Glaphyrosoma Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888

Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J. & Weissman, David B., 2020, Review of Glaphyrosoma (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatoidea: Anostostomatidae) including new species and biological information, Zootaxa 4779 (1), pp. 1-37: 5-6

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Glaphyrosoma Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888


Glaphyrosoma Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888  

Mayacris Cockerell, 1912   syn. ( Johns, 1997)

Description. Robust and small to large-sized (9–30 mm). Head. Dorsally smooth, with rather short and wide rostrum; this rostrum with oblique and not sharp keels along ventrolateral edges only. Short and wide fastigium, and almost 1.5 to two times as wide as space between antennal cavities; latter space almost two to three times as wide as scape. Frons smooth. Eyes frontally elevated, ocelli round, almost equal to each other in size, and two times wider than pedicel. Scapus and pedicel unarmed. Mandibles and maxilla symmetric, mandibular and maxillary palpi thin and elongated ( Figs. 3B View FIGURE 3 , 7B View FIGURE 7 , 11B View FIGURE 11 , 17B View FIGURE 17 , 18B View FIGURE 18 , 21B View FIGURE 21 , 25B View FIGURE 25 ). Thorax. Thoracic and abdominal tergites similar; pronotum tubular, without humeral notches; lateral lobules quadrangular and with anterior and posterior margins straight; meso- and metanotum with similar shape as pronotum but shorter and with later inferior margins rounded. Sternal tubercle absents. All species wingless ( Figs. 3C View FIGURE 3 , 7C View FIGURE 7 , 11C View FIGURE 11 , 17C View FIGURE 17 , 18C View FIGURE 18 , 21C View FIGURE 21 , 25C View FIGURE 25 ). Legs. Moderately slender and smooth. Fore coxa with a tubercle on ventral apex. Fore tibia with ovate tympanum presents on both surfaces in most species, few ones without tympanum (four species from Mexicanum Group) and armed with four ventral spines on the outer and inner margin, and two distal spines on each side (ventral margin could be covered by a dense row of hairs). Mid tibia armed with three to four ventral spines on each side and two spines on each dorsal margin, apex armed with two distal spines on each side. Hind femur with 16–20 chevron ridges, and with transverse rows of pegs, on inner side near base ( Figs. 3E View FIGURE 3 , 4E, 7E View FIGURE 7 , 8E View FIGURE 8 , 11E View FIGURE 11 , 12E View FIGURE 12 , 18E View FIGURE 18 , 19D View FIGURE 19 , 21E View FIGURE 21 , 22E View FIGURE 22 , 25E View FIGURE 25 ). Hind tibia with eight to ten spines on dorso-outer and dorso–inner margins, ventral margin of the hind tibia armed with two small spines on apex, and the distal lateral apex sides armed with three conspicuous spurs. Abdomen. Tergites similar to meso and metanotal tergites, but with less rounded ventral edges. First two abdominal tergites (and sometimes the third tergite) with pegs ( Figs. 3D View FIGURE 3 , 7D View FIGURE 7 , 8D View FIGURE 8 , 11D View FIGURE 11 , 12D View FIGURE 12 , 18D View FIGURE 18 , 21D View FIGURE 21 , 22D View FIGURE 22 , 25D View FIGURE 25 ). Posterior edge of the ninth tergite straight or moderately prolonged, could cover partially the last abdominal tergite. Male. Tenth tergite divided in middle into a thin plate, with the dorso-medial margin armed with two moderately thickened and conspicuous hooks (one for each plate), only present when adult. Epiproct medium-sized, roundly. Paraprocts usually elongated and with different modifications between different species ( Figs. 3I View FIGURE 3 , 7I View FIGURE 7 , 11I View FIGURE 11 , 18I View FIGURE 18 , 21I View FIGURE 21 , 25I View FIGURE 25 ). Cerci thin and rather long, almost twice as long as paraprocts. Subgenital plate rectangular, with latero-apical styles, and usually with distinct angular posteromedian notch between them ( Figs. 3J View FIGURE 3 , 7J View FIGURE 7 , 11J View FIGURE 11 , 18J View FIGURE 18 , 21J View FIGURE 21 , 25J View FIGURE 25 ). Male genitalia. Mostly membranous, ejaculatory vesicles conspicuous and rounded; titillators moderately sclerotized in two branches; lower fold of ventral lobe divided at apex. Female. Female ovipositor usually half as long as to as long as the hind femur ( Figs. 3F View FIGURE 3 , 8G View FIGURE 8 , 12E View FIGURE 12 ); female subgenital plate triangular shaped, with the apex moderately prolonged or not ( Figs. 4E, 8F View FIGURE 8 , 12F View FIGURE 12 , 19E View FIGURE 19 , 22F View FIGURE 22 ). Valves with or without denticulations or depressions in the margins. Coloration. General coloration brown, black or yellowish, some species transversally striped body coloration.

Type species: Daihinia mexicanus Saussure, 1859   (= Glaphyrosoma mexicanum   ), by subsequent designation by Kirby, 1906.

Distribution: From Costa Rica to northeastern Mexico (Maps 1–3).

Comments: For more than 100 years only three species were known: G. mexicanum ( Saussure, 1859)   , G. gracile Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888   and G. bruneri ( Cockerell, 1912)   , with this last species designated a nomen dubium by Cadena-Castañeda & Monzón (2017). With recent contributions from Gorochov & Cadena-Castañeda (2016) and Cadena-Castañeda & Monzón (2017), the number of described species is now 14. With the four new species described below, this genus is first in species diversity in the Anostostomatidae   , only equaled by Anabropsis Rehn, 1901   , also with 18 species. Glaphyrosoma   species can be microsymptric such that careful comparison of the shape of the paraprocts and subgenital plates must be made. For example, G. gracile   vs G. paragracile   n. sp.; and G. tamaulipas Gorochov & Cadena-Castañeda, 2016   vs G. huasteca   n. sp.












Glaphyrosoma Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888

Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J. & Weissman, David B. 2020


Cockerell 1912