Orasema Cameron

Baker, Austin J. & Heraty, John M., 2020, The New World ant parasitoid genus Orasema (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), Zootaxa 4888 (1), pp. 1-84 : 9-12

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4888.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:574A35A5-A551-4A7E-B2BC-481D703B1BE7

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4337890

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/447187B9-FF94-E54C-AAD1-F8D2AFA8FBC7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Orasema Cameron
status

 

Orasema Cameron

Orasema Cameron 1884: 104 .

Type species: Orasema stramineipes Cameron. Subsequently designated by Kirby 1886: 29. Notes: illustrations accompanying description of O. stramineipes mislabeled as O. flavipes . Kirby 1886: 29 designated O. flavipes as type species with O. stramineipes as lapsus calami. Contrary to remarks by Kirby, the description of O. stramineipes agrees with the figure of O. flavipes . Dalla Torre 1898: 361 reversed the usage of Kirby and treated O. flavipes as a junior synonym of O. stramineipes .

Orasema ; Ashmead 1888: 187. In key.

Orasema ; Ashmead 1904: 267, 269. In key.

Orasema ; Schmiedeknecht 1909: Notes: brief diagnosis, in German.

Semora Cameron 1909: 432–433 . Type species: Semora xanthopus Cameron , by original designation. Homonym; discovered by Strand 1942: 393. Notes: preoccupied by Peckham & Peckham 1892. Synonymy by Kerrich 1963: 366.

Eucharomorpha Girault 1913: 62–63 . Type species: Orasema worcesteri Girault. Subsequently designated by Gahan and Fagan 1923: 58. Synonym by Bouček 1988: 519.

Orasema ; Gemignani 1933: 488–489. Subsequent description.

Parasemora Gemignani 1933: 492–493 .

Type species: Parasemora freychei Gemignani , by monotypy. Synonym by Heraty 1994: 54. Notes: location of type unknown and synonym based on original description.

Semora ; Gemignani 1933: 491–492. Subsequent description.

Semorata Strand 1942: 393 . Replacement name.

Semorella Ghesquière 1946: 368 . Replacement name.

Orasema ; Kerrich 1963: 366. Subsequent description.

Orasema ; Heraty 1994: 54–57. Subsequent description.

Orasema ; Heraty 2002: 47–49. Subsequent description.

Diagnosis. Orasema is the only New World genus in the subfamily Oraseminae and can be recognized from other orasemine genera by the following combination of characters: mouthparts present and fully formed, area just below the median ocellus without impression or pit, ocellar-ocular sulcus absent, scrobe without a pair of parallel impressions, male antennae without scape glands, transscutal articulation complete, if lateral aspect of the mesepisternum reticulate then at least weakly sculptured ventrally, if propodeal disc with median channel and smooth lateral areas then face with obvious rugose or reticulate sculpture and labrum with four digits, basal petiolar flange prominent, apex of the first valvula of the ovipositor usually with distinct lateral teeth but never with sinuate ridges. Orasema can be recognized from other New World eucharitid genera by the following combination of characters: anellus present, prepectus distinct and separate from the pronotum, first gastral sternite constricted with a transverse crenulate furrow separating a semicircular anterior region, ovipositor expanded and usually with a lateral line of teeth on the ventral valve and lateral teeth on the dorsal valve.

Key to the species groups of Orasema

1 Male and female antenna with 6 funiculars ( Fig. 42D, E View FIGURE 42 ); mesoscutum and mesoscutellum rugose-areolate; scutoscutellar sulcus crossed by strong carinae ( Fig. 42F View FIGURE 42 ); male antennal clava highly reduced ( Fig. 42E View FIGURE 42 )............................................................................................... Orasema mutata n. sp. (unplaced to group)

- Antenna with more than 6 funiculars; mesoscutum and mesoscutellum with various sculpture; scutoscutellar sulcus usually with weaker carinae ( Fig. 6F View FIGURE 6 ); male antennal clava not reduced ( Fig. 6E View FIGURE 6 )......................................... 2

