Xylopia richardii Boivin ex Baill.

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88 : 34-35

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/417D87A4-FFDE-FFC8-FED9-50C030A3FD70

treatment provided by

Tatiana

scientific name

Xylopia richardii Boivin ex Baill.
status

 

8. Xylopia richardii Boivin ex Baill.

( Figs 1F View FIG ; 6D, F View FIG ; 8A-I View FIG )

Adansonia; Recueil d’Observations botaniques 4: 145, 146 (1864). — Xylopicrum richardii (Boiv. ex Baill.) Kuntze, Revisio generum plantarum, Pars 1: 8 (1891). — Type: La Réunion. Île Bourbon, Montagne de St. Denis , s. d. (fl., fr.), Richard s. n. [687?] (lecto-, here designated, P [ P030420 , as to Richard specimen on lower portion of sheet only]!; isolecto-, K[K001208416]!, P[P030419]!).

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Mauritius. Macchabée [“Macabé”], 550 m, 4.II.1976 (fl.), Argent MAU 19684 View Materials (K n.v., MAU); “ Ile de France ”, without definite locality, Aublet s. n. ( BM) ; Nouvelle Découverte , high levels, 1907 (fr.), Bijoux s. n. (L[L0191349]) ; upland forests, s. d. (immature fr.), Bijoux MAU 21 ( MAU) ; without definite locality, Bijoux MAU 22 ( MAU) ; in sylvis ins. Mauritii , s. d. (fl., fr.), Bojer? s. n. (K, see below) ; without definite locality, s. d. (old fl.), MAU 18 , 19 , 20 , 3060 ( MAU) ; Crown Land Perrier , 14.II.1950 (fl., fr.), Duljeet F. D. N 055 ( MAU) ; Piton Savanne, 6.XII.1995 (st.), Florens 22735 ( MAU) ; east of Bassin Blanc , 26.I.2000 (fl., fr.), Florens et al. 24082 ( MAU) ; valley of Cascade 500 pieds, 600 m, 31.V.1975 (st.), Lorence 1274 ( MAU 17645 View Materials ) ; valley of Cascade 500 pieds, 600 m, 17.I.1976 (immature fr.), Lorence 1612 (K n.v., MAU 17671 View Materials ) ; Crown Land Macabé , 22.I.1977 (fl.), Owadally MAU 18435 View Materials ( MAU) ; without definite locality, Rivals MAU 2795 ( MAU) ; Pétrin CMA, 20°24’29.0”S, 57°28’20.0”E, 11.IV.2007 (fr.), Seepaul et al. SB013 (K) GoogleMaps ; forest near Le Peracheret, 2100 ft, 7.II.1927 (fl.), Vaughan 434 (K).

La Réunion. Pointe de Grands Bois , VI.1905 (bud, immature fr.), d’Alleizette s. n. (L [L0191348]) ; regione St-Philippe , parte australi insulae, Mare Longue, 400-780 m, 14.I.1975 (fl., immature fr.), Bernardi 15071 (A, BM, K n.v., L [L0192019], MICH, MO, NY, P[P01954004, P01954021, P06901366], SING) ; Mare Longue , St. Philippe, II.1971 (fl.), Bosser 20651 (P[P01954005, P01954013]) ; forêt du Brulé du Baril, St. Philippe , 350 m, 19.I.1972 (fl.), Cadet 3498 (P[P01954016]) ; Mare Longue (St. Philippe), 22.II.1971 (fr.), Friedmann 1041 (P[P01954008, P01954012]) ; Marelongue (St. Philippe), 400 m, III.1973 (fr.), Friedmann 2166 (K, P[P01954027, P01954028, P01954029, P01954030]) ; Mare Longue , St. Philippe, I.1977 (fl.), Friedmann 3037 (K n.v., MAU, P[P01954010, P01954011, P01954019, P01954020, P01954023]) ; Mare Longue , 19.III.1981 (fl., fr.), Lecordier GL 6 ( MAU) ; Mare Longue forest , Réserve Biologique, alt. 150-200 m, 29.III.1973 (fr.), Lorence R 41 ( EA, K n.v., MAU 15651 View Materials , MO, P[P01954006]) ; versant de la propriété de Villeneuve, Rivière de Marsonina , III.1944 (fr.), Rivals 51 (P[P01954018]) .

