Salvia iodantha Fernald (1900: 547)

González-Gallegos, Jesús Guadalupe & Gama-Villanueva, Olga Jazmín, 2013, Resurrection of Salvia species (Lamiaceae) recently synonymized in Flora Mesoamericana, Phytotaxa 151 (1), pp. 1-24 : 10-17

publication ID 10.11646/phytotaxa.151.1.1

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scientific name

Salvia iodantha Fernald (1900: 547)


Salvia iodantha Fernald (1900: 547) . Type: MEXICO. Morelos. Cuernavaca: mountain side above Cuernavaca ,

7800 ft [2377 m], 5 February 1899, C. G. Pringle 8039 (holotype GH!, isotypes BM!, BR!, E!, F!, JE!, K!,

MEXU!, MICH!, MO!, MU!, NY!, PH!, RSA!, UC!, US!, WU!). Fig. 7A View FIGURE 7 .

Salvia arbuscula Fernald (1910: 421) . Type: Michoacán and Guerrero: Sierra Madre, 1500 m, 20 January 1899, E. Langlassé 767 (holotype GH!, isotypes K!, P-00714834, P-00714835!, US!).

Salvia michoacana Fernald (1900: 548) . Type: MEXICO. Michoacán. Pátzcuaro: near Pátzcuaro, 24 November 1891, C. G. Pringle 3946 (lectotype US, isolectotypes AC!, BM!, BR!, MEXU-00028352!, MEXU-00028353!, MEXU- 00028354!, MSC!, NY!, PH!) .

Perennial herb to subshrub 0.8–2(–3) cm tall; stems puberulent to shortly pilose. Leaves with petioles 1.7–3.7 cm long, puberulent to shortly pilose; leaf blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 4–11.1 × (1.6–) 2.4–4.8 cm, acute to caudate at the apex, rounded to truncate at the base, margin serrate, glabrous to sparsely strigose above, pilose to tomentose beneath. Inflorescences in racemes 10.5–25 cm long, with (10–)17–26 verticillasters each, these 8–18-flowered, lowermost nodes 0.5–2.2 cm long, pilose and covered with sessile glandular dots. Floral bract lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, (0.6–)1–2.3 × (0.1–) 0.5–1 mm, deciduous, acute to attenuated at the apex, truncate at the base, margin entire, puberulent to shortly pilose at the outer surface. Flowers with pedicels (1.3–) 2–4.8 mm long, puberulent to shortly pilose and covered with sessile glandular dots. Calyx 2.7–3.5(– 4.4) mm long, 2–2.8 mm wide at the throat, green, shortly pilose and profusely covered with sessile glandular dots, upper lip 3-veined and entire, lobes of the lips truncate and topped with a mucro by means of a vein extension. Corolla magenta to dark violet, velutinous throughout; tube (11–) 13–18 mm long, 2.3–4 mm wide at the throat, slightly expanded toward the apex but not ventricose, not constrained at the base and internally ornate with a pair of papillae; upper lip 3.4–6 mm long, lower lip (1.3–)2.1–4.5 × 2.8–4 mm, incurvedconcave. Stamens 2, exserted 6–8 mm from the upper corolla lip; filament 2.2–3.2(–5) mm long; connective (8.3–) 13.4–18.8 mm long, ornate with a tiny acute teeth near midportion; theca 1.7–2 mm long. Gynobasic horn 1–1.3 mm long; style 17.3–27 mm long, 6–8 mm exserted from corolla upper lip, glabrous at the apex, lower stigmatic branch acute. Mericarp ovoid, 0.8–1 × 0.4–0.8 mm, brown, smooth and glabrous.

Distribution, habitat and phenology: Salvia iodantha grows in the Mexican states of Colima, Durango,

Estado de México, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit and Sinaloa (fig. 8). It dwells in oak, oak-