2 (1) Male and female antenna with 7 funiculars ( Fig. 6E View FIGURE 6 : Fu1–Fu7); labrum with 4 digits (except some specimens of O. scaura ( Orasema coloradensis group) with up to 9 digits, but this is the only species with 4 tarsomeres)...................... 3

- Male and female antenna with 8 or 9 funiculars ( Fig. 18D, E View FIGURE 18 ); labrum with 4 or more digits......................... 17

3 (2) Midlobe of mesoscutum evenly reticulate ( Fig. 3D View FIGURE 3 ).......................................................... 4

- Midlobe of mesoscutum smooth ( Fig. 3H View FIGURE 3 ) or with coarse irregular sculpture ( Fig. 3A, C, E, I View FIGURE 3 ), including rugose-reticulate ( Fig. 3F View FIGURE 3 )................................................................................................ 10

4 (3) Postgena expanded over labiomaxillary complex ( Fig. 31D View FIGURE 31 )..... Orasema simulatrix group; (key: Herreid and Heraty 2017)

- Postgena not expanded, labiomaxillary complex visible ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 )............................................... 5

5 (4) Anterior margin of prepectus lacking carina, gradually sloping under margin of pronotum ( Fig. 13C View FIGURE 13 )................................................................................................... Orasema bakeri group, 23

- Anterior margin of prepectus with carina abutting margin of pronotum ( Fig. 18C View FIGURE 18 ).................................. 6

6 (5) Body size small (females 1.5–2.1 mm; males 1.5–2.0 mm); body color dark with some iridescence; antennal flagellum of both sexes pedunculate with funiculars broader than long ( Fig. 24D, E View FIGURE 24 )..................................................................................... Orasema sixaolae group (in part: Orasema sixaolae Wheeler & Wheeler ), 43

- Body size variable but both sexes usually> 2 mm; body color most often strongly green or blue-green iridescent, but if dark then female with antennal flagellum not pedunculate ( Fig. 36D View FIGURE 36 ) and with funiculars generally longer than broad.............. 7

7 (6) Fore wing with one row of setae along posterior end of the basal area ( Fig. 4D View FIGURE 4 ; bsa), and disc with dense, long setae; female antennal funiculars usually as long as or longer than wide, and with width consistent from F3 to clava ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ).................................................................. Orasema xanthopus group (in part; undescribed species)

- Fore wing without row of setae in posterior basal area or if setae present then disc not densely setose and with minute setae; female antennal funiculars usually broader than long, and with width increasing from F3 to clava ( Fig. 36D View FIGURE 36 )............. 8

8 (7) Mesosoma long (ML:MH = 1.3–1.6); female with face elongate (HW:HH = 0.7–1.0) ( Fig. 37B View FIGURE 37 ).............................................................................. Orasema heacoxi group (in part: O. masonicki n. sp.), 65

- Mesosoma high (ML:MH = 1.0–1.2); female with face subtriangular (HW:HH = 1.0–1.2; Fig. 4E, F View FIGURE 4 )................... 9

9 (8) Nearctic in distribution............................................................ Orasema cockerelli group*

- Neotropical in distribution............................................................ Orasema vianai group* * These two groups cannot be reliably differentiated morphologically, but they represent molecularly distinct lineages ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 ).

10 (3) Male only: body size large (3.8 mm); mandibular formula 2:2; mandibles and labrum reduced in size ( Fig. 41B View FIGURE 41 ); antenna long (FL:HH = 2.0).................................................... Orasema monstrosa n. sp. (unplaced to group)

- Both sexes: body size variable (males typically <3.8 mm); mandibular formula 3:2; mandibles and labrum of normal size ( Fig. 6B View FIGURE 6 ); antenna shorter (FL:HH typically <1.5)............................................................... 11

11 (10) Body with face, mesoscutal lateral lobe, axilla, mesoscutellum, and frenum smooth ( Fig. 33F View FIGURE 33 ); face and eye densely setose ( Fig. 33B View FIGURE 33 ); body length 2.1–2.9 mm; antenna with 8 funiculars, but with partial fusion between F2 and F3 or F3 and F4 giving appearance of 7 funiculars ( Fig. 33D View FIGURE 33 )......................... Orasema johnsoni group (in part: O. johnsoni n. sp.), 61

