishable), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

Hylomyrma versuta   also resembles H. reitteri   (characteristic in parentheses), from which it can be distinguished in the irregular striae on the dorsum of head and mesosoma (vs. regular striae), the transverse striae on the ventral surface of petiolar node (vs. smooth surface), and the long striae on tergum of the first gastral segment (vs. short striae, restrict to its basal region). The two species are allopatric; Hylomyrma versuta   occurs in Central America and Colombia, and H. reitteri   in eastern Brazil and Paraguay.

There is morphological variation across the range of H. versuta   . Striae on the petiolar dorsum vary from being irregular and longitudinal or vermicular or transversal. The first two conditions are present in the type specimens of H. versuta   , and all three can be observed in the material from Chiquiri, Panama, and Costa Rica. Additionally, the striae on the mesosomal dorsum of the specimens from Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, vary from being more regular to irregular, and mostly longitudinal to forming semi-ellipses. The specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have an anteriorly divergent and posteriorly convergent striation on the most lateral regions of the mesial area of the head dorsum, and a drop-shaped eyes. Notwithstanding these two extremes of variation, and even being the first record to South America, we refer to the specimens from Colombia as H. versuta   until we have the opportunity to re-evaluate this material deposited at MCZC.

Intercastes are also present in this species, having the combination of the following characters: one inconspicuous central ocellus, and the metanotal groove discernible by a depression. In some specimens, darker areas on the head dorsum coincident with the ocelli location in winged queens are also observed.

Distribution. Hylomyrma versuta   is recorded in southern Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and western Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits sites at elevations between 50 and 1520 m. Most specimens were collected in the leaf-litter in wet montane forests, and a few were sampled in dry forest, bamboo, coffee and cardamom plantations. One specimen was collected from the stomach contents of Incilius coniferus (Cope, 1862)   in Nicaragua. Wilson observed a H. versuta   nest (firstly identified as H. columbica   and later as H. versuta   by Kempf) in captivity; workers captured flies, springtails, and other selected small invertebrates offered in the feeding chamber, where they fed directly the larvae ( Wheeler & Wheeler 1960).

