Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) DC

Kriebel, Ricardo, 2016, A Monograph of Conostegia (Melastomataceae, Miconieae), PhytoKeys 67, pp. 1-326 : 232-237

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Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) DC


Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) DC Figs 200 View Figure 200 , 201 View Figure 201

Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) DC, Prodr. 3: 175. 1828. Melastoma xalapense Bonpl., Melast. 126, t. 54. 1806-1816. Type: Mexico. Jalisco: Rio Papagayo, no date, A. Bonpland s.n. (holotype: P!).

Miconia xalapensis (Bonpl.) M. Gómez, Anal. Hist. Nat. Madrid 23: 69. 1894.

Miconia rostrata (Bertol.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 28: 131. 1872. Basionym: Melastoma rostratum Bertol., Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bononiensis 4: 417. 1840. Type: Guatemala. Antigua: J. Velsquez s.n. (holotype: BOLO).

Miconia umbilicata (Bertol.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. London 28: 131. 1872. Basionym: Melastoma umbilicatum Bertol., Novi Comment. Acad. Sci. Inst. Bononiensis 4: 416. 1840. Type: Guatemala. Escuintla: J. Velsquez s.n. (holotype: BOLO).

Conostegia acutidentata Rich, Ess. Flo Cuba 558. 1845. Type: Cuba. Vuelta de Abajo, Cuba, J. Valenzuela. I have not seen this specimen. Schnell (1996) states that the description of the leaves, "leaves little room for doubt" it is this species.

Conostegia lanceolata Cogn, DC. Monog. Phan. 7: 708. 1891. Type: Costa Rica. San Jose: Salitral de Desamparados, May 1889, H. Pittier 1144 (lectotype BR!, designated here; isolectotypes LE, M). The specimen at M has the name H. Pittier scratched off leaving Tonduz as the colector. Other syntypes: Costa Rica: San Jose, Wendland 639 (BR, GOET) and 1092 (GOET); Aguacate, Oersted 2836 (holotype: C).

Conostegia lanceolata var. subtrinervia Cogn., Bull. Soc. Roy. Bot. Belgique 30: 253. 1892. Type: Costa Rica. San José: H. Pittier 1144 (holotype: BR!).

Conostegia minutiflora Rose, Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 8(4): 327, t. 71. 1905. Type: Mexico. Oaxaca: Plunia, 17 March 1895, E. W. Nelson 2493 (holotype: US!; isotype: GH!).

Conostegia viridis Cogn. ex Donn. Sm, Bot. Gaz. 20: 286. 1895. Type: Guatemala. Retalhuleu: San Felipe, April 1892, J. Smith 2650 (holotype: BR!; isotypes: K!, M!, US!).

Conostegia minutiflora Rose, Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 8: 327. 1905. Type: Mexico. Oaxaca: Plunia, 17 March 1895, E. Nelson 2493a (holotype: US!, isotype: GH!).


Shrubs or trees 0.5-12 m tall with apically flattened stems which become terete with age and which are covered by a dense tomentum of sessile stellate trichomes; the nodal line present but sometimes invisible from the indument. Leaves of a pair equal to slightly unequal in length. Petioles 0.5-5.1 cm long. Leaf blade 3-18.6 × 0.9-8.8 cm, 3-5 plinerved, with the innermost pair of primary veins diverging from the midvein 0.3-1.5 cm above the base in opposite to alternate fashion, ovate-oblong, or narrowly to broadly ovate, the base acute to subcordate, the apex acute to acuminate, the margin dentate or denticulate, the adaxial surface glabrous, the abaxial surface white, grey, brown or reddish from the dense tomentum of sessile stellate trichomes. Inflorescence a terminal panicle 2.3-20 cm long, branched at or above the base, accessory branches absent or present, the rachis covered by sessile stellate trichomes, the bracteoles 0.5-3.25 mm, linear, deciduous or persistent. Pedicel absent or to 1.25 mm. the hypanthium 2-4 × 2-3.5 mm, covered by stellate hairs. Flowers (4-)5(-7) merous, pyriform, calyptrate, floral buds 3-8.75 × 1.75-5 mm, the base rounded, the apex acute to apiculate and sometimes with inconspicuous calyx teeth looking appendages at the top of the calyptra, scarcely constricted below the middle. Petals 3-8 × 1.5-3.25 mm, white or pink, obovate, spreading at anthesis, glabrous, rounded to emarginated apically. Stamens (9-)10(-15), 4-7 mm, androecium slightly zygomorphic, the filaments 2.2-4.25 mm, white, the filament geniculation just below the thecae, anthers 1.8-3.25 × 0.5-1.25 mm, elliptic to oblong, yellow, laterally compressed, the pore 0.1-0.2 mm, slightly ventrally inclined. Ovary (4-)5(-6) locular, inferior, apically glabrous and forming a small collar around the style base. Style 3-6.25 mm, bent away from anthers just below the stigma, vertical distance from the anther to the stigma ca. 0 mm, horizontal distance absent, the stigma punctiform to slightly expanded, 0.5-1 mm wide. Berry 4-7 × 4-7 mm, dark purple to black. Seeds 1-1.4 mm long, broadly pyramidal or rounded, the testa smooth.


