Xylopia lamii Cavaco & Keraudren, 1956

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia 42 (1), pp. 1-88 : 66-67

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https://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

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Xylopia lamii Cavaco & Keraudren


25. Xylopia lamii Cavaco & Keraudren ( Fig. 24F-J View FIG )

Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 103: 275 (1956). — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina [“ Domaine de l’Est ”], bassin de la Manonga, affluent de la Rantabe, aux environs de Sahajinja, 700 m, 3.III.1954 (fl.), Capuron 9087 (holo-, P[P030401]!; iso-, OWU!, P[P030402, P030403]!, WAG!) .

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina. Limite W de la R. N. No 1 Betampona, 1200 m [see below], 22.I.1950 (fr.), Cours 2519 (P[P01987039, P02005961]); itinéraire de Didy à Brickaville, s. d. (fr.), Cours 4798 (P[P01987017]); Soanierana– Andasibé, 350 m, 13.XII.1938 (buds), Lam & Meeuse 5971 (K n.v., L, WAG); R. N. I. Tamatave, 22.IX.1955 (fr.), Marten 7580-RN ( OWU, P[P01987018]); District Toamasina II, Commune Rurale Sahambala, Fokontany Sahavongo, village le plus proche Ambodirafiahely, forêt d’Andromasina, 18°01’26”S, 49°05’44”E, 565 m, 2.II.2017 (fr.), Rakotonirina et al. 38 ( MO); Ambodimangavalo, Ambatoharanana, sur pente sur piste entre Moango et Antanamarina à 3 km du village d’Antanamarina, 17°33’57”S, 48°53’58”E, 740 m, 27.X.2000 (fr.), Randrianjanaka et al. 591 (P[P01987019]. DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia lamii occurs in east-central Madagascar, in humid forest from 350 to 740 meters ( Fig. 29 View FIG ). An elevation of 1200 meters was reported on the label of Cours 2519, which was collected along the western boundary of the Betampona Reserve. However, Ghulam et al. (2015), determined the elevational range of the Reserve to be 2-580 meters. The type specimen with flowers was collected in March and an additional specimen with flower buds was collected in December; collections with fruits have been gathered in January, February, September, and October. With an EOO value of 6316 km 2 and an AOO value of 24 km 2, X. lamii is given a preliminary conservation assessment of Endangered ( Table 2 View TABLE ).

LOCAL NAMES. — Hazoambo (Cours 2519, Lam & Meeuse 5971), hazoambohay (Randrianjanaka et al. 591).

DESCRIPTION Tree up to 20 m tall; d.b.h. up to 20 cm.

Twigs erect ferruginous-pubescent, the hairs 0.3-1.2 mm long, at length glabrate or pubescence persistent only in strips; nodes with one axillary branch.

Leaves with larger blades 4.1-5.6 cm long, 2.0- 2.8 cm wide, chartaceous to subcoriaceous, discolorous, gray to dark brown adaxially, orange-tan to light brown abaxially, ovate to elliptic, apex rounded to truncate and often retuse, base broadly cuneate to rounded, short-decurrent on petiole, margin flat or slightly recurved, glabrous except for dense erect ferruginous pubescence on midrib adaxially, thinly appressed ferruginous-pubescent, hairs denser and longer on midrib, margins, and base, often with a tuft of hairs at the apex, abaxially; midrib concolorous with blade adaxially, secondary veins weakly brochidodromous, 9-11 per side, diverging at 50-70° from midrib, these and higher-order veins slightly raised on both surfaces; petiole 1.8-3.5 mm long, semi-terete to shallowly canaliculate, faintly wrinkled, densely ferruginous-pubescent.

Inflorescences axillary, 1-flowered, not pedunculate, densely ferruginous-pubescent; pedicels 2.9-4 mm long, 0.8-1 mm thick; bracts 2, both attached near pedicel midpoint, caducous or occasionally persistent, 1.4-1.9 mm long, ovate; buds linear, apex acute.