Additional material examined (178 workers, 1male,16queens,21intercastes): BRIT. HONDURAS [ BELIZE: Cayo]: Caves Branch, 4–14.aug.1972, B-248, hi-canopy for., S. & J. Peck, berlese (1Q) [ MCZC]; Belmopan, 1- 15.aug.1972, B-243, sift under termite nest, Berlese, S. & J. Peck (1Q) [ MCZC]; Pine Mtn. Ridge Rubber Camp, Macal River, N 1651′57″, W88 58′3″, 415m, 21 Feb 1992, leg Gary D. Alpert (1W, lost specimen) [ MCZC]. COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito   GoogleMaps , 1-4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (17W) [ MCZC]. COSTA RICA: Alajuela: 27k N & 8k W San Ramón, 14.vi. 1997, 950m, R. Anderson, #18698B, 10°13′30″N, 84°35′30″W, wet premontane forest, litter, 97-014 A, E.B. San Ramón, #97-014B (1W) [ MZSP]; Guanacaste: Parque Rinco de la Vieja, F. Fernández, oct.96 (1W) [ IHVL]; Maritza Field Station   GoogleMaps , 850m, 13.ii.1996, R. Anderson, #17663, Dry and Wet montane, Forest litter (6W) [ MZSP]; same except 875m, #17736, Forest transition litter, sample B (9W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17736 (2W) [ UFSC, UFGD]; 875m, #96-009, #17678, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans. litter (1W) [ MZSP]; 17.ii.96, #17737, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans., sample C (1W) [ MZSP]; #17737 (2W) [ DZSP]; #17737 (2W) [ MCZC]; #17735, sample B (3W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; #17734, sample A (1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; #96-010, 13.ii. 96, 950m, #17667, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans. litter (5W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; 13.xi.1996, #17668 (4W, one covered with gold) ( MZSP67461 View Materials ) [ MZSP]; #96-019, 17.ii. 96, 875m, #17666 (9W) [ MZSP]; Pitilla Field Station   GoogleMaps , 600m, 2.v.1995, R. Anderson, #17723, Berlese   GoogleMaps leaf litter, old growth Dry   GoogleMaps tropical forest, sample C, litter (4W) [ MZSP]; same except #17720 (2W) [ USNM]; #17722 (1W) [ MZSP]; Cacao Field Station   GoogleMaps , 96-008, 850m, 13.ii.96, R. Anderson, #17681, Dry   GoogleMaps tropical wet montane forest trans. litter (5W) [ MZSP]; #17681 (3W) [ UTLP, IHVL, CASC]; Heredia: P. Viejo, La Selva Biol. Station   GoogleMaps , 3.june.1996, M.E. Kaspari col., MEK45148.00b, H. dentiloba M. Kaspari   comp. type MCZ (2W) [ MCZC]; 11km ESE La Virgem, 10.35, -84.05 + 2km, 300m, 10.iv.2004, ALAS #03/WF/02/all montane wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1Q 2W) ( MZSP67471 View Materials , MZSP67672 View Materials , MZHY87) [ MZSP]; La Selva Biological Station   GoogleMaps , 10.41639, -84.02 + 500m, 50m, 16.iii.2004, TEAM #AMI-1-W-006-05, mature wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1Q 2W) [ JTLC]; Puntarenas: Est   GoogleMaps . Biol. Las Cruces, 4k S San Vito, 1150m, 19.vi.98, R. Anderson, 8°47′3″N, 82°59′36″W, Upper wet montane forest, litter extraction, 18662B (2W) [ MZSP]; same except 18662A (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662D (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662G (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662H (3W) [ MZSP]; 5k SW Est. Biol. Las Cruces, 1400m, 22.vi.98, R. Anderson, 18665C, 8°47′13″N, 82°59′13″W, Wet cloud forest, litter extraction (2W) [ MZSP]; same except 18665E (2W) [ MZSP]; 18665D (1W) [ MZSP]; 18665I (1W) [ MZSP]; 18665H (1W) [ MZSP]; 1425m, 18666A (2W) [ MZSP]; 18666B (2W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; 1100m, 8°47′N, 82°59′W, Wet cloud for, litter, 18660 (2W) [ MZSP]; 11k SW Est. Biol. Las Cruces, 9.vii.1999, 1450m, R. Anderson, #19908, 8°46′43″N, 83°01′50″W, Wet cloud forest, litter, 99-124A (1W) [ MZSP]; same except 99-124C, #19910 (1Q) [ MZSP]; Estacion Biol. Las Alturas, 10.vii.1999, 1520m, R. Anderson, 8°56′56″N, 82°50′01″W, Upper montane/cloud forest transitional, litter, 99.126B, #19905 (1W) [ MZSP]; same except 99.126D, #19907 (1W) (MZHY211) [ MZSP]; 2k NE Alturas, 1520m, 20.vi.1998, R. Anderson, 8°56′56″N, 82°50′01″W, Upper montane/cloud forest transitional, litter extraction, 18663Q (1W) [ MZSP]. HONDURAS: Cortés: PN Cusuco, 15.48713, -88.23472 + 20m, 1330m, 30.v.2010, LLAMA, #Wa-C-06-1-11, mesophyll forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz: 22.5km SO Panzós, Finca Pablo Juc, Cancoy, 10-12.iii.2013, 15.23036, -89.71507, 811m, bosque, winkler, F. Pacay col., 303-5 (1W) [ MCZC]; same except 122- 9 (2W) [ MZSP]; Finca Miguel Putul Tut, Cancoy, 4-6.iv.2013, 15.23252, -89.71961, 905m, bosque, winkler, F. Pacay col., 133-4 (1W), 289-1 (1Q) [ MZSP]; 24km SO Panzós, Finca Edgar Caal   GoogleMaps , San Vicente   GoogleMaps I, 24-26.viii.2012, 15.2424942, -89.774883, 1116m, café, winkler, F. Pacay col., 209-4 (1W) [ UTEP]; same except 20-22.iii.2013, 15.24317, -89.77438, 1135m, cardamomo, winkler, E. Sierra col., 331-8 (1W) [ USNM]; Petén: 13km NW Machaquilá, 16.44522, -89.55024 + 50m, 400m, 27.v.2009, LLAMA, #Wa-B-06-1-11, tropical forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. MEXICO: Chiapas: 12 mi NW Ocozocoautla, 3200ft, 4-5.ix.73, A. Newton (1Q 2W, one worker covered with gold) ( MZSP67453 View Materials ) [ MZSP]; same except forest litter (2W) [ MZSP]; berl. log & leaf litter (2W) [ MIZA]; (1W 1Q) [ MCZC]; hojarasca, madera podrida, A. Newton (3W) [ MIZA]; Ocozingo, 2.june.1969, J.M. Campbell col. (2W) [ MCZC]; Vera Cr. [Cruz]: Pueblo Nuevo, nr. Tetzonapa, Aug. 14-53, E.O. Wilson, #221, rain forest (1W 1Q 1M) [ MCZC]. NICARAGUA: Masilena Creek: near Bluefields, stomach of Bufo coniferus, W.M. Wheeler   (1W) [ MZSP]; RAAN: PN Cerro Saslaya, 13.76810, -84.98546 + 10m, 360m, 7.v.2011, LLAMA, #Wa-D-02-1-50, mature wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. PANAMA: Chiriqui: La Fortuna   GoogleMaps , area Finca la Suisse   GoogleMaps , 11.vi.95, R. Anderson, #17838, Oak   GoogleMaps ridge, forest litter (5W 2I) [ MZSP]; same data (1W 1I) [ DZUP]; (2W) [ IHVL]; (2W) [ UFSC]; (2W) [ CASC]; same except 10.vi.95, #17787, sample C (1W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17787 (1W 1I) [ USNM]; #17787 (1W 1I) [ MCZC]; #17788, Oak   GoogleMaps ridge, bamboo forest litter, sample E (4W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17789, sample D (6W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17789 (2W) [ UTLP]; #17790, Raparina   GoogleMaps oak, forest litter, sample F (5W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17839, Oak forest   GoogleMaps litter, 1200m (6W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17839 (3W) [ UFGD]; 20.4km North San Felix, 950m, 08.vi.95, R. Anderson, #17768, Wet mountain   GoogleMaps forest litter, sample B (1W 3I) [ MZSP].

