Eutarsopolipus janus, Seeman, 2021

Seeman, Owen D., 2021, Contrasting species diversification of Eutarsopolipus (Acariformes: Podapolipidae) on Castelnaudia and Notonomus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Zootaxa 4971 (1), pp. 1-74: 64-70

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4971.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B38F58B7-D395-4A1C-85DB-950DB62AD03F

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4914342

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4438245C-FFCB-090A-87AE-FF5AFE85A5C5

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Eutarsopolipus janus
status

sp. nov.

Eutarsopolipus janus   sp. nov.

( Figs 44–48 View FIGURE 44 View FIGURE 45 View FIGURE 46 View FIGURE 47 View FIGURE 48 )

Diagnosis. Adult female: leg I with two claws; v1 19–24, sc2 36–40; genu I with two setae (l″ present); tarsus II setae tc″ 8–9, u′ 8–10. Adult male: setae sc2 27–34. Larval female: sc2 70–80.

Material examined. Holotype female, ex. Notonomus flos   . Mt Lewis Rd , 29 km from Highway, Cow Bay, 16° 13ʹ 51ʺ S 145° 27ʹ 43ʺ E, 18 Nov 1997 – 9 Feb 1998, G. Monteith & D. Cook, pitfall trap, rainforest, IN1702, HR# T 65790 View Materials ( QMS 113527) GoogleMaps   . Paratypes. All ex Notonomus flos   . 7 females, 7 males, 9 larvae, as follows: 7 females, 7 males, 7 larvae, same data as holotype ( QMS 113528–42, ANIC 52-003978 View Materials 80 View Materials , ZMH-A0015204–05); 2 larvae, same data except different beetle, HR# T View Materials GoogleMaps   65789 ( QMS 113543, ZMH-A0015206). All in QM except 1 female, 1 male, 1 larva in each of ANIC and ZMH   .

Other material examined. Ex N. aurifer   : 7 females, 5 males, 7 larvae, as follows: 6 females, 2 males, 4 larvae, Lamb’s Head , 20 km SW Cairns, 17° 1ʹ 23ʺ S 145° 38ʹ 33ʺ E, 10–12 Dec 1989, G. Monteith, G. Thompson, H. Janetzki, HR# T 20079 View Materials ( QMS 113544–54, 1 female ANIC); GoogleMaps   2 males, 1 larva, same data except different beetle, HR# T 20078 View Materials ( QMS 113555–57) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, 1 male, 2 larvae, same data except different beetle, HR# T 20081 View Materials ( QMS 113558–61) GoogleMaps   .

Ex N. spurgeoni   : 5 females, 3 males, 4 larvae, as follows: 1 female, Mossman Bluff Track site 8, 16° 27ʹ 36ʺ S 145° 17ʹ 12ʺ E, 17–19 Dec 1988, G. Monteith, G. Thompson, ANZSES GoogleMaps   , HR# T 20799 View Materials ( QMS 113591); 1 female, Mossman Bluff Track general, 16° 28ʹ S 145° 18ʹ E, 20 Dec 1989 – 15 Jan 1990, G. Monteith, G. Thompson, ANZSES, HR# T 20863 View Materials ( QMS 113592); GoogleMaps   1 male, 4 larvae, same data except different beetle, HR# T 20849 View Materials ( QMS 113598–602); GoogleMaps   3 females, 2 males, Mt Spurgeon , 7 km N, camp 2, 16° 22ʹ 31ʺ S 145° 12ʹ 49ʺ E, 17–19 Oct 1991, G. Monteith, H. Janetzki, D. Cook, L. Roberts, HR# T 20957 View Materials ( QMS 113593-97) GoogleMaps   .

