Leiosema glabra (Heraty)
Burks, Roger A., Heraty, John M., Mottern, Jason, Dominguez, Chrysalyn & Heacox, Scott, 2017, Biting the bullet: revisionary notes on the Oraseminae of the Old World (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eucharitidae), Journal of Hymenoptera Research 55, pp. 139-188: 172-173
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|Leiosema glabra (Heraty)|
Orasema glabra Heraty, 1994: 72-73. Holotype, South Africa, Transvaal [♀, CNCI]. Mistakenly figured in Heraty (1994) with 6 funicular segments (cf. Fig. 126) instead of 7.
Both sexes with mandibles 3:2 dentate, mesoscutal midlobe and scutellar disc weakly reticulate, becoming smooth posteriorly (Figs 59 View Figs 56–67 - 60 View Figs 56–67 ). The pronotal neck is not extended, and is reticulate only along the anterior margin (Fig. 60 View Figs 56–67 ). Male petiole 2.6-2.9 × as long as broad, female petiole 1.5-2.1 × as long as broad, with a strong basal carina continuous with a lateral carina and extending 1/3 to 2/3 length of petiole (Fig. 67 View Figs 56–67 ).
The few specimens that are known were collected across a broad geographic range from Yemen to South Africa. Females from South Africa, Yemen and Zimbabwe all have a pale brown scape and a completely yellow fore and mid tibia, whereas the female from Tanzania has an almost black scape and all tibiae are basally dark brown. Males generally have the scape and tibiae dark brown, but again these are much darker in specimens from Tanzania. In the description below, the primary measurements are for what appear to be typical L. glabra specimens from South Africa and Zimbabwe. There are a few minor ratio differences for specimens from Tanzania and Yemen (included in parentheses) that are outside of the range of variation from the typical L. glabra specimens. While these are currently considered to be one species, as more material becomes available, additional species will likely need to be recognized. An additional collection from Gambia shows variation that is likely representative of another species that has a more distinctly reticulate mesoscutellum, but we do not treat this as there seems to be a need to collect more material across Africa to assess the patterns of variation.
Length 1.8-2.4 mm. Head and mesosoma dark blue, violet or green. Scape dark brown to black; pedicel black; anellus brown; flagellum black. Mandibles dark brown; maxilla and labium brown. Coxae dark blue; femora mostly dark brown to black, with tips pale; fore and mid tibia yellow to almost completely black with pale apex; hind femur dark brown to black with metallic reflections; hind tibia mostly dark brown to black, tips pale. Fore wing hyaline; venation pale brown. Petiole and acrosternite same as mesosoma; gaster dark metallic.
Head (Figs 61 View Figs 56–67 - 62 View Figs 56–67 ) 1.1-1.2 × as broad as high; inter-ocular distance 1.4-1.5 × eye height; malar space 0.3-0.7 × eye height; supraclypeal area slightly broader than long, longer than clypeus, smooth; clypeus smooth; epistomal sulcus distinct and sharply defined; anteclypeus weakly differentiated, straight. Mandibular formula 3:2. Flagellum 1.0-1.2 × head height. F2 1.2-1.3 × as long as broad, 1.2-1.3 × as long as F3; clava subconical, longer than preceding two funiculars and weakly segmented.
Mesosoma (Figs 61 View Figs 56–67 , 64 View Figs 56–67 ). Mesosoma 1.5-1.7 × as long as high. Mesoscutal lateral lobe smooth and shining dorsally, weak rugulose laterally. Scutellar disc 1.5-1.7 × as long as broad, reticulate; axillula weakly rugulose, nearly smooth. Pronotal neck not extended, at most reticulate along anterior margin. Mesepisternum straight anterior to mid coxa. Propleuron coriaceous. Hind coxa 1.1-2.0 × as long as broad, smooth to coriaceous; hind femur 4.2-5.4 × as long as broad, with even cover of elongate, semi-erect setae. Fore wing 2.1-2.3 × as long as broad; marginal vein with long setae; stigmal vein 1.5-2.6 × as long as broad, slightly angled; stigma nearly quadrate but with short apical anterior extension; stigma with 3 sensilla in a straight line; postmarginal vein 1.1-3.2 × as long as stigmal vein. Hind wing costal cell bare.
Metasoma. Petiole 2.6-2.9 × as long as broad, 1.2-1.4 × as long as hind coxa, lateral margin rounded with only short lateral carina in basal 1/4. Acrosternite posteriorly rounded with rugulose sculpture, antecostal sulcus rugulose.