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018  

Figures 76 View FIGURE 76 , 86 View FIGURE 86 (map)

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018: 203   (W). Holotype: BRAZIL: Bahia: Ibicuí, Serra das Piabas, 14°51′57.93″S, 40° 2′34.54″W, elev. 1070 m, 12.v.2017, Lacau S., Neves M.S., Rocha I.N., Oliveira M.L., Silveira B.A., Rodrigues F.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14015869 (1W) [CPDC] [examined by image]. GoogleMaps   Paratypes: same data as holotype, LBSA_SA_14016086, LBSA_SA_14016087, LBSA_SA_14016088, LBSA_SA_14016089, LBSA_SA_14016093, LBSA_SA_14016094, LBSA_SA_14016095, LBSA_SA_14016096, LBSA_SA_14016097 (9W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14016091 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image] GoogleMaps   ; same locality as holotype, 02.v.2017, LBSA_SA_14016100, LBSA_SA_14016101, LBSA_SA_14016102 (3W) [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it has not deposited there] [not examined] GoogleMaps   ; LBSA_SA_14016092, LBSA_SA_14016099, LBSA_SA_14016103 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; same locality as holotype, 29.vi.2008, Silva Jr M.R., Godinho L.B., Lacau S., Prado J.V., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14016104, LBSA_SA_14016105, LBSA_SA_14016109, LBSA_SA_14016110, LBSA_SA_14016111, LBSA_SA_14016115, LBSA_SA_14016116, LBSA_SA_14016117, LBSA_SA_14016118, LBSA_SA_14016119, LBSA_SA_14016120, LBSA_SA_14016123, LBSA_SA_14016124, LBSA_SA_14016125, LBSA_SA_14016126, LBSA_SA_14016128, LBSA_SA_14016129, LBSA_SA_14016162, LBSA_SA_14014791 (19W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14011273 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image]   ; LBSA_SA_14016106, LBSA_SA_14016107, LBSA_ SA_14016108 (3W) [ MZSP] [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it was not deposited there] [not examined]   ; LBSA_SA_14016112, LBSA_SA_14016113, LBSA_SA_14016114 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; 14°54′50.06′′S, 40°2′9.49″W, 951 m alt., 19.xi.2004, Jahyny B.J., Lacau S., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols, LBSA_SA_14011396, LBSA_SA_14011397 (2W) [ CPDC] [not examined]. GoogleMaps  

Worker ( Fig. 76A–C View FIGURE 76 ) Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between striae smooth, striae crest smooth; mesosoma covered with concentric and elliptical, regular and thick striae; longitudinal striae on lateral of pronotum and mesepisternum in part continuing transversely on propodeum and in part continuing on propodeal spine; transverse carina inconspicuous; propodeal spine midsized; dorsal margin of petiole continuous, strongly convex, mesoventral surface unarmed; petiole, postpetiole, subpostpetiolar process, profemur posterior surface, protibia extensor surface and tergum of first gastral segment smooth; subpostpetiolar process weak, convex.

QUEEN Unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. This species was named in honor of Dr. Claire Villemant, a French entomologist, curator of the Hymenoptera   Collection at Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris.

Comments. The diagnostic characters of this species are sufficient to easily distinguish it from most of its congeners. Still, Hylomyrma villemantae   is very similar to H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   . All three species have a strongly convex petiole, with indistinguishable petiolar peduncle and node, and the body mainly covered with regular and longitudinal striae. Even so, H. villemantae   can be easily distinguished from both (characteristic in parenthesis) in the striae on the head dorsum with smooth crests (vs. with punctuated crests), the mesosoma with few elliptical and concentric striae (vs. longitudinally striate), the longer propodeal spine (vs. shorter), the unarmed mesoventral surface of petiole (vs. armed), and the smooth dorsum of postpetiole and gaster (vs. with longitudinal striae). All three species are allopatric; H. villemantae   is recorded from Brazil (BA) ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ), whereas H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   occur in relatively close areas in northern South America (French Guiana, Guyana, and Venezuela) ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Distribution. This species occurs in Ibicuí and Itororó, Bahia, Brazil ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ).

Natural history. The biology of this species remains unknown. Type specimens were collected in leaf-litter with winkler extractors, at elevations between 951 and 1070 m in the region known as “ Serra   das Piabas”, a fragment of Atlantic forest in the Brazilian state of Bahia.

Additional material examined (1 worker): BRAZIL: BA[Bahia]: Itororó, [área] C, 08.08.00, 14.57.31S, 40.02.33W, Santos J.R.M. dos (1W) (MZHY199) [ MZSP]   .

Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 77 View FIGURE 77 , 78 View FIGURE 78 , 80D View FIGURE 80 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Holotype: ECUADOR: Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 25.vi.1976, B-355, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00524688) [ MCZC]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (5W) (MCZENT00525482, MCZENT00524690, MCZENT00525503, MCZENT00525523, MCZENT00524689) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525522 MZSP67462 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525518 MZHY196) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT 00525524) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525517) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525521) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525519) [ CASC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 18.vi.1976, B-348 (4W) (MCZENT00525501, MCZENT00524677, MCZENT00524676, MCZENT00525499) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525506 MZSP67463 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1Q) (MCZENT00524678 MZSP67464 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; 20km S of Tena , 600m, 11Jul 1976, B360, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00525490) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; Pichincha: Centr. Cient. R. Palenque , 20.xii.1980, Sonia Sandoval col., Bosque primario cerrado, 584 (1W covered with gold) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; Los Rios: C.C.R. Palenque , 79°45′10″W, 01°25′56″S, 02MAR1979, S. Sandoval (1Q) ( QCAZ I 114012 View Materials ) [ QCAZ] GoogleMaps   ; Pastaza: 22km SW Puyo, 15 July 1976, B-362, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1Q) (MCZENT00524681) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on head dorsum and mesosoma; petiole anterior surface well-marked; transverse striae on node ventral surface; longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole and tergum of first gastral segment; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex; profemur posterior surface mostly smooth; protibia extensor surface entirely striate; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; setae with 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis.

Description. WORKER (n=3) ( Fig. 77A–C View FIGURE 77 ): HL (0.94–1.04); HW (0.90–1.04); ML (0.66–0.70); SL (0.68–0.80); MOD (0.26–0.27); PNW (0.64–0.74); WL (1.24–1.40); PSL (0.28–0.38); PL (0.59–0.64); PW (0.24–0.27); PPL (0.36–0.40); PPW (0.36–0.38); GL (1.02–1.12); TL (4.94–5.20); CI (95.74–100.97); SI (73.07–77.67); OI (25– 28.90). Medium to large-sized. Shiny integument. Head, postpetiole and gaster dark brown, lighter mesosoma, leg and petiole. Thin and branched setae, long to midsized, erect to subdecumbent; 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis ( Fig. 80D View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus concave medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 5 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1–2 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Head dorsum with vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces smooth. Striae on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; very thin striae with interspaces indistinguishable (microsculpture) superimposed on vermicular to vermiculatedareolated striae (macrosculpture); gena striate, with the same striation of head lateral, 2–3 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on mesosoma, interspaces between thicker striae smooth on mesosoma dorsum and filled with thinner striae on mesosoma lateral. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma continuous, slightly convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length 1 / 2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine midsized, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa with thin and transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Irregular to regular transverse striae on profemur dorsal surface; posterior surface mostly smooth; anterior and ventral surface completely smooth. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous, smooth dorsum. Node with irregular and transverse striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface; vermiculated-areolated striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces; irregular and transverse striae on ventral surface, interspaces distinguishable. Longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole; subpostpetiolar process striae restricted to lateral region; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; long striae on tergum, 1 / 4 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering the laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 78A–C View FIGURE 78 ): HL (0.98–1.12); HW (1.01–1.10); ML (0.66–0.74); SL (0.76–0.90); MOD (0.28– 0.33); PNW (0.80–0.96); WL (1.48–1.72); PSL (0.35–0.43); PL (0.66–0.74); PW (0.26–0.30); PPL (0.40–0.44); PPW (0.40–0.49); GL (1.40–1.64); TL (5.58–6.40); CI (98.09–103.06); SI (75.24–81.81); OI (27.20–30). Largesized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13–14 ommatidia. Longitudinal, irregular to vermicular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum, katepisternum, axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermiculated-areolated, thicker striae directed mostly to propodeal dorsum, interspaces between striae smooth. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet virginiae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Virginia Leone Bicudo (1910–2003), a sociologist and psychoanalyst born in São Paulo, daughter of an Italian immigrant and a black Brazilian. She was the first non-medical practitioner to be recognized as a psychoanalyst, therefore essential for the development and institutionalization of psychoanalysis in Brazil. She was a pioneer in the study of relations between races, which was the subject of her dissertation in 1945.

Comments. Hylomyrma virginiae   is not known to co-occur with H. mitiae   or H. sagax   , but all three occur in northwestern South America. Hylomyrma virginiae   has been recorded in Ecuador (both sides of The Andes) and in western Colombia ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), whereas H. sagax   is restricted to southeast Colombia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ), and H. mitiae   only occurs in French Guiana ( Fig. 87 View FIGURE 87 ). Hylomyrma virginiae   is typically smaller (TL 4.94–5.20 mm, WL 1.24–1.40 mm) than H. mitiae   (TL 5.27–5.52 mm, WL 1.41–1.52 mm). Also, the gena and laterodorsal region of the head are covered by very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae (vs. very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces between the vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae in H. mitiae   ) (not seen in SEM images of H. mitiae   due to coating artifacts), the indistinct metanotal groove (vs. distinguished by slight depression), the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous), and the weak and slightly convex subpostpetiolar process (vs. very prominent and subtriangular). Hylomyrma virginiae   can be distinguished from H. sagax   (characteristic in parentheses) in the medium lateral teeth at clypeus anterior margin (vs. well-developed teeth), the propodeal spine comparatively shorter and thicker (vs. longer and needle-like), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

There are relatively few specimens collected of this species; most were sampled in Limoncocha, Ecuador. Specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have a more developed propodeal spine and subpostpetiolar process, and the anterior surface of petiolar node is slightly marked. These characteristics may lead to the misidentification of these specimens as H. sagax   , but their body size and sculpture are more similar to those found in H. virginiae   specimens recorded in Ecuador.