Ex N. dimorphicus   : 1 female, 1 male, 3 larvae, as follows: 1 female, 1 larva, Mt Lewis , barracks, 16° 35ʹ 39ʺ S 145° 16ʹ 28ʺ E, no date, G. Wood, ex HR# T 20722 View Materials ( QMS 113603); GoogleMaps   1 male, 1 larva, Mt Lewis Rd, 22 km from Highway, ANZSES site 3, 16° 32ʹ 48ʺ S 145° 16ʹ 53ʺ E, 29 Nov 1997 – 9 Feb 1998, G. Monteith, D. Cook, rainforest, IN1701, HR# T 65741 View Materials ( QMS 113605–06); GoogleMaps   1 larva, Mt Lewis , 2.5 km N, via Julatten, 16° 33ʹ S 145° 15ʹ E, 3 Nov 1983, D. Yeates, G. Thompson, HR# T 20721 View Materials ( QMS 113607) GoogleMaps   .

Note: One male is fully developed within a broken egg and is included as a paratype.

Description (excluding specimens from N. aurifer   ).

FEMALE ( Figs 44–46 View FIGURE 44 View FIGURE 45 View FIGURE 46 ; n = 21).

Gnathosoma   . Length 55 (52–57), width 51 (45–51). Palp with alveolar remnant of femoral seta. Cheliceral stylets 45 (45–49), setae ch 25 (25–35), su 18 (15–20).

Idiosoma   ( Figs 44–45 View FIGURE 44 View FIGURE 45 ). Length ca. 340 (290–600), width ca. 240 (230–450), bigger specimens swollen, distorted. Stigmata apparent, large, in soft cuticle anteriad setae v1 to posterolaterad gnathosoma   (varies according to mount), respiratory system not visible in most mounts but sometimes narrow trachea and small atrium apparent. Prodorsal plate with setae v1 20 (19–24), v2 alveolar remnant, sc1 10 (9–11), sc2 38 (36–40). Distance between setae v1–v1 56 (53–60), sc1–sc1 88 (87–96), v1–sc1 31 (34–37), v2–v2 69 (68–75), sc2–sc2 95 (91–95), sc1–sc2 37 (32–36). Plate C entire, setae c1 8 (8–9), c2 8 (8–10). Plate D setae d 9 (8–10), d–d 105 (110–125), cupuli ia anterolaterad d. Plate EF setae f 9 (7–8), f–f 71 (80–87), cupuli im anterolaterad to laterad f. Plate H present as small remnant. Venter: coxisterna 1-2 poorly defined, slightly broader than apodemes; coxisterna 3 well-defined; coxal setae slender, 1a 6 (6–7), 2a 6 (6–7), 3a 6 (7–9), 3b 6 (6–7). Alveoli of 1b, 2b present.

Legs ( Fig. 46 View FIGURE 46 ). Setal counts legs I– III, femur-tarsus: 3-2-6(+ φ)-9(+ ω), 0-1-4-7(+ ω), 0-1-4-7. Leg I. Femur I, d 2 (2), l’ 13 (13–16), v″ 14 (12–15); genu I, l’ 5 (5–6), l″ 3 (3); tibia I, d 25 (27–30), l’ 10 (7–9), l’’ 6 (6–8), v’ 7 (7–8), v’’ 14 (11–12), k 4 (4–5), φ 6 (7–8); tarsus I, tc’ 13 (11–12), tc’’ 13 (13–15), pl’ 15 (14–17), pl’’ 18 (15–20), pv′ 3 (3–4), pv’’ 3 (2–3), ω 4 (4–5), s 6 (6–7), u′′ minute (m–2), p′ 2 (m–2). Leg II. Genu II, l’ 8 (5–6); tibia II, d 16 (15–20), l’ 9 (8–9), v’ 15 (14–16), v’’ 21 (20–23); tarsus II, tc′ 9 (9–11), tc ″ 8 (8–9), pl ″ 18 (16–18), pv′ 2 (2–3), pv’’ 4 (3–4), ω 4 (4–5), u’ 9 (9–10), u″ m (m), difficult to discern next to large u′. Leg III. Genu III, l’ 5 (4–5); tibia III, d 14 (15–20), l’ 9 (7–9), v’ 12 (12–15), v’’ 17 (20–21); tarsus III, tc’ 8 (8–10), tc ″ 8 (8–9), pl ″ 20 (18–20), pv′ 4 (3–5), pv’’ 3 (3–5), u’ 8 (8–9), u″ m (m), difficult to discern next to large u′. Claws on legs I-III well developed and paired. Tarsi I-III setae pvʹ, pvʺ slender. Large blunt spur-like setae: tarsus I s; tarsi II– III u’, tcʺ. Setae u′ pointed, not bifid.