(Fig. 202 View Figure 202 ). From Mexico south to Panama and reaching central and northern Colombia, also in Cuba, from sea level to 2880 m in elevation.

Conostegia xalapensis has one of the widest distribution of any species in the genus and is by far the most commonly collected species. It is a weedy species and is probably expanding its range in the present. With this wide distributional range also comes morphological variation. Schnell (1996) characterized several morphotypes within Conostegia xalapensis . Of these, I have observed two of them which are here illustrated (Figs 201 View Figure 201 , 202 View Figure 202 ). The specimen Kriebel 5619 (NY) from Sierra Caral, Izabal, Guatemala which is a low elevation rainforest locality, has diplostemonous flowers with small pink petals. This morphotype matches Conostegia viridis , a species Cogniaux recognized. The specimen Kriebel 5629 (INB) from higher elevations in the Cerros de Escazú, San José, Costa Rica, has pleiostemonous flowers with larger white petals and matches another species recognized by Cogniaux, Conostegia lanceolata . These extremes look different but there are many populations that seem to bridge their extreme morphologies. Further genetic work is needed to test if some of these populations, which have been given other names, in fact, correspond to distinct species. The accumulation of aluminum by this species has been demonstrated experimentally ( González-Santana et al. 2012).

Specimens examined.

CUBA. Oriente: ladera sur de Cajálbana, 15 kms de La Palma hacia Mil Cumbres, Berazaín, Baker and Reeves 71858 (NY); Vicinity of Herradura, Britton et al. 6362 (NY); on Guane road, Britton, Britton and Gager 7207 (NY); San Isidro, Britton, Wilson and Leon 13948 (NY); El Pinar (pine wood) not far from San Diego de los Barrios, León 4257 (NY); Pan de Guajaibón rail from village of San Juan de Sagua and base of Pan de Guajaibón, Clark et al. 10592 (NY); Highway Luis Lazo towards Cabeza, between Valle Isabel Maria and Mestanza (ca. 9 air km northwest of Pinar del Rio), Clark 11983 (NY); Lomas de Candelaria, Earle 1618 (NY); Sierra de los Organos, San Claudio, Pinar de Lexhuza, Ekman 10545 (NY); junto a Soroa 4-5 km al norte sobre serpentinas, Fernández and Morales 10752 (MO, NY); Municipio San Cristobal cerca de Cinco Pesos, Greuter, Rankin and Silva 25800 (NY); Mantua to Arroyos, Shafer 11240 (MO, NY); Los Palacios to Herradura, Shafer 11722 (MO, NY); Los Palacios to San Pablo de Las Yeguas, Shafer 11930 (MO, NY).