Distribution. Hylomyrma virginiae   is known from Colombia and Ecuador ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species occurs in tropical rainforests and areas of bamboo ( Guadua sp.   ) plantations, at elevations between 250 and 850 m. Specimens were collected in the leaf-litter, which suggests that nests are located in fallen logs, rotten wood, between leaves, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers.

Additional material examined (8 workers): COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito , 1–4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (6W) [ MCZC]; same except 610m, by river (1W) [ MCZC]; 850m, on ridge, litter (1W) [ MCZC]   .

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018  

Figures 76 View FIGURE 76 , 86 View FIGURE 86 (map)

Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018: 203   (W). Holotype: BRAZIL: Bahia: Ibicuí, Serra das Piabas, 14°51′57.93″S, 40° 2′34.54″W, elev. 1070 m, 12.v.2017, Lacau S., Neves M.S., Rocha I.N., Oliveira M.L., Silveira B.A., Rodrigues F.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14015869 (1W) [CPDC] [examined by image]. GoogleMaps   Paratypes: same data as holotype, LBSA_SA_14016086, LBSA_SA_14016087, LBSA_SA_14016088, LBSA_SA_14016089, LBSA_SA_14016093, LBSA_SA_14016094, LBSA_SA_14016095, LBSA_SA_14016096, LBSA_SA_14016097 (9W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14016091 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image] GoogleMaps   ; same locality as holotype, 02.v.2017, LBSA_SA_14016100, LBSA_SA_14016101, LBSA_SA_14016102 (3W) [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it has not deposited there] [not examined] GoogleMaps   ; LBSA_SA_14016092, LBSA_SA_14016099, LBSA_SA_14016103 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; same locality as holotype, 29.vi.2008, Silva Jr M.R., Godinho L.B., Lacau S., Prado J.V., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols., LBSA_SA_14016104, LBSA_SA_14016105, LBSA_SA_14016109, LBSA_SA_14016110, LBSA_SA_14016111, LBSA_SA_14016115, LBSA_SA_14016116, LBSA_SA_14016117, LBSA_SA_14016118, LBSA_SA_14016119, LBSA_SA_14016120, LBSA_SA_14016123, LBSA_SA_14016124, LBSA_SA_14016125, LBSA_SA_14016126, LBSA_SA_14016128, LBSA_SA_14016129, LBSA_SA_14016162, LBSA_SA_14014791 (19W) [ CPDC] [not examined] GoogleMaps   , LBSA_SA_14011273 (1W) [ CPDC] [examined by image]   ; LBSA_SA_14016106, LBSA_SA_14016107, LBSA_ SA_14016108 (3W) [ MZSP] [according Neves & Lacau (2018) this material should be at MZSP, but it was not deposited there] [not examined]   ; LBSA_SA_14016112, LBSA_SA_14016113, LBSA_SA_14016114 (3W) [ MPEG] [not examined]   ; 14°54′50.06′′S, 40°2′9.49″W, 951 m alt., 19.xi.2004, Jahyny B.J., Lacau S., Ramos Lacau L.S. cols, LBSA_SA_14011396, LBSA_SA_14011397 (2W) [ CPDC] [not examined]. GoogleMaps  

Worker ( Fig. 76A–C View FIGURE 76 ) Diagnosis. Regular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between striae smooth, striae crest smooth; mesosoma covered with concentric and elliptical, regular and thick striae; longitudinal striae on lateral of pronotum and mesepisternum in part continuing transversely on propodeum and in part continuing on propodeal spine; transverse carina inconspicuous; propodeal spine midsized; dorsal margin of petiole continuous, strongly convex, mesoventral surface unarmed; petiole, postpetiole, subpostpetiolar process, profemur posterior surface, protibia extensor surface and tergum of first gastral segment smooth; subpostpetiolar process weak, convex.

QUEEN Unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. This species was named in honor of Dr. Claire Villemant, a French entomologist, curator of the Hymenoptera   Collection at Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris.

Comments. The diagnostic characters of this species are sufficient to easily distinguish it from most of its congeners. Still, Hylomyrma villemantae   is very similar to H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   . All three species have a strongly convex petiole, with indistinguishable petiolar peduncle and node, and the body mainly covered with regular and longitudinal striae. Even so, H. villemantae   can be easily distinguished from both (characteristic in parenthesis) in the striae on the head dorsum with smooth crests (vs. with punctuated crests), the mesosoma with few elliptical and concentric striae (vs. longitudinally striate), the longer propodeal spine (vs. shorter), the unarmed mesoventral surface of petiole (vs. armed), and the smooth dorsum of postpetiole and gaster (vs. with longitudinal striae). All three species are allopatric; H. villemantae   is recorded from Brazil (BA) ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ), whereas H. peetersi   and H. margaridae   occur in relatively close areas in northern South America (French Guiana, Guyana, and Venezuela) ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Distribution. This species occurs in Ibicuí and Itororó, Bahia, Brazil ( Fig. 86 View FIGURE 86 ).

Natural history. The biology of this species remains unknown. Type specimens were collected in leaf-litter with winkler extractors, at elevations between 951 and 1070 m in the region known as “ Serra   das Piabas”, a fragment of Atlantic forest in the Brazilian state of Bahia.