- Body with at least some of above-mentioned parts with distinct sculpture or if smooth then face and eye sparsely setose ( Fig. 25B View FIGURE 25 ) and length approximately 1.4 mm; antenna with 7 funiculars ( Fig. 25D View FIGURE 25 ).................................... 12

12 (11) Midlobe of mesoscutum rugose-reticulate ( Fig. 36F View FIGURE 36 ); female flagellum progressively wider toward apex ( Fig. 36D View FIGURE 36 ); male flagellum pedunculate, funiculars with semi-erect, curved setae ( Fig. 36E View FIGURE 36 )................................................................................................... Orasema heacoxi group (in part: O. heacoxi n. sp.), 65

- Midlobe of mesoscutum transversely costate ( Fig. 3A View FIGURE 3 ), imbricate ( Fig. 3E View FIGURE 3 ), rugose ( Fig. 3I View FIGURE 3 ), or rugose-areolate ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ); female antennal flagellum generally equal in width from F3–F8; male flagellum rarely pedunculate, but if so ( Fig. 27E View FIGURE 27 ), then setae more closely appressed to funiculars and mostly straight................................................. 13

13 (12) Mesoscutum and mesoscutellum rugose-areolate ( Fig. 27F View FIGURE 27 ); mesoscutum in dorsal view with curvature of lateral lobe discontinuous with curvature of midlobe ( Fig. 28G View FIGURE 28 ); antecostal sulcus smooth ( Fig. 28E View FIGURE 28 ).......... Orasema acuminata group, 50

- Midlobe of mesoscutum and mesoscutellum usually costate, imbricate, or rugose-reticulate ( Fig. 3A, E, F View FIGURE 3 ), only rarely rugoseareolate; mesoscutum in dorsal view with curvature of lateral lobes either continuous ( Fig. 31G View FIGURE 31 ) or discontinuous with curvature of midlobe; antecostal sulcus usually foveate, but if smooth then other characters not matching................... 14

14 (13) Body size small (females 1.4–2.2 mm; males 1.5–2.0 mm); body dark brown to black with some iridescence; midlobe of mesoscutum imbricate ( Fig. 22E View FIGURE 22 ) or weakly transverse costate ( Fig. 25E View FIGURE 25 ); head subcircular ( Fig. 22B View FIGURE 22 )........................................................................................... Orasema sixaolae group (in part), 43

- Body size average (females 2.3–4.2 mm; males 2.1–3.4 mm); body usually with strong blue or green iridescence; midlobe of mesoscutum strongly costate ( Fig. 6F View FIGURE 6 ) or rugose-areolate ( Fig. 10F View FIGURE 10 ); head subtriangular ( Fig. 8B View FIGURE 8 ) or elongate ( Fig. 31B View FIGURE 31 ).. 15

15 (14) Face rugose-reticulate ( Fig. 39B View FIGURE 39 ); funiculars longer than broad ( Fig. 39D, E View FIGURE 39 ); femora yellow with at most a medial light brown patch ( Fig. 39A View FIGURE 39 ).............................................. Orasema brasiliensis (Bréthes) (unplaced to group)

- Face usually costate, but if rugose-reticulate then funiculars broader than long ( Fig. 8D View FIGURE 8 ) and femora mostly dark brown with strong iridescence ( Fig. 8A View FIGURE 8 )............................................................................ 16

16 (15) Mesosoma long (ML:MH = 1.5–2.2); head elongate (HW:HH = 0.8–1.1) ( Fig. 31B View FIGURE 31 ); occiput strongly curved ( Fig. 31C View FIGURE 31 ).............................................................................. Orasema peraltai group, 56

Mesosoma average (ML:MH = 1.2–1.7); head subtriangular (HW:HH = 1.1–1.3) ( Fig. 8B View FIGURE 8 ); occiput broadly curved ( Fig. 10F View FIGURE 10 ) Orasema coloradensis group, 12

17 (2) Postgena expanded over labiomaxillary complex basally ( Fig. 31D View FIGURE 31 ); fore wing with infuscations at least along cubital fold....................................................... Orasema wayqecha group (key: Herreid and Heraty 2017)