Provenance uncertain. “Madag.[ascar] – Côte Est, env. de Tamatave.” XI.1906 (fl. buds), d’Alleizette 111 (L[L0196007]); Herb. Du Petit-Thouars s. n. (P[P030420, upper right specimen]); Herb. Du Petit-Thouars s. n. (P[P030421]).

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia richardii is endemic to the islands of Mauritius and La Réunion, where it grows in upland thickets and humid evergreen forest with a Sideroxylon species as the dominant in the canopy, at elevations of 150-780 meters ( Fig. 7 View FIG ).

LOCAL NAMES. — Bois de banane (Bernardi 15071, Bosser 20651, Cadet 3498), pigeon wood (Florens et al. 24082).Specimens with flowers and with fruits have been collected from January to March; one specimen collected in June had flower buds and immature fruits. Page (1998c) gave Xylopia richardii an IUCN conservation assessment of Vulnerable. Our EOO and AOO calculations of 558 km 2 and 36 km 2, respectively ( Table 2 View TABLE ), support that assessment. The species is present in some protected areas on both islands.

DESCRIPTION Tree or shrub up to 13 m tall; d.b.h. up to 30 cm.

Twigs appressed-pubescent, the hairs 0.1-0.3 mm long, soon glabrate; nodes with one axillary branch.

Leaves with larger blades 4.4-8.8 cm long, 2.6-3.7 cm wide, coriaceous, discolorous, grayish green to olive gray adaxially, reddish brown to orange-brown abaxially, or concolorous, elliptic, oblong, or oblanceolate, apex obtuse, rounded, emarginate, or acuminate, the acumen 2-7 mm long, base cuneate to broadly cuneate, short-decurrent on petiole, margin often revolute, glabrous on both surfaces; midrib reddened or green adaxially, secondary veins weakly brochidodromous, 9-16 per side, diverging at 55-75° from midrib, these and higher-or- der veins plane or slightly raised adaxially, slightly raised and forming a conspicuous reticulum abaxially; petiole 2.2-7 mm long, semi-terete, smooth to longitudinally wrinkled, glabrous or with a few appressed hairs.

Inflorescences axillary or from the axils of fallen leaves, 1(-2)-flowered, not pedunculate, appressed-pubescent; pedicels often recurved, 7-13 mm long, 1.8-2 mm thick; bracts 3-4, attached at or proximal to the pedicel midpoint, caducous even with smallest buds seen; buds lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, apex acute to obtuse, rarely a little falciform.

Sepals erect to spreading at anthesis, ¼-1/3-connate, 2.7- 3.8 mm long, 4.7-6.0 mm wide, coriaceous, broadly ovate, apex obtuse, appressed-pubescent abaxially.

Petals pale yellow in vivo; outer petals with position at anthesis unknown, 19-37 mm long, 5.8-7.2 mm wide at base, 3.5-5 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, flat on both surfaces, apex acute, base slightly concave, densely dusty-puberulent except for the glabrous basal concavity adaxially, densely sericeous abaxially; inner petals with position at anthesis unknown, 18-25 mm long, 3.5-4.5 mm wide at base, 1.1-1.5 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, linear, keeled on the apical ¼ adaxially, keeled abaxially, apex acute, base deeply concave with undifferentiated margins, laterally compressed, densely dusty-puberulent except for the mostly glabrous basal concavity adaxially, densely puberulent except for glabrous base abaxially.

Stamens (150-)250-300; fertile stamens 1.4-1.7 mm long, narrowly oblong, anther connective apex 0.2-0.4 mm long, shield-shaped to capitate, overhanging anther thecae, papillate, anthers 10-13-locellate, filament 0.3-0.4 mm long; outer staminodes 1-1.5 mm long, oblong, apex truncate; inner staminodes absent; staminal cone 2.5-4.5 mm in diameter, 0.5-1.8 mm high, concealing all but the apices of the ovaries, rim even or slightly irregular.

Carpels 20-27; ovaries 1-1.5 mm long, narrowly oblong, pubescent, stigmas loosely connivent, 6.6-7.0 mm long, filiform, pilose at apices.

Fruit of up to 24 monocarps borne on a pedicel 15-22 mm long, 3-6 mm thick, glabrate or with a few scattered hairs; torus 5-19 mm in diameter, 4-9 mm high, depressed-globose; monocarps with a reddish green exterior and red endocarp in vivo, 2.5-4.8 cm long, 0.6-0.9 cm wide, 0.7-0.9 cm thick, narrowly oblong, slightly torulose, apex obtuse or with a blunt beak 1-3 mm long, base sessile or slightly contracted into a stipe 3-9 mm long, 2.5-4.1 mm thick, sometimes verrucose, longitudinally wrinkled, glabrate or sparsely pubescent; pericarp 1.1-1.4 mm thick.

