Xylopia danguyella Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, 1957

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88 : 54-56

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https://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

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Xylopia danguyella Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren


18. Xylopia danguyella Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren ( Fig. 20D-H View FIG )

Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), Série 2, 29: 351 (1957). — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina [“Centre”], forêt d’Analamazaotra , I.1919 (fr.), Ramanantoavolana (Thouvenot) 94 (lecto-, here designated, P[P030380]!; iso-, P[P030377, P030378]!) .

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Prov. Antsiranana. Préfecture d’Antalaha, Sous-Préfecture d’Andapa, Commune rurale de Bealampona, village de Mandritsarahely, Sud-Ouest d’Andapa, Réserve Spéciale d’Anjanaharibe-Sud, suivant la piste vers Ranomafana, 5.5 km Sud-Ouest de Befingotra, 14°45’03”S, 49°30’03”E, 875 m, 18.X.1994 (fr.), Ravelonarivo et al. 460 ( MO, OWU).

Prov. Toamasina. Alaotra-Mangoro Region, Moramanga, Ambatovy, Andasibe, Menalamba, Analamay forest, 18°47’48”S, 48°26’26”E, 1058 m, 11.X.2005 (fr.), Antilahimena et al. 3940 (K n.v., MO, P[P01986964]); Est (confins du Centre, base du rocher de l’Andriandavibe entre Périnet et Anevoke , 21.XII.1965 (buds), Capuron 24356 SF (A, K n.v., P[P00524376]) ; forêt d’Analamazaotra, s. d. (fl.), Louvel 220 (P[P030381]); Fivondronana: Ambatondrazaka, Commune: Antanandava, 1 km à l’Ouest du Parc national de Zahamena, 17°30’25”S, 48°46’04”E, 860 m, 5.XII.2002 (fr.), Rakotondrajaona et al. 261 (P[P01986982]); Perinet , s. d. (fr.), Service Forestier 2630 (P[P01986962]) .

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia danguyella is restricted to eastern Madagascar, in humid lower montane forest at elevations from 800 to 1050 meters ( Fig. 28 View FIG ). A specimen with flower buds was collected in December, and specimens with fruits have been collected in January, October, and December. With an EOO and AOO estimated as 2191 km 2 and 28 km 2, respectively, X. danguyella is given a preliminary conservation assessment of Endangered ( Table 2 View TABLE ).

LOCAL NAMES. — Fontsimavo (Ramanantoavolana (Thouvenot) 94), hazoambo (Antilahimena et al. 3940), hazoamboa (Louvel 220).

DESCRIPTION Tree up to 25 m tall; d.b.h. up to 30 cm.

Twigs densely brown-pubescent, the hairs 0.2-0.4 mm long, becoming glabrate; nodes with one or occasionally two axillary branches.

Leaves with larger blades 8.7-15.0 cm long, 2.9-6.0 cm wide, coriaceous to subcoriaceous, discolorous, brownish or purplish black adaxially, brown abaxially, oblong to lanceo- late, ovate-oblong, or elliptic, apex acuminate, the acumen 4-12 mm long, base obliquely rounded to broadly cuneate, short-decurrent on petiole, margin slightly recurved, glabrous adaxially, sparsely appressed-pubescent to glabrate abaxially; midrib usually darkened toward base adaxially, secondary veins brochidodromous and somewhat arcuate, 11-17 per side, diverging at 60-70° from midrib, these and higher-order veins indistinct to slightly raised adaxially, raised and forming a conspicuous reticulum abaxially; petiole 4-8 mm long, semi-terete, longitudinally wrinkled, pubescent.

Inflorescences axillary or from the axils of fallen leaves, 1-3-flowered, pedunculate or not, densely brown-pubescent; peduncle 1 mm long or pedicels arising separately from leaf axil; pedicels 2 per peduncle, 3.5-7.5 mm long, 1.0- 1.8 mm thick; bracts 2, one bract near midpoint and the other just proximal to the sepals, caducous or persistent, 1.8-2.2 mm long, semicircular; buds lanceolate, apex obtuse.