- Postgena not expanded ( Fig. 4A View FIGURE 4 ); fore wing completely hyaline............................................... 18

18 (17) Face smooth; frons without any vertical costae ( Fig. 33B View FIGURE 33 ).................................................... 19

- Face sculptured ( Fig. 18B View FIGURE 18 ), or if appearing mostly smooth then frons with vertical costae ( Fig. 4F View FIGURE 4 ).................... 20

19 (18) Petiole with complete longitudinal carina on lateral margins ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ); labrum with 8–10 digits; fore wing postmarginal vein reaching near apex of wing ( Fig. 4D View FIGURE 4 ); lateral lobe of mesoscutum, axilla, mesoscutellar disc, and frenum with strong sculpture........................................................... Orasema festiva group (key: Burks et al. 2015)

- Petiole without complete lateral longitudinal carinae; labrum with 4 digits; fore wing postmarginal vein short, not close to apex of wing; lateral lobe of mesoscutum, axilla, scutellar disc, and frenum smooth ( Fig. 33F View FIGURE 33 )................................................................................................... Orasema johnsoni group (in part), 61

20 (18) Antenna of both sexes with 9 funiculars; fore wing basal area densely pilose; female femora completely yellow.... Orasema argentina Gemignani (unplaced to group)

- Antenna of female with 8 funiculars and male with 8 or 9 funiculars; fore wing basal area bare to sparsely setose, never pilose; some femora usually dark medially...................................................................... 21

21 (20) Fore wing costal cell with anteriorly expanded bare area ( Fig. 20H View FIGURE 20 ); face broad (female MSP:EH = 1.0–1.7) and with reticulate sculpture ( Fig. 20B View FIGURE 20 ); body size large (females 2.8–5.2 mm, but usually> 4 mm); male antenna with 9 funiculars.......................................................................................... Orasema tolteca group, 36

- Fore wing costal cell not anteriorly expanded and with variable setation; face often subtriangular (female MSP:EH = 0.5–1.3, often <1) and sometimes with other sculpture; body size variable (females 1.2–5.8 mm, often <4 mm); male antenna almost always with 8 funiculars............................................................................... 22

22 (21) Labrum with more than 6 digits, or if with 4–6 digits then with the following combination of characters: mesoscutum coarsely rugose-areolate ( Fig. 3C View FIGURE 3 ); female antenna with funiculars beyond F3 less than twice as long as broad to as broad as long; propodeum lacking median groove; eyes lacking setation ( Fig. 4E View FIGURE 4 )................................................ 23

- Labrum usually with 4 digits, but if up to 6 then differing in at least one of the above characters...................... 24

23 (22) Labrum with 4 digits; frons weakly imbricate, lower face weakly reticulate ( Fig. 4E View FIGURE 4 ).................................

........................................................ Orasema longinoi Heraty & Baker (unplaced to group)

- Labrum usually with more than 6 digits, rarely with 4; frons strongly costate, lower face smooth ( Fig. 4F View FIGURE 4 ), or entire face strongly reticulate.......................................... Orasema lasallei group; (key: Heraty and Baker 2020)

24 (22) Female: fore and mid femora dark brown with iridescence, hind femur yellow; antennal funiculars same width throughout, slightly shorter apically; propodeum with a median carina within a median longitudinal groove ( Fig. 4G View FIGURE 4 ); PTL:HCL = 0.6–0.7; head and mesosoma dark green-blue iridescent; eyes bare. Male: only known from one heavily damaged molecular voucher, cannot be diagnosed.............................................. Orasema deltae Gemignani (unplaced to group)

- Characters at least partially disagreeing with above description................................................ 25

25 (24) Eyes with setae longer than width of ommatidium, easily seen with low magnification ( Fig. 44B View FIGURE 44 ); head relatively narrow (HW: HH = 1.0–1.2); frenum in dorsal view semicircular ( Fig. 44F View FIGURE 44 )................. Orasema roppai n. sp. (unplaced to group)