pine, pine-oak, pine, fir, montane cloud forests, and less often in tropical deciduous forests, from (400–) 1100– 3200 m elevation. It shares habitat with Abies flinckii Rushforth , Alnus acuminata subsp. arguta (Schltdl.) Furlow , Arbutus xalapensis , Carpinus caroliniana Walter , Clusia salvinii Donn.Sm. , Cornus disciflora DC. , Clidemia dentata Pav. ex D.Don. , Fraxinus uhdei (Wenz.) Lingelsh. , Hesperocyparis lusitanica (Mill.) Bartel , Magnolia pacifica A.Vázquez , Meliosma dentata (Liebm.) Urb. , Ostrya virginiana (Mill) K.Koch. , Parathesis villosa Lundell , Podocarpus reichei J.Buchholz & N.E.Gray , Prunus rhamnoides Koehne , Quercus castanea , Senna multifoliolata (Paul G. Wilson) H.S.Irwin & Barneby , Smallanthus maculatus (Cav.) H.Rob. , Symplococarpon purpusii (Brandegee) Kobuski , Symplocos citrea Lex. ex La Llave & Lex. , and Tilia mexicana Schltdl. It is sympatric with other species of Salvia as Salvia elegans Vahl , S. gesneriflora Lindl. & Paxton , S. mexicana L., S. quercetorum Epling , S. thyrsiflora Benth. It can be found in flower and fruit throughout the year, but more frequently from November to March.

Discussion: Salvia iodantha was reduced to the synonymy of S. purpurea (fig. 7 B) by Klitgaard (2012); however, even when they are close similar, the first can be distinguished because of its shorter [2.7–3.5(–4.4) mm] and truncate calyces, shorter lower corolla lip [(1.3–) 2.1–4.5 mm], and long exserted stamens from upper corolla lip (6–8 mm); in S. purpurea the calyces are (4.5–) 5–6.2 mm long and with evidently acute lobes a the apex, lower corolla lip (4.2–)6.4–8.3(–11.2) mm long, and the stamens are inserted in the upper corolla lip. Moreover, S. iodantha grows mainly in temperate forests above 2000 m elevation, while S. purpurea usually grows in tropical forests below 1900 m elevation.

Salvia arbuscula Fernald (1910: 421) is clearly a synonym of S. iodantha . The first was described as possessing branched hairs; however, those hairs were not found in any specimen examined. Epling (1939) neither reported branched hairs in the species, he distinguish them in terms of pubescence density beneath the leaves; but leaf pubescence is extremely variable between populations and even within an individual of S. iodantha , there is a tendency that young leaves manifest a dense tomentum, which is progressively lost as the leaf grows. Hence, the recognition of S. arbuscula as a distinct species is not warranted, accordingly here is reduced to the synonymy of S. iodantha .

It is highly probable that Salvia townsendii Fernald (1904: 55) is also a synonym of S. iodantha . Epling stated they differ because corolla tubes are longer in the first, varying from 21 to 26 mm long; they are almost identical in every other character. However we did not have enough available specimens for examining as to take a conclusive decision.

Salvia iodantha has a narrower distribution than S. purpurea and does not grow in the area of Flora Mesoamericana (fig. 8).