MEXICO. Chiapas: 13 km north of Berriozábal near Pozo Turipache and Finca El Suspiro, Municipio de Berriozabal , Breedlove 20225 (MO, NY); Tabil Nuk’um 2 km al norte de tierra templada monte bajo la cabecera, Gonzalez 638 (NY); along the road from El Boque to Simojovel, Municipio de Simojovel de Allende , Ton 3071 (NY) . Guerrero: Manchón, Mina, Hinton 9256 (NY); Mpio. Mochitlán, camino a la torre de microondas " El Fresno", 2.5-3.5 km al E de Cajeles, Koch, Fryxell and Altman 87524 (NY) . Michoacán: municipio de La Huacana MEX 120, 19 km north of La Huacana and 2.5 km southwest of Los Sabinos, Steinmann and Porter 5361 (NY) . Nayarit: Roadside along highway between Tepic and Santa Cruz 2.4 mi. NE jct. Hwy. to San Blas and 8.9 mi. SW of Jalcocotan, Daniel 2037 (NY); ca. 12 miles west of Tepic 6.5 miles east of Jalcocotán, McVaugh 18845 (NY); Ruiz, Mexia 995 (MO, NY) . Oaxaca: Dto. Yautepec, Mpio. San Carlos Yautepec, a 7 km al S de San Miguel Chongo, Martínez, Elorsa and Perret 32118 (NY); Distrito de Juchitán, Mpio. de San Juan Guichicovi, 2 km. al sur de Piedra Blanca (13 km. al Norte de Matias Romero ), Perina 3236 (NY). Collected along Hwy 185, 8.3 mi. north of Matias Romero , Trott et al. 260 (MO, NY) . Puebla: Carretera Guayabal, San Jose Acateno, Zola 110 (NY) . San Luis Potosí: Mountains along the gravel road to Jalpan 2 miles generally west of Xilitla, King 4267 (NY); Mountain canyons, Hacienda de Tamasopo, Pringle 3976 (MO, NY) . Sinaloa: Mesa Malqueson, Cerro Colorado, Gentry 5166 (MO, NY); San Agustín, Ortega 4002 (NY); along the dirt road from Rosario to Plomosas about 3.5 miles east of La Rastra and 0.7 mile up the grade from the river crossing, about 33 miles east of Mexico Highway 15 at Chilillos this about 1 mile south of Rosario , Reveal and Harley 4047 (MO, NY) . Tabasco: Acahual del modulo, Ejido Lázaro Cárdenas, Cowan 2035 (MO, NY). Ejido Francisco Villa 8 km al S de Francisco Rueda, municipio Humanguillo, Fernández 1424 (NY); Municipio Teapa along bank of Río Azufre on trail between Campamento San Joaquín, Chiapas and Teapa, Gilly and Hernández 215 (NY) . Tamaulipas: Vicinity of Gomez Farias , Paler 278 (MO, NY). Veracruz: 1.5 km despues de la estación de Chavarrillo rumbo a Palmar, Municipio Emiliano Zapata, Castillo and Tapia 753 (MO, NY); 1 km al S de Palmillas Municipio, Puente Nacional, Castillo and Medina 4251 (NY); 3 km SW of Campamento La Laguna, Mun. Hidalgotitlan, Nee 30021 (NY); Rancho de la secretaria de salubridad y asistencia (antes rancho 3 pasos), Municipio E. Zapata, Ortega 672 (NY); above saddle on s.e. ridge of San Martin Tuxtla s.e. of road between Catemaco and Sontecomapan, Ward and McVaugh 7917 (NY) .

BELIZE. Belize: Butcher Burns Road off Western Highway about Mile 21, Dwyer 12447 (MO, NY) . Cayo: at Millonario on road past Augustin on way to Cuevas, Croat 23510 (MO, NY); Mt. Pine Ridge, Vicinity of Blancaneaux Lodge, Savanna. 17 mi. S of Georgeville, Liesner and Dwyer 1614 (MO, NY) . Stann Creek: Cockscomb Basin, O? Southern Highway, Road between Jaguar Preserve and Maya Ctr, Balick et al. 2699 (MO, NY); Dangriga , near town along Melinda Road , Balick 3020 (NY); Silkgrass creek , Gentle 8175 (NY) . Toledo: of highway from Dangriga to Punta Gorda, Road to Laguna Village, Balick et al. 3582 (MO, NY) .

EL SALVADOR. San Salvador: Calderón 106 (NY) . Sonsonate: Hacienda Las Tablas in the Balsam range, Tucker 1332 (NY).

GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Low hills along National route 7 W about 3 miles west of San Cristobal Verapaz , King 3339 (NY); near Cobán, Standley 69318 (NY). Escuintla: Escuintla, Smith 2215 (NY) . Izabal: Sierra Caral, quebrada atravesada por el sendero al noreste de la casa de investigadores, hacia la Finca Bonanza, Kriebel et al. 5619 (NY) . Quetzaltenango: Colomba, Skutch 1281 (NY). Petén: La Libertad, Lundell 2186, 3208 (NY); San Francisco 15 km SSW Flores, Savannen entlang der Strasse in Richtung San Vincente das ist ca. 3 km nach der Strassen-Abzweigung in San Francisco, Wallnofer and Frisch 5800 (NY). Retalhuleu: San Felipe, Smith 2649 (MO, NY) . Santa Rosa: Santa Rosa, Heyde 3330 (NY). Sololá: pine woods bordering Rio Bravo in vicinity of Finca Mocá south facing slopes of Volcán Atitlán, Steyermark 47962 (NY) .