Additional material examined (1 worker): BRAZIL: BA[Bahia]: Itororó, [área] C, 08.08.00, 14.57.31S, 40.02.33W, Santos J.R.M. dos (1W) (MZHY199) [ MZSP]   .

Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 77 View FIGURE 77 , 78 View FIGURE 78 , 80D View FIGURE 80 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Holotype: ECUADOR: Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 25.vi.1976, B-355, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00524688) [ MCZC]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (5W) (MCZENT00525482, MCZENT00524690, MCZENT00525503, MCZENT00525523, MCZENT00524689) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525522 MZSP67462 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525518 MZHY196) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT 00525524) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525517) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525521) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525519) [ CASC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 18.vi.1976, B-348 (4W) (MCZENT00525501, MCZENT00524677, MCZENT00524676, MCZENT00525499) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525506 MZSP67463 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1Q) (MCZENT00524678 MZSP67464 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; 20km S of Tena , 600m, 11Jul 1976, B360, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00525490) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; Pichincha: Centr. Cient. R. Palenque , 20.xii.1980, Sonia Sandoval col., Bosque primario cerrado, 584 (1W covered with gold) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; Los Rios: C.C.R. Palenque , 79°45′10″W, 01°25′56″S, 02MAR1979, S. Sandoval (1Q) ( QCAZ I 114012 View Materials ) [ QCAZ] GoogleMaps   ; Pastaza: 22km SW Puyo, 15 July 1976, B-362, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1Q) (MCZENT00524681) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on head dorsum and mesosoma; petiole anterior surface well-marked; transverse striae on node ventral surface; longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole and tergum of first gastral segment; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex; profemur posterior surface mostly smooth; protibia extensor surface entirely striate; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; setae with 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis.

Description. WORKER (n=3) ( Fig. 77A–C View FIGURE 77 ): HL (0.94–1.04); HW (0.90–1.04); ML (0.66–0.70); SL (0.68–0.80); MOD (0.26–0.27); PNW (0.64–0.74); WL (1.24–1.40); PSL (0.28–0.38); PL (0.59–0.64); PW (0.24–0.27); PPL (0.36–0.40); PPW (0.36–0.38); GL (1.02–1.12); TL (4.94–5.20); CI (95.74–100.97); SI (73.07–77.67); OI (25– 28.90). Medium to large-sized. Shiny integument. Head, postpetiole and gaster dark brown, lighter mesosoma, leg and petiole. Thin and branched setae, long to midsized, erect to subdecumbent; 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis ( Fig. 80D View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus concave medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 5 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1–2 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Head dorsum with vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces smooth. Striae on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; very thin striae with interspaces indistinguishable (microsculpture) superimposed on vermicular to vermiculatedareolated striae (macrosculpture); gena striate, with the same striation of head lateral, 2–3 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on mesosoma, interspaces between thicker striae smooth on mesosoma dorsum and filled with thinner striae on mesosoma lateral. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma continuous, slightly convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length 1 / 2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine midsized, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa with thin and transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Irregular to regular transverse striae on profemur dorsal surface; posterior surface mostly smooth; anterior and ventral surface completely smooth. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous, smooth dorsum. Node with irregular and transverse striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface; vermiculated-areolated striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces; irregular and transverse striae on ventral surface, interspaces distinguishable. Longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole; subpostpetiolar process striae restricted to lateral region; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; long striae on tergum, 1 / 4 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering the laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 78A–C View FIGURE 78 ): HL (0.98–1.12); HW (1.01–1.10); ML (0.66–0.74); SL (0.76–0.90); MOD (0.28– 0.33); PNW (0.80–0.96); WL (1.48–1.72); PSL (0.35–0.43); PL (0.66–0.74); PW (0.26–0.30); PPL (0.40–0.44); PPW (0.40–0.49); GL (1.40–1.64); TL (5.58–6.40); CI (98.09–103.06); SI (75.24–81.81); OI (27.20–30). Largesized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13–14 ommatidia. Longitudinal, irregular to vermicular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum, katepisternum, axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermiculated-areolated, thicker striae directed mostly to propodeal dorsum, interspaces between striae smooth. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet virginiae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Virginia Leone Bicudo (1910–2003), a sociologist and psychoanalyst born in São Paulo, daughter of an Italian immigrant and a black Brazilian. She was the first non-medical practitioner to be recognized as a psychoanalyst, therefore essential for the development and institutionalization of psychoanalysis in Brazil. She was a pioneer in the study of relations between races, which was the subject of her dissertation in 1945.

