Grallaria occabambae ( Chapman, 1923 ),

Isler, Morton L., Chesser, Terry, Robbins, Mark B., Cuervo, Andrés M., Cadena, Carlos Daniel & Hosner, Peter A., 2020, Taxonomic evaluation of the Grallaria rufula (Rufous Antpitta) complex (Aves: Passeriformes: Grallariidae) distinguishes sixteen species, Zootaxa 4817 (1), pp. 1-74: 22-23

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Grallaria occabambae ( Chapman, 1923 )


Grallaria occabambae ( Chapman, 1923)  , subspecies elevated to species

Urubamba Antpitta

Includes populations designated occabambae  1a and occabambae  1b in the analysis.

Diagnosis. Nominate form upperparts dark reddish yellow-brown; underparts lighter with pale feather edgings; undertail coverts pale yellowish-buff. Short songs of two (G. o. occabambae  ) ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15) or three ( G. occabambae marcapatensis  ) ( Fig. 16View FIGURE 16) unmodulated notes distinguish G. occabambae  from all but the two-noted short songs of G. cochabambae  and G. sinaensis  . Short song notes of G. occabambae  differ from those of G. cochabambae  and G. sinaensis  in being rounded (as opposed to flat and slightly downslurred) and by longer notes and internote intervals. Long songs of G. occabambae  differ from those of G. cochabambae  and G. sinaensis  in having inverted U-shaped notes (as opposed to flat or downslurred notes), in having internote intervals lengthening (as opposed to lengthening, stabilizing, and shortening) resulting in decelerating pace, and in having a flat or slowly declining peak frequency pattern (as opposed to peaks decreasing, stabilizing, and increasing); also apparently in overall pace, although small sample sizes limit diagnosability.

Distribution. Endemic to Peru in extreme eastern Junín (Cordillera Vilcabamba) and Cusco east of the Río Ene and Río Apurímac and between the Río Tambo to the north and the Río Marcapata to the south, 2450–3650 m. Two subspecies; nominate subspecies occurs west of the Río Yanatili valley, Cusco.

Plumage. Overall plumage of upperparts, including rectrices, remiges (primaries edged paler), crown and auriculars, typically dark reddish-yellow-brown (7.5YR 4/4) but variable, tending toward browner (5YR 4/4) in nominate form and lighter and brighter (7.5YR 5/6) in G. o. marcapatensis; malar tending to color of breast. Throat, breast and belly light reddish yellow-brown (7.5YR 6/8) with pale feather edgings. Undertail coverts pale yellowish-buff (2.5Y 8/4) in nominate form and light reddish-yellow-brown (7.5YR 7/8) in G. o. marcapatensis (specimen photographs App. 6, Figs. A29 and A30).

Etymology. The English name is adapted from Cory & Hellmayr (1924).

Remarks. The distinction in number of notes in short songs indicates that occabambae  1a and occabambae  1b should be considered subspecifically distinct, and a new subspecies is described below. Compared to neighboring taxa, plumage of G. occabambae  is paler and separable from that of Grallaria centralis  and G. ayacuchensis  , but similarly colored G. gravesi  , G. obscura  and G. sinaensis  appear to be distinguished from G. occabambae  only by the greater extent of pale edgings on the breast feathers of G. occabambae  , a character requiring confirmation in large samples. Nominate form includes occabambae  1a. It appears that the Río Yanatili valley separates ranges of subspecies of G. occabambae  . The phylogeny ( Chesser et al. 2020) includes in occabambae  1b a specimen (MSB 168436) collected on a mountain bordering the Río Yanatili to the east, and the type locality of G. rufula occabambae  is the Occabamba Valley = Río Ocobamba, which is a western tributary of the Río Yanatili ( Stephens & Traylor 1983). Recordings from the upper reaches of this river are of occabambae  1a.