Seeds up to 6 per monocarp, in a single row, oblique to long axis, 9.1-10 mm long, 5.2-6.1 mm wide, 5.1-7 mm thick, oblong-ellipsoid, flattened-elliptic to circular in cross-section, dark brown, smooth or faintly wrinkled, shiny, perichalazal ring forming a faint ridge; sarcotesta absent; aril whitish to pink in vivo, amber-colored with white flecks when dried, bilobed, lobes 2.1-3.5 mm long, 4.0- 5.9 mm wide, fleshy, smooth to wrinkled.

NOTES

Xylopia richardii differs from the other Mauritian species of Xylopia in the much smaller leaves (not exceeding 8.8 cm in length) and the smaller flowers with the outer petals lanceolate to linear-lanceolate and reaching a length of only 37 mm. There are slight differences between X. richardii specimens from Mauritius and those from La Réunion: those from Mauritius tend to have oblanceolate and emarginate leaves and shorter petals, while specimens from La Réunion have more elliptic and acuminate leaves and longer petals. There may, however, be variation in the leaf shape even on the same specimen, for example sheets of Bosser 20651 (P01954005) and Friedmann 3037 (P01954011) at P show both morphologies.

The specimen d’Alleizette 111 (L), was originally identified as Xylopia flexuosa Diels and its provenance was given as “Madag.[ascar]-Côte Est, env. de Tamatave”. It bears the leaf and bud characters of X. richardii , but this species has never been collected on Madagascar. The same collector made a collection of Xylopia richardii in June 1905 from La Réunion (see above), so it is possible that this represents a labeling error.

The original description by Baillon was based on specimens collected by Richard and Du Petit-Thouars. Richard’s specimen with the label giving the name as “ Xylopia richardi Bvn.” is designated here as the lectotype. The lectotype specimen is mounted on the same sheet as a collection of X. richardii with fruits from the Herb. Du Petit-Thouars. A second collection by Richard, identical in the size and shape of the leaves and the degree of maturation of flowers and fruits, is considered to be an isolectotype; a label on the sheet gives the name as “ Xylopia richardiana H. Bn. ” and the specimen is identified as having been a part of the Drake Herbarium, which was acquired by P in 1913 ( Stafleu & Cowan 1976). A second specimen from the Herb. Du Petit-Thouars (P030421) that has only flowers and leaves with more acute apices than on any of the other specimens, was specifically mentioned by Baillon in the protologue: “ Stirpis hujusce formam alteram ss, foliis apice angustioribus elongatis acuminatis, dignitati specificae, ut mihi videtur, non sat aequalem, in herbario Thouarsiano nuperrime detexi ”.

MAU

The Mauritius Herbarium

BM

Bristol Museum

MICH

University of Michigan

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

SING

Singapore Botanic Gardens

EA

National Museums of Kenya - East African Herbarium

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Magnoliales

Family

Annonaceae

Genus

Xylopia

Loc

Xylopia richardii Boivin ex Baill.

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020
2020
Loc

Xylopia richardii Boivin ex

Xylopia richardii Boivin ex Baill. ( Figs 1F ; 6D, F ; 8A-I ) Adansonia; Recueil d’Observations botaniques 4: 145, 146 (1864). — Xylopicrum richardii (Boiv. ex Baill.) Kuntze, Revisio generum plantarum, Pars 1: 8 (1891). — Type: La Réunion . Île Bourbon, Montagne de St. Denis , s. d. (fl., fr.), Richard s. n. [687?] (lecto-, here designated, P [ P030420 , as to Richard specimen on lower portion of sheet only]!; isolecto-, K[K001208416]!, P[P030419]!).
Xylopicrum richardii (Boiv. ex Baill.) Kuntze, Revisio generum plantarum, Pars 1: 8 (1891).
Loc

Xylopicrum richardii (Boiv. ex Baill.) Kuntze, Revisio generum plantarum, Pars 1: 8 (1891).

Xylopicrum richardii (Boiv. ex Baill.) Kuntze, Revisio generum plantarum, Pars 1: 8 (1891).