Kermes echinatus Balachowsky

Spodek, Malkie & Ben-Dov, Yair, 2012, Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae), ZooKeys 246, pp. 11-26 : 13-16

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Kermes echinatus Balachowsky


Kermes echinatus Balachowsky

Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, 1953:181


This species was originally described from the first-instar nymph collected from Israel, Nahalal forest, off Quercus coccifera .

Material examined.

Adult female of Kermes echinatus . Israel: All material was collected off Quercus calliprinos by M. Spodek. At least twenty specimens were examined and all material is deposited in ICVI. Alonei Abba Reserve,,, (MC:530, C:4999), MC:711); Eilon,,,, (MC:533, MC:542, C:4998), MC:692); Nahal Dolev Reserve,,,,, (MC:261, MC:699, MC:528, MC:695, MC:709); Hanita, (MC:227); Mas’ada, 4.vii.2010 (MC:285); Nebi Hazuri, 4.vii.2010, 6.vii.2011 (MC:288, MC:556).

First-instar nymph of Kermes echinatus .

Israel: Syntype (ICVI C:3691, MNHN 1065-8), Nahalal Forest, Quercus coccifera 10.v.1950, Bytinski-Salz; All non-type material was collected off Quercus calliprinos by M. Spodek, unless otherwise stated; at least twenty specimens were examined and all material is deposited in ICVI. Alonei Abba Reserve, 15.vii.2010,, 15.vii.2012 (MC:289, MC:559, MC:719); Eilon, 26.ix.2010, 21.iv.2011,, 1.vii.2011, 22.vii.2012 (MC:306, MC:486, MC:499, MC:550, MC:718); Hanita, 13.iii.2011 (MC:457); Nahal Dolev, 22.viii.2010, 8.viii.2011, 1.vii.2012 (MC:293, MC:562, MC:717); Nebi Hazuri, 17.viii.2000, Y. Ben-Dov (C:3409), 4.vii.2010, 6.vii.2011, 17.vii.2011, (C:4818, C:5003, MC:561); Neve Zuf, 10.vii.2000, 18.vii.2003, Y. Ben-Dov (C:4752, C:4751); Timrat, 21.vii.2011, 25.iii.2012 (MC:563, MC:651).

Comparative material examined.

Adult female of Kermes vermilio .France: Corsica, Quercus ilex ,, J. Casevitz-Weal (2 specimens, ICVI C:3277); Le Vert Lasalle, Quercus coccifera , 7.v.2007, D. Cardon (3 specimens, ICVI C:4257); Italy: Portofino, Quercus ilex , 27.v.1971, D. Matile-Ferrero (2 specimens, MNHN 4594-2), Pistoia, Quercus ilex , 13.viii.1986, A. Belcari (2 specimens, MNHN 10732-1), Bitonto (Bari), Quercus ilex , 25.vii.2012, F. Porcelli (10 specimens, ICVI C-5132); Spain: Mieras (Gerona), Quercus coccifera , 7.v.1987, A. Verhecken (1 specimen, MNHN 11526-1).

First-instar nymph of Kermes vermilio .

France: Le Vert Lasalle, Quercus coccifera ,, D. Cardon (47 specimens, ICVI C:4272); Italy: Pistoia, Quercus ilex , 13.viii.1986, A. Belcari (6 specimens, MNHN 10732-3), Bitonto (Bari), Quercus ilex , 28.viii.2012, F. Porcelli (20 specimens, ICVI C-5133); Spain: Mieras (Gerona), Quercus coccifera , 7.v.1987, A. Verhecken (1 specimen, MNHN 11526-2).

Description adult female.