Representative specimens examined ( Salvia iodantha ): MEXICO. Colima. Minatitlán: 7–9 km al O de Los Sauces, camino a terreros, El Terrero , 1850–1900 m, 30 January 1987, J. A . Vázquez-G. & L. Guzmán 4146 ( WIS!, ZEA!); 14-15 km al NEE de Minatitlán, 2–2.5 km al E de El Terrero , 2100 m, 19 February 1988, R . Cuevas-G. & N. M. Núñez 3482 ( ZEA!) . Estado de México. Donato Guerra: rumbo al llano de Los Tres Gobernadores, por San Juan Xoconusco , 19°22’30”N 100°14’46”W, 2740 m, 20 March 2005, G. M GoogleMaps . Cornejo- T. et al. 1008 (IBUG!). Guerrero. Petatlán: 3 km al NE de La Guayabera , a 29 km al NE de Coyuquilla, 5 February 1986, J. C . Soto-N. et al 12259 (IBUG!). Jalisco. Atenguillo: en el predio Buenavista , 20°11’23.5”N 104°42’28.1”W, 2162 m, 12 March 2004, R GoogleMaps . Cuevas-G. et al. 8059 ( ZEA!). 2–4 km al ONO de Estación Biológica Las Joyas (Zarzamora) en el camino y abajo del camino a Corralitos; 10 km de distancia aérea al SSE de Ahuacapán , 19°35’36”N 104°17’30”W, 1900–1950 m, 21 December 1984, E. J GoogleMaps . Judziewicz & T. S . Cochrane 4784 ( IBUG!, MEXU!, WIS!, ZEA!). Cabo Corrientes: Piedra Habladora, ca. 2 km al SE de El Tuito, 600 m, 10 March 1973, M . Sousa-S. et al. 3938 ( CIDIIR!, MEXU!); la bajada de La Pitarilla, entre la Guázima y Agua Caliente, 20°22’50”N 105°24’10”W, 400 m, 1 March 1993, G GoogleMaps . Castillo-C. et al. 10605 ( XAL!). Manzanilla de la Paz: 5 km después del crucero en la brecha a Concepción de Buenos Aires , 16 January 1977, L. M . Villarreal de Puga & S . Carvajal-H. 9826 ( IBUG!). Mascota: Laguna de Juanacatlán , 1940 m, 17 March 1971, R . González-T. 159 ( MICH!, WIS!). San Gabriel: NW slopes of Nevado de Colima, in pine-fir zone above Jazmin ; deep heavily wooded barranca at the end of abandoned lumber road 1 km above of El Izote, 2500–2600 m, 25 March 1949, R . McVaugh 10014 ( MEXU!, MICH!); Talpa de Allende: Talpa de Allende : 8–9 km al SE de Cuale sobre la brecha hacia Talpa de Allende (vista de la Presa Cajón de Peñas), 20°21’20.8”N 105°0’15.8”W, 2448 m, 29 November 2009, J. J GoogleMaps . González-G. 476 (IBUG!); Michoacán. Aguililla: 8–12 km SW of Aserradero Dos Aguas and nearly W of Aguililla , 2250–2400 m, 5 March 1965, R . McVaugh 22820 ( MICH!). Tancítaro: cerro Tancítaro , 27 km al W de Uruapan en línea recta, Barranca de El Puerto al N de Tancítaro, 19°24’17”N 102°23’39”W, 2200 m, 29 January 1996, I GoogleMaps . García-R. et al. 4500 (CIMI!, MICH!); Nayarit. Compostela: 31 km al E de Las Varas, camino lateral de tierra en la carretera a Compostela , 5 March 1985, P . Magaña & O . Téllez-V. 164 (MEXU!). Sinaloa. Concordia : en las colinas al E de Santa Lucía, 300 m al E de la población, 23°26’1.7”N 105°50’34.8”W, 1225 m, 5 January 2010, J. G GoogleMaps . González-G. 529 (IBUG!).

Representative specimens examined ( Salvia purpurea ): MEXICO. Aguascalientes. Calvillo: Los Alisos , 2080 m, 10 October 1982, M . E . Siqueiros 1908 ( CIIDIR, HUAA!) ; Chiapas. Pueblo Nuevo Solistahuacán: 600–700 m al SO de Pueblo Nuevo, 17º9’12.69”N 92º53’20.8”W, 1690 m, 15 November 2009, J GoogleMaps . G GoogleMaps . González-G et al. 457 (IBUG!). Colima. Colima: rancho El Jabalí, 20 km N of Colima in the SW foothills of Volcan de Colima, 19º27’N 103º42’W, 1250 m, 27 October 1990, E GoogleMaps . J GoogleMaps . Lott et al. 2932 ( MEXU!, MICH!) ; Estado de México. Amecameca: 3 km del Portezuelo, al N de Ameca , 1650 m, 13 October 1978, J . L . Alvizo-L. s.n. (IBUG!). Guanajuato. Tarimoro: cerro de los Agustinos, 25 km al ESE de Tarimoro, en Puerto Honod , 14 October 1974, D. Flores 157 ( IBUG!) . Guerrero. Malinaltepec: Ojo de Agua de Cuauhtémoc , 26 December 2012, E . Cándido-B. & B. Nepomuceno-C. 101 (IBUG!, UAGC!). Jalisco. Atotonilco el Alto: carretera Guadalajara-Atotonílco , a 30 m de la desviación rancho La Pareja , 7 October 1990, M . M . Ruiz-B. 8 ( CHAPA!, IBUG!, IEB!)). Guachinango: 16 miles NW of Ameca along the road to Mascota, 1310 m, 1 November 1970, D. E . Breedlove 18664 ( MICH!). Mascota: 2 km al NE del rancho El Galope , 1600 m, 18 October 1987, R . Ramí al. 748 ( HUMO!, IBUG!). Zapotlanejo : SE de Zapotlanejo, 1550 m, 18 November 1981, J . P . Lira-M. s.n. (IBUG!). Michoacán. Coalcomán: Salitre-Mesa , 1780 m, 30 October 1938, G . B . Hinton et al. 12482 ( MICH!). Villamar: ladera del cerro Cotijarán, 26 September 1984, R . Flores 560 ( CIMI!) . Morelos. Tepostlán: Tepoztlán , 2000 m, 1 December 1986, M . Zagal-A. 10 ( IBUG!). Tlayacapan: 3 km al SW de San José de los Laureles, rumbo al cerro de Las Mariposas, 1800 m, 3 November 1990, G . Serrano-J. 14 (IBUG!). Nayarit. Ahuacatlán: mountains 10 miles SE of Ahuacatlán, on the road to Barranca del Oro and Amatlán , 1100 m, 17 November 1959, W . N . Koelz & R . McVaugh 831 ( MICH!) . Oaxaca. Santa Catarina Juquila: al W de Santa Catarina Juquila, entre Panixtlahuaca y Santa Lucía , 16º14’5.2”N 97º16’40.9”W, 1529 m, 27 January 2010, J GoogleMaps . G GoogleMaps . González-G. 565 (IBUG!). Veracruz. Huatusco: 9 km al N de Huatusco por la carretera rumbo a Totutla , 19º11’22.92”N 96º57’18”W, 1330 m, 22 December 2008, J GoogleMaps . G GoogleMaps . González-G. & S. Rúa-H. 271 (IBUG!). Zacatecas. Tlaltenango: about 38 km al W de Jalpa, sobre la carretera a Tlaltenango, 30 km del entronque con la carretera Jalpa-Juchipila , 2550 m, 21 October 1973, J . Rzedowski & R . McVaugh 1015 ( MICH!). Moyahua: Cerro La Bota, al W de Las Palmas , camino de terracería Las Plamas, El Pitayito, 17 October 1997, E .D. Enríquez-E. & J. J. Balleza-C. 1685 (Herbario de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas!) .