HONDURAS. Atlántida: vicinity of La Ceiba, Yuncker 8026 (MO, NY) . Colón: Road to Castilla 0.2 miles east Trujillo, Saunders 168 (NY); 1.8 mi strip on the north bank of rio Guaimoreto between old bridge and opening of Laguna Guaimoreto 4.5 mi NE of Trujillo on oald road to Castilla, Saunders 766 (NY). Comayagua: Pinewoods around Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Forestales, Siguatepeque, Burch 6081 (MO, NY); Montana La Choca , Cordillera Comayagua, cerca de Coyocutena, Molina 7115 (NY) . Cortés: Tulian 5 km O de Pto. Cortes, Ruiz 163 (NY). Copán: cerca de Dulce Nombre, Molina 11774 (NY) . Cortés: Montana San Idalfonso entre Banaderos y Cusuco, Molina 11438 (MO, NY). Distrito Central: Escuela Panamericana de Agricultura Forest Reserve, 5 km east of Zamorano on road to Tegucigalpa , Balick et al. 1745 (NY) . El Paraíso: 17 km E of El Zamorano, Davidse and Pohl 2138 (NY); Yuscarán, Ochoa 40 (NY). Francisco Morazán: Ojojona 24 km SO de Tegucigalpa, Avila 156 (NY); Linderos km 92 carretera a Olancho, Chévez 186 (NY); Valle de Angeles, quebrada Sabana Redonda 2 km del empalme, Cristoff 130 (NY). El Hatillo 10 kms NE de Tegucigalpa, Figueroa 136 (NY). Gracias a Dios: La Mosquitia, alrededores de Mocoron 60 km al SO de Puerto Lempira, Torres 137 (NY). Guaimaca: Trail from Finca Sansón to Cerro Sansón, Carlson 3201 (NY). Lempira: 2 kms. from Erandique, Molina 24046 (NY). Olancho: Alrededores de Campamento, Gomez 17 (NY); bosque de Montaña La Bellota en Cordillera Almendares 8 kms de Campamento, Molina 8451 (NY); Arroyadas del rio Wampu , Dulce nombre de Culmí, rio Wampusito , Nelson and Clewell 387 (NY) . Santa Bárbara: Near El Mochito, Davidse and Pohl 2211 (NY). Tela: Lancetilla Exp. Station, Mallery 5016 (NY). Near town of Roatan on the Island of Roatan , Harmon and Dwyer 3921 (NY) . Yoró: Subirana Valley , von Hagen and von Hagen 1050 (NY) .

NICARAGUA. Chontales: 4 km N of Cuapa, Nee 28306 (MO, NY); Vicinity of Finca San Pedro de Oluma on NE flanks of Cerro Oluma 4 km N of Cuapa, Nee 28335 (NY); Sierra Amerrisque, Cerro Los Andes 10 km E of Juigalpa, Neill 7295 (NY). Jinotega: San Rafael Norte, Neill 201 (NY). Managua: 27 km S of Managua along Highway 8 (road to Masachapa), Davidse and Pohl 2380 (MO, NY); Casa Colorada and vicinity south of Managua, Maxon, Harvey and Valentine 7433 (NY). Matagalpa: Cordillera Dariense, La Fundadora, Hall and Bockus 7941 (NY); area between Disparate de Potter and Aranjuez Cordillera Central de Nicaragua, Williams et al. 23672 (MO, NY); Tuma Grande about 8 km east of Matagalpa, Williams 27563 (MO, NY); Departamento de Bluefields, Finca Santa Rosa, ca. 2.5 km ENE of Rama and vicinity of Rio Escondido, Proctor et al. 27331 (NY); Comarca del Cabo, Waspan, Davidse and Pohl 2325 (MO, NY); Vicinity of Waspam, Cabo Gracias a Dios, Bunting and Licht 497 (NY). San Juan del Norte: (Greytown), Smith 93 (MO, NY). Zelaya: estimated 10 km north of Bluefields, Harmon 5090 (NY); Río Chiquito a 5-7 km al N de Atlanta en Caño dos Oros, Río Punta Gorda Costa del Atlántico, Tellez et al. 4931 (NY).

COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Colinas de San Pedro de San Ramón, Brenes 5275, 6452 (NY); Vicinity of Los Chiles, Río Frío, Holm and Iltis 702 (NY); San Luis de Zarcero cantón de Alfaro Ruiz, Smith 1526 (NY). Cartago: 5 km above Tobosí, along road to Frailes, Lent 1153 (NY); Between Puente Negro (over Río Agua Cali ente) and Río Sombrero at Muñeco, Utley and Utley 2990 (NY); Turrialba, Tonduz 8350 (NY); about 10 km SW of Navarro on a winding trail or about 10 km. S of Cartago in a straight line, Wilbur and Stone 10560 (MO, NY); La Carpintera above Tres Ríos, Williams 19695 (NY); Forest area near Pavones, about 15 kms east of Turrialba, Williams 19700 (NY). Guanacaste: Cacao camino a Cerro Pedregal y su cumbre, Soto 1772 (INB, NY). Heredia: south slope of Volcán Barba above San José de la Montaña, Hatheway 1493 (NY); Cantón de San Isidro, Junto a la carretera Braulio Carrillo, 2 km antes del peaje, Jiménez 1116 (CR, NY); Lagunas aledañas al Río San Juan, Solano and Hernández 1472 (INB, NY). Limón: aprox. 200 yards inland from the coastline ca. 8 km S of Limon on the road to Cahuita, Almeda et al. 3232 (CR, MO, NY); Vicinity of U.S. Department of Agriculture Rubber Experiment Station, Los Diamantes on Río Sta. Clara (1.6 km E of Guapiles), Holm and Iltis 412 (MO, NY); Puerto Viejo, R.V.S. Gandoca-Manzanillo, Punta Mona, Kriebel 426 (INB); P. N. Tortuguero, Lumer 1355 (NY); densely shrubby banks on the Moin River ca 0.25 mi from its mouth, 5 mi N of Puerto Limón, Morley 784 (NY); Puerto Viejo, Manzanillo, hacia la punta, Vargas 2471 (INB, NY). Puntarenas: Monteverde, on property of A. Hoage at edge of woods, Lumer 1046 (NY); Road between Santa Elena and Monteverde, Lumer 1311 (CR, NY); Biolley, Sabanas Esperanza, sabana inferior, Rodríguez and Santamaría 9939 (INB, NY). San José: Vicinity of Altos Tablazo about 7 km west of Tablón and SE of Higuito, Almeda et al. 2830 (NY); Tablazo above San Lorenzo de Tres Ríos, Barringer and Christenson 3285 (CR, MO, NY); Lado de Vargas, Tabarcia, Mora, Jiménez 659 (CR, NY); Cerros de Escazú, Kriebel 5629 (INB); Z.P. Cerros de Escazú, Suarez, Cuenca del Río Suarez, carretera al Cedral por cuesta de Piedra, Morales, Lépiz and Ramírez 1751 (INB, NY); Acosta, Bajo Pérez, 4 km de Teruel, Morales 10539 (INB, NY); Perez Zeledón, Vicinity of El General, Skutch 4175, 2582 (MO, NY).

EL SALVADOR. Ahuachapán: Vicinity of Ahuachapan , Standley 20302 (NY) . Chalatenango: beside trail from San Ignacio to Las Pailas, west side of Los Esemiles, Tucker 1207 (NY).

PANAMA. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island, West side of Orchid Island, Croat 12281 (MO, NY); Militar Reserva Fuerte Sherman from Pina to 3 mi northeast of Pina , Liesner 1371 (MO, NY); Barro Colorado Island , Woodworth and Vestal 678 (NY). Chiriquí: along road between Boquete and Cerro Horqueta, Dwyer 13729 (MO, NY); Río Chiriquí Viejo Valley , near El Volcan, White 210 (MO, NY). Coclé: El Valle de Anton , North Hills , Allen 3546 (NY); roadside between Barrigon and entrance to Parque Nacional Omar Torrijos, Penneys and Blanco 1758 (NY). Panamá: Hills above Campana, Allen 1693 (NY); Upper slopes of Cerro Campana within the boundary of the national park administered by RENARE, LeDoux 2574 (MO, NY); SE slopes of Cerro Trinidad, Kirkbride and Duke 1669 (MO, NY). Colón: Road to Santa Rita, Busey and Mahler 333 (NY); 2 miles south of Portobello along river, Croat 11414 (NY) .

COLOMBIA. Caldas: cerca a Victoria ( región próxima a Mariquita), Uribe and Pérez 2714 (NY) . Cundinamarca: Pacho-Paime Highway, Haught 6055 (NY) . Tolima: cerca a "La Parroquia", Uribe 2764 (NY) . Santa Marta: Cacagualito, Smith 6 (NY) .














Conostegia xalapensis (Bonpl.) DC

Kriebel, Ricardo 2016

Conostegia minutiflora

Rose 1905

Conostegia minutiflora

Rose 1905

Miconia xalapensis

M. Gomez 1894

Conostegia acutidentata

A. Rich 1845

Melastoma umbilicatum

Bertol 1840

Melastoma xalapense

Bonpl 1816