- Eyes bare or with setae at most equal to width of ommatidium, requiring high magnification to see; head usually broader (HW: HH = 1.0–1.5, usually>1.1); frenum in dorsal view crescent-shaped or not visible ( Fig. 40F View FIGURE 40 )........................ 26

26 (25) Head broadly triangular with relatively small eyes (female MSP:EH ~1.2)..................................................................................................... Orasema susanae Gemignani (unplaced to group)

- Head subtriangular with relatively larger eyes (female MSP:EH = 0.5–1.0) ( Fig. 40B View FIGURE 40 ).............................. 27

27 (26) Females only: antenna relatively short (FL:HH = 1.0–1.3); mesosoma relatively high (ML:MH = 1.1–1.3); large-bodied (3.7– 4.6 mm) ( Figs 40A View FIGURE 40 , 43A View FIGURE 43 ).............................................................................. 28

- Both sexes: antenna usually long (female FL:HH = 1–1.8, usually>1.3); mesosoma usually longer (ML:MH = 1.1–1.6, usually>1.3); body size variable (females 1.2–5.1 mm, usually <4 mm)............................................... 29

28 (27) Legs beyond coxae tawny-orange; hind tibia greatly widened distally, about 3× as wide as metabasitarsus ( Fig. 40E View FIGURE 40 ); stigmal vein slightly angled toward wing apex ( Fig. 40A View FIGURE 40 ); PTL:HCL = 0.9–1.2; length 3.7 mm ........................................................................................... Orasema cirrhocnemis n. sp. (unplaced to group)

- Legs beyond coxae yellow; hind tibia not greatly widened distally, at most 2× as wide as metabasitarsus ( Fig. 43E View FIGURE 43 ); stigmal vein slightly angled toward wing base ( Fig. 43A View FIGURE 43 ); PTL:HCL = 1.4; length 4.2–4.6 mm .................................................................................................... Orasema psarops n. sp. (unplaced to group)

29 (27) Axillular groove usually absent or narrowed anteriorly (see Burks et al. 2018: figs 25, 167, 257); HW:HH = 1.0–1.3; hind femora almost always yellow; first valvula of ovipositor with 4 or 5 teeth (see Burks et al. 2018: fig. 85); male PTL:HCL = 1.4–2.4................................................... Orasema stramineipes group (key: Burks et al. 2018)

- Axillular groove broad and with a complete lateral carina (see Burks et al. 2018: figs 272, 273); HW:HH = 1.3–1.5; hind femora sometimes dark; first valvula of ovipositor with 7–10 teeth (see Burks et al. 2018: fig. 274); male PTL:HCL = 1.0–1.5................................................................. Orasema xanthopus group (key: Heraty et al. 1993)

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Eucharitidae

Loc

Orasema Cameron

Baker, Austin J. & Heraty, John M. 2020
2020
Loc

Orasema

Heraty, J. M. 2002: 47
2002
Loc

Orasema

Heraty, J. M. 1994: 54
1994
Loc

Orasema

Kerrich, G. J. 1963: 366
1963
Loc

Semorella Ghesquière 1946: 368

Ghesquiere, J. 1946: 368
1946
Loc

Semorata

Strand, E. 1942: 393
1942
Loc

Orasema

Gemignani, E. V. 1933: 488
1933
Loc

Parasemora

Heraty, J. M. 1994: 54
Gemignani, E. V. 1933: 493
1933
Loc

Semora

Gemignani, E. V. 1933: 491
1933
Loc

Eucharomorpha

Boucek, Z. 1988: 519
Gahan, A. B. & Fagan, M. M. 1923: 58
Girault, A. A. 1913: 63
1913
Loc

Semora

Kerrich, G. J. 1963: 366
Strand, E. 1942: 393
Cameron, P. 1909: 433
1909
Loc

Orasema

Ashmead, W. H. 1904: 267
1904
Loc

Orasema

Ashmead, W. H. 1888: 187
1888
Loc

Orasema

Dalla Torre, K. W. 1898: 361
Kirby, W. F. 1886: 29
Kirby, W. F. 1886: 29
Cameron, P. 1884: 104
1884