Synemosyna myrmeciaeformis ( Taczanowski, 1871 )

Perger, Robert, Rubio, Gonzalo D. & Haddad, Charles R., 2021, On ant-like Synemosyna Hentz, 1846 spiders from Bolivia, with indirect evidence for polymorphic mimicry complexes (Araneae: Salticidae: Simonellini), European Journal of Taxonomy 748 (1), pp. 67-88: 74-76

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Synemosyna myrmeciaeformis ( Taczanowski, 1871 )


Synemosyna myrmeciaeformis ( Taczanowski, 1871)  

Figs 3B, E View Fig , 4B, E View Fig , 5A–B View Fig , 8A–D View Fig

Janus myrmeciaeformis Taczanowski, 1871: 125   , pl. 4 fig. 9.

Simonella peckhami Mello-Leitão, 1933: 56   .

Simonella myrmeciaeformis   – Peckham et al. 1889: 253, pl. 12 fig. 8. — Peckham & Peckham 1892: 81, pl. 7 fig. 4. — Simon 1901: 509, figs 605–609.

Synemosyna myrmeciformis   – Galiano 1966: 367, figs 18–20, 38–39.

Type deposit

Holotype ♂ in PAS; Janus myrmeciaeformis Taczanowski, 1871   (examined).


Tibial apophysis of male palp finger-like, with distinct median bend, somewhat laterally flattened; bulb large, obliquely oval, 70% of cymbium length; embolus originating prolaterally, with complete revolution around bulb, tip directed retrodistally; epigyne with transverse atrium with subtriangular excavation anteriorly ( Fig. 5A View Fig ); copulatory openings located posterolaterally in atrium, copulatory ducts directed anteriorly, with S-shaped loop at level of spermathecae, entering globular spermathecae posteriorly ( Fig. 5B View Fig ),

Material examined


FRENCH GUIANA • ♂; Saint Laurent du Maroni ; R. Jelski leg.; PAS.  

Other material

BOLIVIA – La Paz Dept • 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; Villa Teresa ; 16.201º S, 67.829º W; 6 Apr. 2016; R. Perger leg.; IBSI-Ara 0756 GoogleMaps   3 ♂♂; same collection data as for preceding; 17 Jan. 2018; R. Perger leg.; IBSI- Ara 1022 GoogleMaps   2 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀, 1 imm.; same collection data as for preceding; CBF GoogleMaps   . – Cochabamba Dept • 1 ♂; Villa Tunari ; 16.9844° S, 65.4094° W; 10–11 Jul. 2018; R. Perger leg.; IBSI-Ara 00763 GoogleMaps   2 ♂♂; same collection data as for preceding; 6 Dec. 2017; R. Perger leg.; IBSI-Ara 1032 GoogleMaps   1 ♂, 6 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; CBF GoogleMaps   . – Beni Dept • 3 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀; Riberalta ; 11.0163° S, 65.9958° W; 21–23 Jan. 2018; R. Perger leg.; CBF GoogleMaps   .


The shape of the tibial apophysis and the embolus with complete circular revolution are shared with S. americana ( Peckham & Peckham, 1885)   ( Mexico to Venezuela) and S. petrunkevichi (Chapin, 1922)   ( USA, Cuba). However, both species can be separated by a smaller bulb (65% of cymbium length in S. americana   and 50% in S. petrunkevichi   ). In addition to differences in genitalic characters, S. americana   and S. petrunkevichi   have the carapace not or only slightly narrowed between the cephalic and thoracic areas.

The carapace narrowed between cephalic and thoracic areas, and the globular and small spermathecae of S. myrmeciaeformis   , are shared with S. paraenesis Galiano, 1967   ( Brazil, French Guiana). Females of the latter can be distinguished from those of S. myrmeciaeformis   by the spermathecae located in a protuberance in the epigastric area and the copulatory ducts entering the spermathecae laterally, while entering the spermathecae posteriorly in S. myrmeciaeformis   ( Fig. 5B View Fig ). Additionally, the tibial apophysis of the male palp of S. paraensis   is bifurcate.


Three different color forms were observed, displaying a different geographic pattern: orange (in all three locations) ( Fig. 8A View Fig ), orange forms with black cephalic part (Villa Tunari, Cochabamba Dept, and Riberalta, Beni Dept) ( Fig. 8B View Fig ), or dark brown (Villa Teresa, La Paz Dept) forms ( Fig. 8C–D View Fig ). There was no apparent sex-related difference in body color. However, there may be an ontogenetic change in body color. Orange variants were observed within a generally smaller size range of 3.1–6.7 mm (n = 11), dark brown individuals in a range of 6.3–8.05 mm (n = 10), and orange forms with a black cephalic part in a range of 5.84–8.00 mm (n = 20). The dark brown and orange forms with black cephalic part are described here for the first time.

Geographical and ecoregion distribution ( Fig. 7 View Fig )

Synemosyna myrmeciaeformis   is known from Venezuela (type locality), French Guiana, Brazil ( Peckham & Peckham 1892; Galiano 1966) and Bolivia ( Cutler 1981a; present study). This species was found in ecoregions of the Amazon biome north of 16° S ( Fig. 7 View Fig ). The distributional data of S. myrmeciaeformis   refers to Cordillera La Costa montane forest, Guianan moist forest, and Uatuma- Trombetas moist forest (ecoregion regionalization according to Olson et al. 2011). In the present study, the species was collected in Sub-Andean Southwest Amazon forest (Villa Tunari, Riberalta) and Bolivian Yungas forest (Villa Teresa).


Taczanowski (1871) described S. myrmeciaeformis   based on a male. Peckham & Peckham (1892) described the female, although Galiano (1966) mentioned that no female could be found among the material examined by Peckham & Peckham (1892). Cutler & Müller (1991) stated that the female of S. myrmeciaeformis   was still considered to be unknown. The females collected in the current study are consistent with the description of Peckham & Peckham (1892), which we here consider to be valid. The female is illustrated here for the first time ( Figs 4B, E View Fig , 5A–B View Fig , 8 View Fig A-C). With a maximum BL of 8.05 mm, S. myrmeciaeformis   is the largest Bolivian species of Synemosyna   collected in this study (maximum BL of S. aurantiaca   7.0 mm and of S. nicaraguaensis   5.85 mm).


Coleccion Boliviana de Fauna














Synemosyna myrmeciaeformis ( Taczanowski, 1871 )

Perger, Robert, Rubio, Gonzalo D. & Haddad, Charles R. 2021

Synemosyna myrmeciformis

Galiano M. E. 1966: 367

Simonella peckhami Mello-Leitão, 1933: 56

Mello-Leitao C. F. de 1933: 56

Simonella myrmeciaeformis

Simon E. 1901: 509
Peckham G. W. & Peckham E. G. 1892: 81
Peckham G. W. & Peckham E. G. & Wheeler W. H. 1889: 253

Janus myrmeciaeformis

Taczanowski L. 1871: 125