Sepals spreading at anthesis, ¼-1/2-connate, 2.1-2.2 mm long, 1.9-2.3 mm wide, coriaceous, triangular to ovate, apex acute to obtuse, appressed ferruginous-pubescent abaxially.

Petals green-yellow in vivo; outer petals with position at anthesis unknown, 12.0- 14.5 mm long, 2.6-2.8 wide at base, 1.0- 1.5 mm wide at midpoint, slightly fleshy, linear, keeled at the apex but otherwise flattened adaxially, faintly keeled abaxially, apex acute to obtuse, sparsely puberulent adaxially, appressed-pubescent abaxially; inner petals with position at anthesis unknown, 11.7- 11.8 mm long, 2.2-2.3 mm wide at base, 0.7-0.8 mm wide at midpoint, slightly fleshy, linear, keeled except at base on both surfaces, apex acute, base concave with undifferentiated margin but with a bilobed thickening at the widest point, puberulent except for glabrous base on both surfaces.

Stamens 70-80; fertile stamens 1.1-1.2 mm long, narrowly oblong, anther connective apex 0.2-0.3 mm long, hemispherical to capitate, overhanging anther thecae, papillate, anthers 8-10-locellate, filament 0.3-0.4 mm long; outer staminodes c. 1.5 mm long, clavate, apex obtuse to rounded; inner staminodes c. 1.1 mm long, clavate, apex rounded; staminal cone 1-1.2 mm in diameter, c. 0.7 mm high, concealing all but apical 1/3 of the ovaries, rim irregularly laciniate.

Carpels 4-6; ovaries c. 1 mm long, narrowly oblong, pubescent, stigmas connivent, 3.0- 3.1 mm long, filiform, pubescent at the apices.

Fruit of up to 5 monocarps borne on a pedicel 8-10 mm long, 5-6 mm thick, sparsely pubescent to glabrate; torus 12-22 mm in diameter, 9-15 mm high, depressed-globose to pyramidal; monocarps with red and yellow exterior and red endocarp in vivo, 2.7-5 cm long, 2.0- 2.5 cm wide, 2.2- 2.5 cm thick, obovoid, ellipsoid, or oblong, not torulose, apex rounded, base sessile or contracted into a stipe 2 mm long, 8 mm wide, finely wrinkled and verrucose, sometimes with a slightly raised longitudinal ridge, sparsely lenticellate, shiny to dull, glabrate; pericarp 3.0- 3.1 mm thick.

Seeds up to 8 per monocarp, in two rows, perpendicular to long axis, 13.0- 14.1 mm long, 8.0- 8.6 mm wide, 6.1-6.8 mm thick, oblong, elliptic in cross-section, brown, slightly rough and wrinkled, dull, perichalazal ring indistinct, forming a slight ridge on antiraphal side; sarcotesta light green in vivo; aril absent.


Xylopia lamii has distinctive persistent erect ferruginous indument on the twigs, leaves, pedicels, and sepals, and pubescent leaves that are retuse at the apex. It shares with Xylopia buxifolia and X. lemurica the characters of short sepals and narrow acute inner petals. It appears to occupy an elevational zone in between those two species, but little is known concerning its habitat.

Kramer (1969), in a survey of leaf and floral anatomy in Xylopia and related genera, reported that X. lamii was one of two species, along with X. buxifolia , to have papillae on the abaxial leaf epidermis, a feature not seen in any other Xylopia species he surveyed.


Wageningen University


Jason Swallen Herbarium


Missouri Botanical Garden














Xylopia lamii Cavaco & Keraudren

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020

Xylopia lamii

Xylopia lamii Cavaco & Keraudren ( Fig. 24F-J ) Bulletin de la Société botanique de France 103: 275 (1956). — Type: Madagascar . Prov. Toamasina [“ Domaine de l’Est ”], bassin de la Manonga, affluent de la Rantabe, aux environs de Sahajinja, 700 m, 3.III.1954 (fl.), Capuron 9087 (holo-, P[P030401]!; iso-, OWU!, P[P030402, P030403]!, WAG!) .