LARVIFORM ADULT MALE ( Fig. 47 View FIGURE 47 ; n = 16).

Gnathosoma   . Length 28–37, width 29–33. Cheliceral stylets 25–28, setae ch 3–4, su 8–9.

Idiosoma   ( Fig. 47 View FIGURE 47 ). Length 175–190, width 135–155. Prodorsal plate with setae v1 4–9, v2 alveolar remnant, sc 1 m–2, sc2 27–34. Distance between setae v1–v1 24–30, sc1–sc1 61–66, v1–sc1 24–26, v2–v2 42–49, sc2–sc2 64–72, sc1–sc2 24–28. Plate CD eroded posterolaterally, setae c1 2–3, c2 2, d m–2, distance between setae c1–c1 56–65, c1–c2 32–35, d–d 42–47; cupuli ia laterad to anterolaterad setae d. Plate EF with setae f m–2, distance f–f 22–25; cupuli im laterad to anterolaterad setae f. Genital capsule length 25–27, width 35–38, setae h minute. Venter: coxal setae slender, 1a 4–5, 2a 4–5, 3a 5–6, 3b 5–6.

Legs. Setal counts legs I– III, femur-tarsus: 2-0-6(+ φ)-8(+ ω), 0-0-4-7(+ ω), 0-0-4-7. Compared to female: Femur I seta v″ absent, genua I-III l′ and l″ absent. Leg I. Femur I, d 2, l’ 2–4; tibia I, d 19–25, l’ 2, l’’ 2–3, v ’ 2–3, v ’’ 9–10, k 2–3, φ 6–7; tarsus I, tc’ 8–9, tc’’ 10–11, pl’ 8–11, pl’’ 10–12, pv ′ 2, pv’’ 2, ω 3–4, s 5, u ′′ minute. Leg II. Tibia II, d 6–11, l’ 3–4, v’ 9–12, v’’ 11–14; tarsus II, tc′ 6–8, tc ″ 5–6, pl ″ 11–12, pv ′ 2, pv’’ 3–4, ω 3–4, u’ 6, u″ minute, difficult to discern. Leg III. Tibia III, d 2, l’ 3–5, v’ 8–11, vʺ 10–14; tarsus III, tc′ 3–4, tc ″ 6–7, pl ″ 9–11, pv ′ 2–3, pv’’ 3–5, u ’ 6–7, u″ minute, difficult to discern. Claws on leg I single, claws on leg II-III paired. Setal form similar to that in female, but with tibia I setae l′, l″ tiny spines and v′ slightly thickened.

LARVAL FEMALE ( Fig. 48 View FIGURE 48 ).

Gnathosoma   . Length 38–46, width 31–34. Palp without alveolar remnant of femoral seta. Cheliceral stylets 36–42, setae ch 26–33, su 12–15.

Idiosoma   ( Fig. 48 View FIGURE 48 ). Length 180–225, width 135–240; larger specimens swollen evenly around body. Prodorsal plate with setae v1 15–18, v2 alveolar remnant, sc1 8–10, sc2 70–80. Distance between setae v1–v1 29–31, sc1–sc1 69–72, v1–sc1 31–33, v2–v2 50–54, sc2–sc2 72–78, sc1–sc2 33–37. Plates C and D fused medially; line of fusion visible. Plate C setae c1 7–10, c2 7–10, distance between setae c1–c1 31–35. Plate D setae d 7–9, d–d 30–35, cupuli ia anterolaterad d. Plate EF setae f 6–8, f–f 29–33, cupuli im anteriad to anterolaterad f. Plate H small, 18–22 wide, 13–18 long, bearing setae h1 ca. 100, h2 4–6. Venter: coxisterna 1-3 well-defined; coxal setae slender, 1a 4–5, 2a 4–5, 3a 7–8, 3b 5–6. Alveoli of 1b, 2b present.