Salvia nepetoides Kunth (1818: 299) . Type: MEXICO. Guanajuato: entre San José Temascatio y Guanajuato, 1000 hex. [1829 m], F.W.H.A. Humboldt & A.J.A. Bonpland s.n. (holotype P). Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 .

Perennial herb to subshrub, erect or reclined, (0.2–)0.5–1(–1.7); stems hispidulous and generally covered with short glandular-capitate hairs. Leaves with petioles 2.5–16.6 mm long, hispidulous and covered with short glandular-capitate hairs; leaf blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 1.3–5(–7.5) × 1–4.3(–7.2) cm, acute to acuminate at the apex, truncate to rounded at the base, margin crenate to serrate, pilose to covered with appressed hairs above, usually white tomentose beneath, both surfaces with sessile glandular dots. Inflorescence in racemes (6–) 10–28.9 cm long, with (3–)10–19 verticillasters, these (2–)4–6(–10)-flowered, lowermost nodes 0.8–2.7(– 3.9) cm apart, floral axis hispidulous and covered with short glandular-capitate hairs. Floral bract lanceolate, (1.3–)2.2–4.7 × 0.4–1.4 mm, deciduous, acute at the apex, truncate at the base, margin entire, pilose, covered with glandular-capitate hairs and sessile glandular dots, ciliated at the margin; bracteols present at the base of each pedicel. Flowers with pedicels 1.9–3.5(–4.7) mm long, puberulent and covered with short glandularcapitate hairs. Calyx (4–)5–7(–7.7) mm long, (1.8–) 2.5–4.8 mm wide at the throat, green and sometimes wine tinged, pilose, with glandular-capitate hairs and covered with sessile glandular dots, upper lip 5–7-veined, entire, lobes of the lips acute. Corolla sky blue with white nectar guides on the lower lip, glabrous except for the upper lip and lower margin of the lower one which are sparsely pilose; corolla tube, (3.3–) 4.3–6.5(–7.8) mm long, (1.4–)2–2.8(–3.8) mm wide at the throat, ventricose, slightly constrained at the base, internally epapillate; upper lip 2.1–4.4(–7.9) mm long, lower lip (2.5)4.4–6.2(–9.8) × (3–) 4.2–6.7 mm, deflexed. Stamens 2, included; filament (1.4–) 2–3 mm long; connective 2–3.9 mm long, geniculate; theca 1.1–1.6 mm long; a pair of staminodes above and behind filament attachement to the corolla. Gynobasic horn 0.8–1.4 mm long; style 6.2–10.7 mm long, pilose at the apex, lower stigmatic branch sigmoid. Mericarp ovoid, 1.3–1.9 × 0.8–1.3 mm, pale brown and dark brown marbled, smooth, glabrous.