General appearance. Young, pre-reproductive adult: Oval, soft and slightly convex; dorsum brownish-grey with 4 or 5 black longitudinal and 6-9 black transverse lines formed of dots and lines; 2.5-3.2 mm long and 2-3 mm wide (Fig. 1). Fully-mature reproductive female highly convex; dorsum brownish-grey with black, longitudinal and transverse lines; body tapering posteriorly (Figs 2, 3). Post-reproductive female oval and moderately convex, 2.9-4.4 mm long, 2.7-5.1 mm wide and 3.2-4.8 mm high; dorsum sclerotized; red with 6-9 black, transverse black lines represented as reticulated folds (Fig. 4).

Slide-mountedadult female. 2-3 mm long and 2-2.8 mm wide (Fig. 5).

Margin. Marginal setae conical, 12-13 µm long and 10-11 µm wide at base; arranged in a single row of 30-38 setae on each margin.

Dorsum. Dorsal setae hair-like, 7-9 µm long, in submarginal band from cephalic tip of body to posterior end of body, about 28-33 on each side. Conical setae, similar in shape to marginal setae, randomly placed on dorsum, with 7-11 setae on each side; each seta 10-13 µm long and 7-10 wide at base. Bilocular pores oval with a sclerotized rim, each 3 µm long and 2 µm wide; present throughout. Tubular ducts diffused throughout dorsum; each with outer ductule 12-17 µm long, inner ductule 10-15 µm long and with a sclerotized cup 5 µm diameter.

Venter. Eyes circular, 20-25 µm diameter, each placed anterolaterally to each antenna. Legs absent. Antenna each 1-segmented; 26-35 µm long, 20-31 µm wide; eachbearing 5-8 fleshy setae; each antennae is surrounded by a group of 40-45 multilocular pores; each pore 7-8 µm diameter with 10 loculi. Clypeolabral shield 235-250 µm long, 212-225 µm wide. Labium 3-segmented, triangular, 160-175µm long, 110-135 µm wide; labial setae as follow: basal segment with 2 setae, 5-8 µm long; medial segment with 2 setae, 12-20 µm long; apical segment with 4 setae; 6 apical setae, 10-12 µm long and 2 subapical seta, 7-8 µm long. Mesothoracic and metathoracic spiracles subequal in size; peritreme 50-68 µm long and 30-37 µm wide; pores with 10 loculi and 8 µm wide in a group of 15-22 locular pores laterad to each spiracle; also with 2 pores with 6 loculi, each 6µm diameter, laterad to each anterior peritreme. Tubular ducts present in a complete, dense submarginal band about 11 ducts wide and also sparsely throughout rest of venter; each duct with outer ductule 10-16 µm long; inner end of outer ductule with a sclerotized cup, 4-5 µm diameter, and inner ductule 11-15 µm long. Multilocular pores each diameter 10 µm with 10-12 loculi, arranged in 2-3 transverse rows on each abdominal segment; with a total of 114-120 pores on each segment; also with a group of 52-56 pores just posterior to vulva. Bilocular pores each3 µm long and 2 µm wide, interspersed between tubular ducts in subma rginal band. Simple pores 2 µm diameter with a sclerotized rim, interspersed between multilocular pores on abdomen. Ventral setae 7-12 µm long, distributed as follows: about 12 setae just anterior to clypeus between antennae; about 8 setae on median and submedian areas of thorax; about 11 setae mesad to each submarginal band of tubular ducts, in a line from antennae to anal ring; 6 or 8setae, present in a band along each abdominal segment; plus 2 setae 20-25 µm long, placed medially on each abdominal segment. Microspines each 1-2 µm long, in groups of 3-5, in 3-8 rows on each abdominal segment. Anal ring ventral, forming a complete sclerotized circle; diameter 42-60 µm; cells absent; with 6 setae, each 25-40 µm long. Other ventral setae 1 pair of setae, each 10-12 µm long, present just anterior to anal ring; 2 pairs of setae, each 10-12 µm long, present posteriorly to anal ring; 1 pair of stout conical setae (similar in shape to marginal spinose setae but shorter), each 10-12 µm long and wide, present on venter slightly above posterior margin; and 1 pair of apical setae, each 33-35 µm long.

