Glaphyrosoma mexicanum ( Saussure, 1859 )

Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J. & Weissman, David B., 2020, Review of Glaphyrosoma (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatoidea: Anostostomatidae) including new species and biological information, Zootaxa 4779 (1), pp. 1-37: 7-8

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Glaphyrosoma mexicanum ( Saussure, 1859 )


Glaphyrosoma mexicanum ( Saussure, 1859)  

( Figures 3–6 View FIGURE 3 , Map 1) Orthoptera

Specimens examined. 3♂. 2♀. ♂. Mexico, Michoacán, 40 Km E of Morelia on Highway 15 libre at Km post 205; 2370 m; 19°39’53.5’’N, 100°54’35.5’’W. 1 June 2008; DBW # S08-33 GoogleMaps   . D.B. Weissman, D.C. Lightfoot. ( R08-16, F2048) CASENT 9077215   . Same data as first male but different codes. ♀. (S08-33, F2016), CASENT 9077089   . ♂. (S08-33, R08-16, F2049), CASENT 9077213 ( CAS)   . ♂. (S08-33, R08-16), CASENT 9077072   . ♀. (S08-33, F2014), CASENT 9077091 ( CAUD)   .

Redescription. Male. Body mid-sized for subfamily, shining, and relatively uniformly colored: head and majority of tergites dark brown but with lower half of frons ( Figs. 3A, B View FIGURE 3 , 6 View FIGURE 6 ), most part of mouthparts, scape, pedicel, ventrolateral and first half parts of tergites from pronotum to subapical tergite, and apical tenth abdominal tergite ochre, as well as with all ocelli and all palpi yellowish ( Figs. 3B, C, D View FIGURE 3 ); rest of body from light brown to yellowish, with somewhat darkened small (almost brown) areas near femur-tibia articulations as well as subapical third of hind femur ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ). Fore tibia with ventral margin is covered by a dense row of hairs from the middle towards the apex, and on the dorsal margin, that row of hairs continues in the distal portion. Mid tibia armed with three ventral spines on each side. Hind femur with four transverse rows of pegs, on inner side near base ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ). Hind tibia with eight spines on dorso-outer margin and nine spines on dorso-inner margin. First two abdominal tergites with small equidistant grouped pegs ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ). Posterior edge of the ninth tergite straight, moderately prolonged, partially covering the last abdominal tergite ( Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 ); tenth tergite armed with two moderately thickened and conspicuous hooks (one for each plate) ( Figs. 3G, H View FIGURE 3 ). Epiproct with barely angular posterior edge; each paraproct with large process moderately narrow in proximal half and strongly widened and inflated in distal half, distal part of paraproctal process with dorsal conical tubercle in subapical part and with short spine on the second distal third of this tubercle ( Figs. 3E View FIGURE 3 ); cerci thin and rather long, almost twice as long as paraprocts ( Fig. 3H View FIGURE 3 ); subgenital plate slightly transverse, somewhat narrowing toward apex, with moderately short latero-apical styles, flattened, cylindrical and with rounded apex, and with distinct angular posteromedian notch between them (U-shaped) ( Fig. 3J View FIGURE 3 ).

Female. Similar to the male in shape and coloration ( Figs. 4A, B, C). Hind femur with five to seven transverse main pegs rows, on inner side near to base. Tenth tergite with a wide furrow, without dividing the last tergite; ovoid epiproct; paraprocts ovoid without specialization. Subgenital plate triangular, wider than long, apex with a moderately prolonged spine ( Fig. 4E). Ovipositor almost as long as the hind femur, predominantly straight and slightly curved, rounded apex, valves without denticulations or depressions on margins ( Fig. 4F).

Variation. Main variation is size, with females larger than males. Males have dark brown body stripes more conspicuous than females.

Measurements (in mm.). Male / Female: LB: 20–23/25–30. Pr: 5–5.5/6. HF: 15–16/16.5–17. HT: 14.5– 15/15–15.5. Ov: 16.5–17.

Comparison. This species is very similar in color to G. tamaulipas   , G. brevivaginalis   n. sp. and G.   huasteca n. sp., differing in that the brown stripes of the tergites and pronotum are more conspicuous. The male terminalia in G. mexicanum   are most similar to G. bulbosum   ; differing in size, G. bulbosum   , are large-sized specimens for the genus (22–29 mm. males and 27–30 mm. females). Additionally, the posterior edge of the ninth tergite is undulated in G. bulbosum   , similarly, the membranous region of the ventral margin of the male paraproct (wide in both species) is shorter in G. bulbosum   ending in the dorso-distal spine, while in the new species that membranous extension is long and the spine is about half the length of the paraproct, thus resembling the structure of the paraproct of G. anderi   . As for the male subgenital plate, the stylli of G. mexicanum   are flattened, wide and with the rounded apex, while in G. bulbosum   , the stylli are narrow and cylindrical, they do not flatten.

Habitat. Oak-pine old growth forest with other deciduous tree species.

Drum. R08-16. This male drummed at 41–48 drums/s at 20°C, with series composed of 55–68 drums total. Between each rapid portion, he made 4 slow drums ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ).

Karyotype. Unknown.

DNA. Vandergast et al. (2017) map ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ) a leg (F2014) of G. mexicanum   in a subclade with G. huasteca   , G. brevivaginalis   , and Glaphyrosoma   4 (immature female, unidentifiable).

Comments. The specific type locality (given as “ Mexico ”) of G. mexicanum   is unknown. According to our specimens, this the first described species of the genus that is recorded for the Mexican highland’s plateau and the closest to the western slope of the Sierra Madre. Most Mexican species are found on the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico, or at the foot of the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range. We determined our specimens as G. mexicanum   , by comparing the diagnostic structures of the species, to the images of the type specimens on OSF ( Cigliano et al., 2020). It is worth noting that the dried male lectotype creates confusion, when compared to our specimens, because the visible paraprocts of the lectotype are robust, triangular and with the sharp apex. We believe this confusion is caused by the components of the paraprocts, which consist of two sections: a basal part, that is fleshy and thick, and a distal part that is thin and flexible. When the paraprocts are relaxed, the distal section is collected inwards, mostly covered by the basal section, leaving the fleshy section visible and having a sharp mid spine, giving the appearance of a thick and triangular structure. To properly study the lectotype, it is necessary to relax the paraprocts, to be able to observe them. Also, when specimens are dried, the thin and membranous section is reduced and completely covered. Additionally, the edges of the tenth tergite in the lectotype are less wide than in our males, also due to the way the specimen was preserved and its dehydration. When comparing our collected females with the female paralectotype, on OSF, they agree in shape, color and size, although the subgenital plate of the female paralectotype, the prolongation of the apex is not satisfactorily observed, due to the angle of the photograph and lack of contrast. In all other aspects, our females are similar.


California Academy of Sciences