Xylopia kalabenonensis D.M.Johnson, Deroin & Callmander

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88 : 65-66

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https://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1



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Xylopia kalabenonensis D.M.Johnson, Deroin & Callmander


24. Xylopia kalabenonensis D.M.Johnson, Deroin & Callmander ( Figs 1E View FIG ; 16H View FIG )

Candollea 64 (2): 183-187 (2009). — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Antsiranana, Préfecture d’Ambilobe, commune de Beramanja, Anketrabe, forêt de Kalabenono, chaîne du Galoka, 7 km au SE d’Anketrabe, 13°38’23”S, 48°40’06”E, 854 m, 18.XI.2006 (fl., fr.), Razafitsalama et al. 1041 (holo-, MO!; GoogleMaps iso-, G!, OWU!, P n. v.).

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia kalabenonensis is only known on the rocky sandstone areas of the Kalabenono massif of northern Madagascar, where it occurs in subhumid to humid forest at c. 850 m. The single specimen, with both flowers and fruits, was collected in November. The previous

conservation assessment of Critically Endangered, based on its AOO of only 9 km 2 encompassing a single known population occurring outside any protected area ( Callmander et al. 2009), has not changed.

DESCRIPTION Shrub 6 m tall; d.b.h. 8 cm.

Twigs densely hispid, with persistent pale brown hairs 1.2-2 mm long; nodes with one or occasionally two axillary branches.

Leaves with larger blades 8.4-9.0 cm long, 2.8-2.9 cm wide, subcoriaceous, discolorous, greenish gray adaxially, light brown abaxially, oblong, apex acuminate, the acumen 6-8 mm long, base rounded, not decurrent, margin slightly revolute, glabrous except for dense erect hairs on the midrib adaxially, erect-hairy abaxially; midrib darker than blade adaxially, secondary veins irregularly brochidodromous, 12-13 per side, diverging at 70-90° from midrib, these and higher-order veins indistinct adaxially, raised and conspicuous abaxially; petiole 3-4 mm long, semi-terete, smooth, densely hispid.

Inflorescences axillary, 1-flowered, not pedunculate, densely hispid; pedicels 7-7.5 mm long, 1.2-1.3 mm thick; bract 1, attached distal to the midpoint, persistent, 3-3.6 mm long, triangular to ovate; buds oblong, apex obtuse.

Sepals slightly spreading at anthesis, 1/2-connate, 4.0- 4.5 mm long, 4.0- 4.7 mm wide, coriaceous, ovate, apex acute, hispid abaxially.

Petals white to cream-colored in vivo; outer petals spreading at anthesis, 11.5-13 mm long, 3.5-4.5 mm wide at the base, 3.3-4 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, lanceolate-oblong, weakly keeled on apical ¼ adaxially, flat abaxially, apex obtuse, densely puberulent except for the glabrous base adaxially, densely silvery sericeous abaxially; inner petals erect at anthesis, 8-10.1 mm long, 3.3-3.4 mm wide at base, 1.9-2.0 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, lanceolate, weakly keeled on apical 1/3 adaxially, keeled abaxially, apex acute, base shallowly concave with undifferentiated margin, sparsely puberulent but becoming glabrous toward the base adaxially, pubescent except for the glabrous base abaxially.

Stamens c. 300; fertile stamens c. 2 mm long, clavate to narrowly oblong, anther connective apex 0.2-0.3 mm long, hemispherical, overhanging anther thecae, papillate or with a few hairs, anthers 11-14-locellate, filament 0.4-0.5 mm long; outer staminodes 2-2.2 mm long, clavate to narrowly oblong, apex obtuse; inner staminodes 1.2-1.4 mm long, oblong to clavate, apex obtuse; staminal cone 2.4-2.8 mm in diameter, 1.4-2 mm high, concealing all but the apices of the ovaries, rim irregularly laciniate.

Carpels c. 8; ovaries 1-1.4 mm long, narrowly oblong, sparsely pilose, stigmas connivent, 3.2-3.3 mm long, clavate, pilose at the apices.

Fruit of up to 5 monocarps borne on a pedicel 5-7 mm long, c. 3.5 mm thick, pubescent; torus 5-6 mm in diameter, c. 5 mm high, short-cylindrical; monocarps with red exterior in vivo, 3-3.5 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, 1.8-2 cm thick, oblong, slightly torulose, apex rounded to obtuse, base sessile, faintly wrinkled, slightly shiny, hispid; pericarp c. 0.4 mm thick.

Seeds [ex Callmander et al. 2009] up to 5 per monocarp, in two rows, oblique to long axis, 7-7.6 mm long, 4.3-4.8 mm wide, 3.8-4.1 mm thick, ellipsoid, elliptic to somewhat wedge-shaped in cross-section, light brown, smooth, dull, perichalazal ring not evident; presence of sarcotesta undeterminable; aril absent.


Xylopia kalabenonensis belongs to the group of Madagascar species with clavate stigmas and relatively broad petals. It resembles Xylopia capuronii in its densely pubescent twigs and pedicels, but the hairs are pale brown and straight instead of dull red and twisted. The leaf blades are only slightly revolute rather than strongly revolute, and the outer petals are longer and narrower. The petal orientation at anthesis, with the outer petals wide spreading and the inner petals erect, is similar to that of X. australis , sp. nov., which is also a member of the species group within sect. Stenoxylopia with clavata stigmas. As noted in Callmander et al. (2009), another specimen collected from the same mountain (Razafitsalama et al. 1055 (MO, OWU), Ambilobe, Beramanja, Anketrabe, forêt de Kalabenono, sur la chaine Galoko, 7 km au Sud-Est d’Anketrabe, 13°88’23”S, 48°40’06”E, 854 m, 18.XI.2006) differs in several ways from the new species: the indument is shorter (hairs 0.5-0.9 mm long) and more lax, the leaf is lanceolate, cuneate at the base, slightly longer, and has flat rather than revolute margins, the inflorescences are sometimes 2-flowered, with slightly shorter (3-5 mm) pedicels, and the staminal cone is smaller (1.7 mm in diameter). As this specimen lacks mature flowers or fruits, additional material will be needed to determine its status.


Missouri Botanical Garden