Distribution, habitat and phenology: Salvia nepetoides grows in the Distrito Federal, and in the Mexican states of Estado de México, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacán and Morelos (fig. 10). It inhabits oak, oakpine, pine-oak, and in a less frequency, montane cloud and tropical deciduous forests, from (1100–)1800– 2800(–3100) m elevation. It shares habitat with Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham. , Alnus jorullensis Kunth , Arbutus xalapensis , Clinopodium macrostemum (Moc. & Sessé ex Benth.) Kuntze , Comarostaphylis glaucescens (Kunth) Zucc. ex Klotzsch , Cunila polyantha Benth. , Dahlia barkeriae Knowles & Westc. , D. coccinea Cav. , Pinus lumholtzii B.L.Rob. & Fernald , P. oocarpa Schiede ex Schltdl. , Quercus candicans Née , Q. castanea , Q. laeta Liebm. , Q. resinosa Liebm. , Q. rugosa Née , Q. salicifolia Née ; and it is sympatric with other species of Salvia as S. concolor Lamb. ex Benth. , S. elegans Vahl. , S. fulgens Cav. , S. gesneriflora Lindl. & Paxton , S. longistyla Benth. , S. melissodora Lag. , S. mexicana L. It can flower and fructify throughout the year, but more likely from August to January.

Discussion: Salvia nepetoides was also synonymized under the concept of S. amarissima ( Klitgaard, 2012) . Nonetheless, it belongs to section Sigmoideae Epling (1939: 42) which is unique within the genus because of its sigmoid lower stigmatic branch, a characteristic that is present in S. nepetoides but not in S. amarissima which has an acute lower stigmatic branch. The species of section Sigmoideae also present bracteoles at the base of each pedicel, a character that is unusual within Salvia subgenus Calosphace (González-Gallegos & Castro-Castro, 2013) and that is not shared by S. amarissima . Furthermore, S. nepetoides has shorter petioles [2.5–16.6 mm vs. (7–) 30–40 mm], usually smaller floral bracts [(1.3–)2.2–4.7 × 0.4–1.4 mm vs. 5.5–11(–14) × 2–3 mm], and usually smaller connective [2–3.9 mm vs. (2.5–) 5–5.5 mm].

Salvia nepetoides does not grow in the area covered by the Flora Mesoamericana project (fig. 10).

Representative specimens examined ( Salvia nepetoides ): MEXICO. Distrito Federal: Esclava , 19 November 1902, C. G . Pringle 11125 ( MICH!) . Jalisco. Jocotepec: Cerro Viejo, paraje El Rincón-Cresta , Bola del Viejo, Barranca del Agua, 20º24’N 103º25’W, 1600–2950 m, 5 February 1987, J. A GoogleMaps . Machuca-N. 5479 ( WIS!). San Gabriel: along road from El Fresnito to Venustiano Carranza , at km 22.590 marker, in large stand on mountaintop in semishade area in weathered limestone soil, 2347 m, 6 November 1975, K. M . Peterson & C. R . Broome 391 ( IBUG!, MEXU!) . Michoacán. Charo: Las Trojes, ca 32 km E de Morelia , 2200 m, 12 November 1985, S. A . Reisfield 1277 ( MEXU!). Paracho: cerro al N de Ahuitan , 2300 m, 13 December 1990, E . García & E . Pérez 3568 ( MEXU!) . Morelos. Cuautla : 20 km NE de Cuautla, 1981 m, 3 August 1950, C. E . Boyd 84 ( MEXU!); 20 km NO de Cuautla, 30 July 1960, W . Forbey 68 ( MEXU!). Tepoztlán: Sierra de Tepoztlán , 2286 m, 27 September 1904, C. G . Pringle 13166 ( MEXU!, MICH!) .

Salvia punicans Epling (1940: 525) . Type: MEXICO. Guerrero. San Miguel Totolapan: district Galeana, pie de La Cuesta-Toro Muerto, 22 January 1938, G.B. Hinton et al. 11224 (holotype UC!, isotypes ARIZ!, F!, GH, K, LL, MEXU!, MO!, NY!, PH, TEX, US!). Fig. 11 A View FIGURE 11 .