(redescription) (Fig. 59 View Figs 56–67 , holotype). Length 2.0-2.6 mm. Scape yellow. Fore femur mostly dark brown to black, tip pale; fore tibia yellow; mid femur mostly dark brown to black, tip pale; mid tibia yellow; hind femur mostly dark brown to black, tip pale; hind tibia pale brown basally, yellow apically.
Head 1.0-1.1x as broad as high; eyes separated by 1.3-1.5 × eye height; malar space 0.4-0.6 × eye height. Flagellum length 0.8-1.0 × head height (0.9-1.0 in type material); flagellum with 7 funiculars, anellus disc-shaped, F2 1.1-1.4 × as long as broad, 1.1-1.2 × as long as F3.
Mesosoma 1.6-2.1x as long as high. Fore wing 2.3-2.6 × as long as broad.
Metasoma. Petiole 1.5-2.1 × as long as broad, 0.9-1.3 × as long as hind coxa, apical setae of hypopygium with 2-4 long hairs clustered on each side of midline. Ovipositor slightly curved cephalad; first (ventral) valvula with 6-10 small, narrowly separated teeth, second (dorsal) valvula with 6-7 annuli that are broadly separated dorsally by smooth area; subapical carina present; third valvula separated.
South Africa: Eastern Cape: Port St. John , 31°37'00"S, 29°32'00"E, i.1974, A. Watsham [1♂, NMPC: UCRCENT00416408] GoogleMaps . Orange Free State: Koppies Nat. Res., 26°10'11"S, 27°59'46"E, 22-23.ii.1993, M. Stiller, Acacia karroo, sweep [1♀, NMPC: UCRCENT00416471]. Transvaal: Blyderiviers-poort , 1200m, 24°53'00"S, 30°45'00"E, iii.1981, G. L. Prinsloo [1♂, PPRI: UCR CENT 00298795]. Waterberg nr Nylstroom [Modimolle], 1200m, 24°48'00"S, 28°25'51"E, i.1980, G. L. Prinsloo [1♂, PPRI: UCRCENT00298796]. Strijdom Tunnel, 730 m, 24°27'47"S, 30°36'31"E, 24-25.xi.1991, G.L. Prinsloo [1♀, NMPC: UCRCENT00416472] GoogleMaps . Tanzania: Tanga: West Usambara, Mgwashi env., 1460m, 4°45'47"S, 38°28'30"E, 31.i-1.ii.2015, P. Jansta & J. Straka [3♂ 1♀ 2?, UCRC: UCRCENT00479260-65] GoogleMaps . Zimbabwe: Harare: Chishawasha , 1416m, 17°45'46"S, 31°12'31"E, A. Watsham [2♀, NMPC: UCRCENT00416454, UCRCENT00416456] GoogleMaps . Zimbabwe: Mashondland: Mazowe, 125m, 17°30'32"S, 30°58'19"E, i.1975, A. Watsham [6♀, NMPC: UCRCENT00416459-61, UCRCENT00416466-67, UCRCENT00416519]. Makumbi Miss. , 17°31'12"S, 31°15'22"E, A. Watsham [1♂, NMPC: UCRCENT00416462] GoogleMaps .
Orasema near glabra : Gambia: Banjul: Kotu Stream, 3m, 13°27'41"N, 16°42'13"W, 14.xi.1981, K-J. Hedqvist [5♂ 4♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00309860-68]. Kotu Stream, 4m, 13°27'42"N, 16°42'13"W, 18.xi.1981, K-J. Hedqvist [1♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00309871] GoogleMaps . North Bank Division: Upper Baddibu, Farafenni , 13m, 13°34'03"N, 15°44'56"W, 1-2.xi.1977, Michael Söderlund, Meadow (mostly resorts) with baobab [1♂, BMNH: UCRCENT00309873] GoogleMaps . Western Division: Kombo St Mary, Bakau, 10m, 13°28'47"N, 16°40'14"W, 28-29.x.1977, Michael Soederlund , shore meadow [1♂, BMNH: UCRCENT00309872]. Kombo St Mary, Sara Job Kunda, 25m, 13°26'40"N, 16°42'46"E, 29.x.1977, Michael Söderlund, grassland with palms [1♂, BMNH: UCRCENT00309859] GoogleMaps .
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