Legs. Setal counts legs I– III, femur-tarsus: 3-2-6(+ φ)-8(+ ω), 0-1-4-6(+ ω), 0-1-4-6 (setae pv′ absent on tarsi II- III). Leg I. Femur I, d m–2, l’ 2–3, v’’ 9–13; genu I, l’ 3, l″ 2–3; tibia I, d 25–32, l’ 7–8, l’’ 7–9, v’ 4–5, v’’ 8–12, k 3–4, φ 7–8; tarsus I, tc’ 8–9, tc’’ 10–11, pl’ 8–10, pl’’ 13–15, pv′ 2–3, pv’’ 2–3, ω 4–5, s 5–6, u′′ 2. Leg II. Genu II, l’ 4–5; tibia II, d 13–17, l’ 8–9, v’ 9–12, v’’ 13–16; tarsus II, tc′ 7–8, tc ″ 5–6, pl ″ 13–17, pv’’ 4–5, ω 4–5, u’ 6–7, u′′ minute. Leg III. Genu III, l’ 3–4; tibia III, d 15–17, l’ 5–6, v’ 10–11, v’’ 16–17; tarsus III, tc’ 7–9, tc ″ 5–7, pl ″ 16–20, u’ 6–7, pv’’ 5–6, u′′ minute. Setal fprm similar to that in female.

Note: one larva (#2) has an unusual asymmetrical reversal of tcʺ and plʺ.

Differential diagnosis. Eutarsopolipus janus   sp. nov. and E. biuncatus   sp. nov. both have the unusual feature of paired claws on leg I in females. Female Eutarsopolipus janus   differ by having longer setae sc2 (36–40 versus 15–20) and tarsi II-III with longer setae tc′ (8–11 versus 3–7) and tc′′ (8–9 versus 5–6). Males are even more distinctive, with seta sc2 being well-developed in E. janus   (27–34) but greatly reduced in E. biuncatus   (2–3).

Etymology. The specific name janus   refers to the god Janus, who symbolised beginnings and transitions, alluding to the questions regarding the evolution and speciation of this possible complex of cryptic species on several host species.

Remarks. This species was found on four host species: the type host, N. flos   , as well as N. aurifer   , N. dimorphicus   and N. spurgeoni   . All these species are found in the Wet Tropics region of north Queensland and at least N. aurifer   , N. dimorphicus   and N. flos   are closely related ( Will 2015). Thus, these species may not have speciated when their hosts speciated, or they have done so cryptically. In support of the latter hypothesis, some minor differences were observed in N. aurifer   . Females of this species differed by having: slightly longer cheliceral stylets (50–56 versus 43–50), slightly longer tibia I solenidion (6–8 versus 8–10), slightly longer seta tc′ on tarsus II (10–13 versus 8–10) and tarsus III (11–13 versus 8–10), slightly longer setae tcʺ on tarsus II (9–10 versus 8–9) and tarsus III (10–11 versus 8–9) and u′ on tarsus III (9–11 versus 8–9). Several of these differences are also apparent in the larvae. Larvae from N. aurifer   have longer cheliceral stylets (43–49 versus 36–42), longer tarsal seta tc′ on tarsus III (10–12 versus 7–9) and tarsal seta tc″ on tarsus II (6–7 versus 5–6).

The species N. aurifer   is also geographically separated from the other three species: the former is from a large fragment of the Wet Tropics south-west of Cairns, while the others are from a larger fragment southwest to west of Mossman comprising Mt Lewis ( N. flos   ), Mt Spurgeon ( N. spurgeoni   ) and Lamb’s Head ( N. dimorphicus   ). These regions are separated by a biogeographical barrier, the Black Mountain Corridor, which separates radiations of other endemic rainforest animals (e.g., Krosch et al. 2009; Edwards & Melville 2010) and plants (e.g., Burke et al. 2013). Furthermore, N. dimorphicus   and N. flos   are more closely related to each other than they are to N. aurifer ( Will 2015)   .

T

Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

ZMH

Zoologisches Museum Hamburg