Sepals slightly spreading at anthesis, c. 1/3-connate, 2.1-2.9 mm long, 2.7-3.2 mm wide, coriaceous, broadly triangular, apex acute to rounded, densely brown-pubescent abaxially.

Petals with color in vivo unknown; outer petals with position at anthesis unknown, 13.0- 13.7 mm long, 3.1-3.9 mm wide at base, c. 2.5 mm wide at midpoint, slightly fleshy, lanceolate, flat adaxially, weakly keeled abaxially, apex obtuse, densely gray-puberulous except for the glabrous base adaxially, densely brown-pubescent abaxially; inner petals with position at anthesis unknown, 10.6-11.3 mm long, 2.7-3.2 mm wide at base, c. 1.5 mm wide at midpoint, slightly fleshy, lanceolatesubulate, slightly keeled on both surfaces, apex acute, base concave with undifferentiated margin, densely gray-puberulent except for glabrous base on both surfaces.

Stamens 50-60; fertile stamens 1.3-1.4 mm long, narrowly oblong, anther connective apex c. 0.3 mm long, shield-shaped to capitate, overhanging anther thecae, papillate, anthers 8-11-locellate, filament c. 0.4 mm long; outer staminodes 1.5-1.7 mm long, clavate, apex obtuse to rounded; inner staminodes 1.3-1.5 mm long, oblong-clavate, apex rounded; staminal cone 1.3-1.9 mm in diameter, 0.8-1.0 mm high, concealing all but the apices of the ovaries, rim irregularly laciniate.

Carpels c. 6; ovaries c. 1 mm long, oblong, densely pubescent, stigmas connivent, c. 3.3 mm long, filiform, uniformly pilose.

Fruit of up to 11 monocarps borne on a pedicel 6-11 mm long, c. 5 mm thick, glabrate; torus 13-14 mm in diameter, 11-12 mm high, depressed-globose to pyramidal; monocarps with green exterior in vivo, 4.2-6.5 cm long, 2.3-3.3 cm wide, 1.9-3.2 cm thick, oblong, not torulose, apex rounded, base sessile or sometimes contracted into a stipe 3 mm long, 11 mm thick, slightly wrinkled, lenticellate, glabrate or with scattered brown pubescence; pericarp 6-7 mm thick.

Seeds c. 8 per monocarp, in two rows, lying more or less perpendicular to long axis, c. 17.2 mm long, c. 10.4 mm wide, c. 7.5 mm thick, oblong-ellipsoid, broadly elliptic in crosssection, brown, smooth, dull, perichalazal ring not evident; presence of sarcotesta not determinable; aril absent.


Xylopia danguyella is readily distinguished from other lower montane Xylopia species in eastern Madagascar by the much larger and more leathery leaves. The flowers are relatively small, the outer petals reaching a length of 13.7 mm, and have only 50-60 stamens, the lowest number of any Madagascar species. The monocarps, attaining a length of 5.5 cm, are some of the largest of any Madagascar Xylopia species, exceeded only by those of X. anomala , sp. nov.

The specimen Louvel 220 at P was marked as the holotype, and indeed matches the description in the protologue more closely than does Thouvenot 94. Nonetheless, Thouvenot 94 is cited as the type in the protologue and that designation must be accepted. No sheet of Thouvenot 94 was designated as the holotype, however, so a lectotype has been designated here.


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Xylopia danguyella Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020

Xylopia danguyella

Xylopia danguyella Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren ( Fig. 20D-H ) Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris), Série 2, 29: 351 (1957). — Type: Madagascar . Prov. Toamasina [“Centre”], forêt d’Analamazaotra , I.1919 (fr.), Ramanantoavolana (Thouvenot) 94 (lecto-, here designated, P[P030380]!; iso-, P[P030377, P030378]!) .