Perennial herb, erect, 0.8–1.8 m tall; stems glabrous to scarcely puberulent above all on the nodes and between the ribs. Leaves with slender petioles (2–)3–12(–14) cm long, puberulent at the middle of upper surface, the rest glabrous; leaf blade broad ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 5.7–12 × 3.4–8(–10) cm, caudate at the apex, truncate, cordate to sometimes oblique at the base, crenate-serrate margin, puberulent on the main and secondary veins on both sides, the rest glabrous. Inflorescences in racemes 13–31 cm long, with 9–20 verticillasters, these 6–10(–12)-flowered, lowermost nodes 1.7–2.7 cm apart, floral axis short hispidulous and covered with short glandular-capitate hairs. Floral bract ovate to ovate-lanceolate, (1.6–)2.5–3.5 × (0.5–) 1.1– 2.2 mm, caudate at the apex, truncate at the base, margin entire and ciliated, sparsely puberulent and covered with sessile glandular dots outside. Flowers with pedicels 2.2–4.2 mm long, glabrous. Calyx 6.2–6.7(–11) mm long, 3.2–3.8 mm wide at the throat (up to 7.7–8.5 × 3.9–4.2 mm in fruit), green and irregularly magenta tinged toward the lips, hispidulous on the veins and covered with sessile glandular dots, internally verrucose to shortly scabrous, upper lip 3-veined and entire, lobes acute and short caudate. Corolla magenta with white nectar guides on the lower lip, pilose at the dorsal side, upper lip and ventral portion of the lower one, the rest glabrescent; tube 18–19.2(–20) mm long, 4.8–5.9 mm wide at the throat, not constrained at the base, slightly ventricose, internally ornate with 4 papillae near the base; upper lip 5.2–6.6(–8.5) mm long, lower lip 7–7.5(– 9.8) × (6.2–) 7–8.4 mm, incurved-concave. Stamens 2, included; filament 1.9–2.5 mm long; connective 6.8– 7.7 mm long, straight and ornate with a short acute tooth near midportion; theca 1.5–1.9 mm long; two staminodes present above and behind filament attachment to corolla tube. Gynobasic horn 0.7–0.9 mm long; style 21.4–22.7 mm long, pilose toward the apex, lower stigmatic branch acute. Mericarp ovoid, 1.4–1.7 × 0.8–1 mm long, light brown and irregularly dark brown marbled, smooth and glabrous.

Distribution, habitat and phenology: Salvia punicans grows in the Mexican states of Guerrero and Oaxaca (fig. 12). It inhabits pine-oak and montane cloud forests, from 2600–2900 m elevation. It shares habitat with Abies religiosa subsp. mexicana (Martínez) Strandby, K.I.Chr. & M.Sørensen , Arbutus xalapensis , Bejaria aestuans , Chiranthodendron pentadatylon Larreat. , Cleyera integrifolia (Benth.) Choisy , Clinopodium macrostemum , Hedyosmum mexicanum C.Cordem , Oreopanax xalapensis (Kunth) Decne. & Planch. , Pinus ayacahuite C.Ehrenb. ex Schltdl. , P. herrerae Martínez , P. maximinoi H.E.Moore , P. pseudostrobus var. apulcensis (Lindl.) Shaw , Quercus liebmannii Oerst. Ex Trel. , Q. obtusata Bonpl. , Q. uxoris McVaugh , Q. salicifolia Née , Scutellaria dumetorum , it is sympatric with other Salvia species as S. cinnabarina M.Martens & Galeotti , S. confertispicata I.Fragoso & Martínez-Gordillo , S. karwinskii Benth. , S. mexicana and S. tricuspidata M.Martens & Galeotti. It flowers and fructifies from October to January.

Discussion: Salvia punicans was treated as synonym of S. carnea ( Klitgaard, 2012; fig. 11 A and B). Both species belong to section Carnea (Epling) Epling (1939: 228). Salvia punicans can be differentiated by its stems without glandular-capitate hairs, usually bigger floral bracts [(1.6–)2.5–3.5 × (0.5–) 1.1–2.2 mm vs. 2.1– 2.4 × 0.5–0.7 mm], magenta corollas (vs. pink to violet), bigger corolla tube [18–19.2(–20) × 4.8–5.9 mm vs. 7–10 × 2–2.5 mm], incurved-concave lower corolla lip (vs. deflexed), longer connective (6.8–7.7 mm vs. 5.2– 6.3 mm), longer thecae (1.5–1.9 mm vs. 1.2–1.3 mm) and longer style (21.4–22.7 mm vs. 8.5–12 mm). The former has been also considered as S. carnea var. punicans (Epling) Wood & Harley (1989: 252) . These latter authors regarded the morphological variation within S. carnea as outstanding and reduced several species to the synonomy of this species. In the present contribution, it is judged that the particular features of S. punicans supports its recognition as a distinct species.

