Glaphyrosomatinae Rentz & Weissman, 1973

Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J. & Weissman, David B., 2020, Review of Glaphyrosoma (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatoidea: Anostostomatidae) including new species and biological information, Zootaxa 4779 (1), pp. 1-37: 4

publication ID

publication LSID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Glaphyrosomatinae Rentz & Weissman, 1973


Subfamily Glaphyrosomatinae Rentz & Weissman, 1973   n. stat.

Diagnosis: Small to mid-sized insects (9–30 mm.). Body usually robust. No sexual specialization of the head; mandibles and maxilla symmetric. Smooth fastigium of vertex, extraordinarily long maxillary palpi when compared to other anostostomatid genera ( Figs. 3B View FIGURE 3 , 7B View FIGURE 7 , 11B View FIGURE 11 , 17B View FIGURE 17 , 18B View FIGURE 18 , 21B View FIGURE 21 , 25B View FIGURE 25 ). Prosternal spines very reduced. Pronotum tergite-like, somewhat elongate, semitubular, with almost straight anterior, posterior and ventral edges, and with rather low lateral lobes lacking humeral notches; pterothoracic tergites completely wingless, similar to pronotum but much shorter and with rounded ventral edges ( Figs. 3C View FIGURE 3 , 7C View FIGURE 7 , 11C View FIGURE 11 , 17C View FIGURE 17 , 18C View FIGURE 18 , 21C View FIGURE 21 , 25C View FIGURE 25 ). Tympanum on fore tibiae present (in most Glaphyrosoma   ) or absent (in Cnemotettix   ), absence of subapical spines on the dorsal surface of fore tibia and of a feather-like relief on the outer surface of hind femur (with only traces of chevron ridges). Stridulatory pegs present in both sexes, consisting of diagonal rows of pegs on the inner face of the hind femur ( Figs. 3E View FIGURE 3 , 4E, 7E View FIGURE 7 , 8E View FIGURE 8 , 11E View FIGURE 11 , 12E View FIGURE 12 , 18E View FIGURE 18 , 19D View FIGURE 19 , 21E View FIGURE 21 , 22E View FIGURE 22 , 25E View FIGURE 25 ) and two sets of pegs on the opposing first two abdominal tergites ( Figs. 3D View FIGURE 3 , 7D View FIGURE 7 , 8D View FIGURE 8 , 11D View FIGURE 11 , 12D View FIGURE 12 , 18D View FIGURE 18 , 21D View FIGURE 21 , 22D View FIGURE 22 , 25D View FIGURE 25 ). Abdominal apex of male: Hooks of the tenth abdominal tergite are located near each other, paraprocts of male developed and with modifications ( Figs. 3I View FIGURE 3 , 7I View FIGURE 7 , 11I View FIGURE 11 , 18I View FIGURE 18 , 21I View FIGURE 21 , 25I View FIGURE 25 ). Male phallus membranous, without strong sclerotizations on titillators or their process or sclerites, dorsal fold divided at apex. Abdominal apex of female: possess either elongate ( Figs. 4F, 12G View FIGURE 12 , 17E View FIGURE 17 ) or reduced ovipositors ( Fig. 8G View FIGURE 8 ), without any armature (except Glaphyrosoma dentatum Gorochov   , and G. karnyi Cadena-Castañeda & Gorochov   ), usually with depressions in the apex or in the dorsal margin of the ovipositor (26D). Subgenital plate of the female is triangulate, without a median carina or a notable prolongation ( Figs. 4E, 8F View FIGURE 8 , 12F View FIGURE 12 , 19E View FIGURE 19 , 22F View FIGURE 22 ).

Taxa Included: Glaphyrosoma   (type genus) and Cnemotettix   .

Distribution: For Glaphyrosoma   , Central America to northeastern Mexico; for Cnemotettix   , California, including most of the Channel Islands, into the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico.

Comments: According to Cadena-Castañeda & Monzon (2017), Glaphyrosomatini   (hereinafter Glaphyrosomatinae   n. stat.), differ from other Neotropical subfamilies of Anostostomatidae   , due to the apterus condition of its species, long maxillary palps, the structure of the male and female terminalia, in addition to the male phallus. It is only superficially confused with Lutosinae   , another subfamily without wings, but from which it differs by the structure of the paraprocts, armament of the subgenital plate and male phallus, in addition to the shape of the female ovipositor.

Subfamily status is proposed for Glaphyrosomatinae   n. stat., according to the characters indicated in the diagnosis. Additional support for this subfamily status comes from the molecular analysis in Vandergast et al. (2017, Figure 2 View FIGURE 2 ), which established it as a clade apart from other anostostomatids, with Lezina Walker   as a sister group ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ), ruling out the possibility of it being a tribe within the Anabropsinae   , as also discussed in Gorochov & Cadena-Castañeda (2016). Additionally, the identity of the female F2331 Glaphyrosoma   “ Guatemala ” (in Vandergast et al., 2017) is confirmed, this specimen was cited as Glaphyrosoma   sp. by Gorochov & Cadena-Castañeda (2016), but with additional material it was determined as G. beretka   by Cadena-Castañeda & Monzón (2017).

Another peculiarity of the subfamily Glaphyrosomatinae   n. stat., is that all known Cnemotettix   species produce silk from maxillary gland secretions and then use their long maxillary palps for manipulation of the silk (Rentz & Weissman 1973). While Glaphyrosoma   have similarly long maxillary palps, silk production is unknown in any species ( Vandergast et al. 2017). There is no tympanum on the first pair of tibiae in Cnemotettix   , similar to the raspy cricket family Gryllacrididae ( Cadena-Castañeda, 2019)   , this condition being a character that defines the Gryllacrididae   , but possibly a reversal in Cnemotettix   and other genera of Anostostomatidae   , such as Hemiandrus Ander. Some   genera with tympanum on only one of the faces of the fore tibia such as Hypocophus Brunner von Wattenwyl   and Hypocophoides Karny   , suggest a particular adaptation on the capture of sound signals. The evolution of this condition is so complex in the ensiferans, where it can appear, disappear partially or completely countless times in the history of these insects.