First-instar nymph.

General appearance. Dorsum and venter red, body oval and tapering posteriorly, 0.37-0.44 mm long and 0.14-0.2 mm wide. Each with a fringe of curly white wax on margins once first-instars settle on branch for feeding (Fig. 6).

Mountedspecimen. Oval, 0.45-0.49 mm long and 0.20-0.25 mm wide (Fig. 7).

Margin. Marginal setae conical and slightly curved apically, each 10-13 µm long and 5 µm wide at base, in a complete line of 17-22 on each side, smaller conical setae, not-curved, each 5-8 µm long and 3-5 µm wide at base, in a submarginal row of 12-14 setae extending from mesothorax to anal lobe.

Dorsum. Derm membranous; intersegmental lines observable. Dorsal setae 8, each 6-8 µm long, placed in 2 submedian, longitudinal rows on thorax. Simple pores circular, 14, eachabout1 µm diameter, placed in 2 submarginal, longitudinal rows on abdomen.

Venter. Antennae each 6-segmented; total length 102-110 µm; with segment III and VI longest; setal distribution as follows: scape and pedicel each with 2 thin, hair-like setae; segment III with 1 long thin, hair-like seta; IV with 1 fleshy setae; V with 1 fleshy seta and 2 hair-like setae; apical segment with 2 fleshy setae and 5 hair-like setae. Legs well-developed; measurements of hind legs (length in µm); coxae 25-30, trochanter + femur 68-70, tibia 33-38, tarsus 45-50, claw 15-20; total leg length 187-200 µm; trochanter with 2 oval, sensory pores on each side, each pore 3 µm long and about 2 µm wide; setae present on all leg segments; tarsal digitules each 25-30 µm long and knobbed apically, extending beyond apex of claw;claw digitules knobbed apically, each 15-20 µm long; each claw with a single denticle near tip. Clypeolabral shield well-developed; 68-75 µm long and 63-75 µm wide. Labium 3-segmented, triangular, 75-83 µm long and 45-47 µm wide; labial setae as follows: basal segment with 1 setae, rarely 2 setae, 5-8 µm long, median segment with 2 hair-like setae on dorsal surface, 12-13 µm long, apical segment with 6 subapical setae, each 16-20 µm long and 2 apical setae 10-12 µm long. Spiracles subequal in size; each peritreme 3-5 µm diameter; apodeme crescent shaped, 13-15 µm long; each spiracle with 1 quinquelocular pore, 5 µm diameter, placed anterolaterally. Trilocular pores, each about 3 µm wide, distributed as follows: 2 pores between scape just anterior to clypeus; 1 mesad to each coxa, and 2 submedially on abdominal segments V–VII. Bilocular pores oval, 4 total, each 3 µm long and 2 µm wide, present between margin and each spiracle. Ventralsetae interantennal setae 6, each 38-45 µm long, in an longitudinal line medially between scapes; also 2 conical setae, about 14-16 µm long and 5 µm wide at base, on anterior apex of head; 1 seta 10-11 µm long, mesad to each coxa associated with each trilocular pore; and 6 longitudinal lines of setae on abdomen; with 2 medial, 2 submedial and 2 submarginal seta per segment; medial and submedial setae each 10-15 µm long, and submarginal setae 5-6 µm long. Microspines each about 3 µm long, arranged in groups of 3 or 4 in 2 transverse rows on each abdominal segment and sparsely on thorax. Anal ring located ventrally; composed of 2 semi-circles; diameter 20-25 µm; each half circle with 4-6 cells and 3 pointed setae, each 13-18 µm long. Other setae with a pair of setae, each 15-18 µm long, anterior to anal ring, and a pair, each 15-20 µm long, latero-posteriorly to anal ring. Anal lobes slightly developed; inner margin of each lobe with 1 pointed seta, 10-13 µm long and 2-3 µm wide, and 1 very long, flagellate seta apically 220-275 µm long.