Comments. Hylomyrma virginiae   is not known to co-occur with H. mitiae   or H. sagax   , but all three occur in northwestern South America. Hylomyrma virginiae   has been recorded in Ecuador (both sides of The Andes) and in western Colombia ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), whereas H. sagax   is restricted to southeast Colombia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ), and H. mitiae   only occurs in French Guiana ( Fig. 87 View FIGURE 87 ). Hylomyrma virginiae   is typically smaller (TL 4.94–5.20 mm, WL 1.24–1.40 mm) than H. mitiae   (TL 5.27–5.52 mm, WL 1.41–1.52 mm). Also, the gena and laterodorsal region of the head are covered by very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae (vs. very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces between the vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae in H. mitiae   ) (not seen in SEM images of H. mitiae   due to coating artifacts), the indistinct metanotal groove (vs. distinguished by slight depression), the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous), and the weak and slightly convex subpostpetiolar process (vs. very prominent and subtriangular). Hylomyrma virginiae   can be distinguished from H. sagax   (characteristic in parentheses) in the medium lateral teeth at clypeus anterior margin (vs. well-developed teeth), the propodeal spine comparatively shorter and thicker (vs. longer and needle-like), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

There are relatively few specimens collected of this species; most were sampled in Limoncocha, Ecuador. Specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have a more developed propodeal spine and subpostpetiolar process, and the anterior surface of petiolar node is slightly marked. These characteristics may lead to the misidentification of these specimens as H. sagax   , but their body size and sculpture are more similar to those found in H. virginiae   specimens recorded in Ecuador.

Distribution. Hylomyrma virginiae   is known from Colombia and Ecuador ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species occurs in tropical rainforests and areas of bamboo ( Guadua sp.   ) plantations, at elevations between 250 and 850 m. Specimens were collected in the leaf-litter, which suggests that nests are located in fallen logs, rotten wood, between leaves, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers.

Additional material examined (8 workers): COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito , 1–4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (6W) [ MCZC]; same except 610m, by river (1W) [ MCZC]; 850m, on ridge, litter (1W) [ MCZC]   .

Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa   new species

Figures 77 View FIGURE 77 , 78 View FIGURE 78 , 80D View FIGURE 80 , 89 View FIGURE 89 (map)

Holotype: ECUADOR: Napo: Limoncocha , 250m, 25.vi.1976, B-355, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00524688) [ MCZC]   . Paratypes: same data as holotype (5W) (MCZENT00525482, MCZENT00524690, MCZENT00525503, MCZENT00525523, MCZENT00524689) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525522 MZSP67462 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525518 MZHY196) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT 00525524) [ USNM] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525517) [ DZUP] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525521) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525519) [ CASC] GoogleMaps   ; same except 18.vi.1976, B-348 (4W) (MCZENT00525501, MCZENT00524677, MCZENT00524676, MCZENT00525499) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; (1W) (MCZENT00525506 MZSP67463 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; (1Q) (MCZENT00524678 MZSP67464 View Materials ) [ MZSP] GoogleMaps   ; 20km S of Tena , 600m, 11Jul 1976, B360, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1W) (MCZENT00525490) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   ; Pichincha: Centr. Cient. R. Palenque , 20.xii.1980, Sonia Sandoval col., Bosque primario cerrado, 584 (1W covered with gold) [ IHVL] GoogleMaps   ; Los Rios: C.C.R. Palenque , 79°45′10″W, 01°25′56″S, 02MAR1979, S. Sandoval (1Q) ( QCAZ I 114012 View Materials ) [ QCAZ] GoogleMaps   ; Pastaza: 22km SW Puyo, 15 July 1976, B-362, S. & J. Peck [leg.] (1Q) (MCZENT00524681) [ MCZC] GoogleMaps   .

Diagnosis. Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on head dorsum and mesosoma; petiole anterior surface well-marked; transverse striae on node ventral surface; longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole and tergum of first gastral segment; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex; profemur posterior surface mostly smooth; protibia extensor surface entirely striate; long striae on tergum of first gastral segment; setae with 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis.

Description. WORKER (n=3) ( Fig. 77A–C View FIGURE 77 ): HL (0.94–1.04); HW (0.90–1.04); ML (0.66–0.70); SL (0.68–0.80); MOD (0.26–0.27); PNW (0.64–0.74); WL (1.24–1.40); PSL (0.28–0.38); PL (0.59–0.64); PW (0.24–0.27); PPL (0.36–0.40); PPW (0.36–0.38); GL (1.02–1.12); TL (4.94–5.20); CI (95.74–100.97); SI (73.07–77.67); OI (25– 28.90). Medium to large-sized. Shiny integument. Head, postpetiole and gaster dark brown, lighter mesosoma, leg and petiole. Thin and branched setae, long to midsized, erect to subdecumbent; 2 short branches of equal size arising from the main axis ( Fig. 80D View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus concave medially, with a pair of medium teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 5 irregular and longitudinal striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces distinguishable. Frontal triangle with 1–2 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere slightly shorter than previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye drop-shaped, small-sized, larger diameter with 10 ommatidia. Head dorsum with vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae, divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces smooth. Striae on head lateral and laterodorsal regions converge to eye margin; very thin striae with interspaces indistinguishable (microsculpture) superimposed on vermicular to vermiculatedareolated striae (macrosculpture); gena striate, with the same striation of head lateral, 2–3 regular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae on mesosoma, interspaces between thicker striae smooth on mesosoma dorsum and filled with thinner striae on mesosoma lateral. Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove indistinct. Transverse carina well-marked. Dorsal margin of mesosoma continuous, slightly convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length 1 / 2 of propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine midsized, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured on base. Procoxa with thin and transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Irregular to regular transverse striae on profemur dorsal surface; posterior surface mostly smooth; anterior and ventral surface completely smooth. Protibia extensor surface entirely striate.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous, smooth dorsum. Node with irregular and transverse striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface; vermiculated-areolated striae on lateral and dorsal surfaces; irregular and transverse striae on ventral surface, interspaces distinguishable. Longitudinal and anastomosed striae on postpetiole; subpostpetiolar process striae restricted to lateral region; subpostpetiolar process weak, slightly convex.