On the other hand, Salvia gracilis Bentham (1833: 258) was considered as a distinct species from S. carnea , and Salvia myriantha Epling (1939: 238) was included as synonym of S. tiliifolia Vahl (1794: 7) ( Klitgaard, 2012). Consulting original descriptions of S. carnea and S. gracilis leds to the conclusion that they do not differ more than by the supposed glabrous styles of the first. However, all the specimens here examined exhibit pilose styles toward the apex. Klitgaard (2012) distinguish them in the identification key she provides by means of the 10 veins in the calyces of S. carnea and 9 in those of S. gracilis ; though, this is not enough to support both species, it is preferable accepting only S. carnea . The morphological variation of what was described as S. myriantha is embedded in that of S. carnea , and hence it is appriopriatly treated as one of its synonyms. In this sense, S. carnea differs considerably from S. tiliifolia and there is not reason to synonymize S. myriantha under the later. Salvia tiliifolia stands out because of its tiny (corolla tube 2.7–3.5 mm long) skyblue corollas, internally epapillate, the tube is entirely inserted in the calyx and only the lips surpass it.

Additional specimen examined ( Salvia punicans ): MEXICO. Oaxaca. Santiago Textitlán: cerca del paraje El Campanario, 7.44 km en línea recta al E de Santiago Textitlán y 12.7 km al N de San Lorenzo Texmelucan, 3.5 km por brecha al W del campamento El Tlacuache , 16º42’1.81”N 97º11’17.14”W, 2630 m, 17 November 2012, J GoogleMaps . G GoogleMaps . González-G. & J. H GoogleMaps . Zárate-J. 1439 (IBUG!).

Representative specimens examined ( Salvia carnea ): MEXlCO. Estado de México. Amecameca: km 13 de la carretera Amecameca-Paso de Cortés , 9 km al SE de Amecameca, 14 December 1976, J . García-P. 268 ( IBUG!). Guerrero. Atoyac de Álvarez: 0.8–1 km al NE de Nueva Delhi, entre el Paraíso y Puerto de Gallo , 17º26.131’N 100º11.469’W, 1680 m, 28 October 2012, J. G GoogleMaps . González-G. et al. 1326 ( IBUG!). Hidalgo. Tenango de Doria: 11 km al O de Tenango de Doria , 2200 m, 6 July 1979, R . Hernández-M. 3432 ( IBUG!). Jalisco. Cuautitlán: Sierra de Manantlán (15–20 miles SW of Autlán), about 2 miles from Aserradero San Miguel 1, W and S of the divide toward Manzanillo, 2250 m, 4 November 1952, R . McVaugh 13920 ( MICH!, UC!). Puebla. Villa Juárez : Ranchito Villa Juárez, 1600 m, 12 October 1966, L. M. V . de Puga 12681 ( IBUG!) .


University of Copenhagen


Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève


Harvard University - Gray Herbarium


Bristol Museum


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


Field Museum of Natural History, Botany Department


Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena


Royal Botanic Gardens


Amherst College, Beneski Museum of Natural History


Embrapa Agrobiology Diazothrophic Microbial Culture Collection


Michigan State University


William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden


Botanical Museum - University of Oslo


University of the Witwatersrand


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum


University of Wisconsin


Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de la Costa Sur


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


Botanische Staatssammlung München


University of New England


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Universidad de Guadalajara


Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México


Instituto de Ecología, A.C.


Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch


University of Michigan


Naturhistorisches Museum Wien


Nanjing University


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Instituto Politécnico Nacional


Universidad Autónoma de Aquascalientes


Sofia University


Colegio de Postgraduados


Instituto de Ecología, A.C.


Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos


Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, Zentraleinrichtung der Freien Universitaet


Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigación para el Desarrollo Integral Regional (CIIDIR) IPN-Michoacán,


Tulane University Herbarium


University of Helsinki


Upjohn Culture Collection


Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium














Salvia iodantha Fernald (1900: 547)

González-Gallegos, Jesús Guadalupe & Gama-Villanueva, Olga Jazmín 2013

Salvia punicans

Epling, C. 1940: )

Salvia iodantha

Fernald, M. L. 1900: )

Salvia michoacana

Fernald, M. L. 1900: )