First gastral segment striation similar to postpetiole striae; long striae on tergum, 1 / 4 longer than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering the laterobasal region.

QUEEN (n=3) ( Fig. 78A–C View FIGURE 78 ): HL (0.98–1.12); HW (1.01–1.10); ML (0.66–0.74); SL (0.76–0.90); MOD (0.28– 0.33); PNW (0.80–0.96); WL (1.48–1.72); PSL (0.35–0.43); PL (0.66–0.74); PW (0.26–0.30); PPL (0.40–0.44); PPW (0.40–0.49); GL (1.40–1.64); TL (5.58–6.40); CI (98.09–103.06); SI (75.24–81.81); OI (27.20–30). Largesized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 13–14 ommatidia. Longitudinal, irregular to vermicular striae on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum, katepisternum, axilla and scutellum with the same sculpture of scutum. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and regular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with irregular to vermiculated-areolated, thicker striae directed mostly to propodeal dorsum, interspaces between striae smooth. Wings unknown.

MALE Unknown.

Etymology. The epithet virginiae   is a Latin noun in the genitive case created by adding the singular Latin genitive case suffix -e to the first name of a female person. This species is named in honor of Virginia Leone Bicudo (1910–2003), a sociologist and psychoanalyst born in São Paulo, daughter of an Italian immigrant and a black Brazilian. She was the first non-medical practitioner to be recognized as a psychoanalyst, therefore essential for the development and institutionalization of psychoanalysis in Brazil. She was a pioneer in the study of relations between races, which was the subject of her dissertation in 1945.

Comments. Hylomyrma virginiae   is not known to co-occur with H. mitiae   or H. sagax   , but all three occur in northwestern South America. Hylomyrma virginiae   has been recorded in Ecuador (both sides of The Andes) and in western Colombia ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ), whereas H. sagax   is restricted to southeast Colombia ( Fig. 83 View FIGURE 83 ), and H. mitiae   only occurs in French Guiana ( Fig. 87 View FIGURE 87 ). Hylomyrma virginiae   is typically smaller (TL 4.94–5.20 mm, WL 1.24–1.40 mm) than H. mitiae   (TL 5.27–5.52 mm, WL 1.41–1.52 mm). Also, the gena and laterodorsal region of the head are covered by very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae (vs. very thin striae with indistinguishable interspaces between the vermicular to vermiculated-areolated striae in H. mitiae   ) (not seen in SEM images of H. mitiae   due to coating artifacts), the indistinct metanotal groove (vs. distinguished by slight depression), the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous), and the weak and slightly convex subpostpetiolar process (vs. very prominent and subtriangular). Hylomyrma virginiae   can be distinguished from H. sagax   (characteristic in parentheses) in the medium lateral teeth at clypeus anterior margin (vs. well-developed teeth), the propodeal spine comparatively shorter and thicker (vs. longer and needle-like), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

There are relatively few specimens collected of this species; most were sampled in Limoncocha, Ecuador. Specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have a more developed propodeal spine and subpostpetiolar process, and the anterior surface of petiolar node is slightly marked. These characteristics may lead to the misidentification of these specimens as H. sagax   , but their body size and sculpture are more similar to those found in H. virginiae   specimens recorded in Ecuador.

Distribution. Hylomyrma virginiae   is known from Colombia and Ecuador ( Fig. 89 View FIGURE 89 ).

Natural history. This species occurs in tropical rainforests and areas of bamboo ( Guadua sp.   ) plantations, at elevations between 250 and 850 m. Specimens were collected in the leaf-litter, which suggests that nests are located in fallen logs, rotten wood, between leaves, or inside natural cavities of the superficial soil layers.

Additional material examined (8 workers): COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito , 1–4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp.   litter (6W) [ MCZC]; same except 610m, by river (1W) [ MCZC]; 850m, on ridge, litter (1W) [ MCZC]   .

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

UTEP

University of Texas at El Paso Biodiversity Collections

MIZA

Museo del Instituto de Zoologia Agricola Francisco Fernandez Yepez

QCAZ

Museo de Zoologia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Ecuador

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Loc

Hylomyrma transversa Kempf, 1973 Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973 Hylomyrma villemantae Neves & Lacau, 2018 Hylomyrma virginiae Ulysséa

Ulysséa, Mônica Antunes 2021
2021
Loc

Hylomyrma villemantae

Neves, M. S. & Jahyny, B. J. B. & Lacau, L. S. R. & D'Esquivel, M. S. & Oliveira, M. L. & Delabie, J. H. C. & Lacau, S. 2018: 203
2018
Loc

Hylomyrma transversa

Kempf, W. W. 1973: 250
1973
Loc

Hylomyrma versuta

Kempf, W. W. 1973: 253
1973