Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt)

Hardy, Nate B. & Gullan, Penny J., 2010, Australian gall-inducing scale insects on Eucalyptus: revision of Opisthoscelis Schrader (Coccoidea, Eriococcidae) and descriptions of a new genus and nine new species, ZooKeys 58, pp. 1-74: 25-27

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Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt)

comb. n.

Tanyscelis maculata (Froggatt)   comb. n. Figs 2f,g14

Opisthoscelis maculata   Froggatt 1894b: 345-346.

Opisthoscelis recurva   Froggatt 1929: 377, syn. n.


We have synonymised Opisthoscelis recurva   with Opisthoscelis maculata   . We could find no morphological differences between the adult females of each, although type adult females of Opisthoscelis recurva   tend to be larger than those of Opisthoscelis maculata   . Furthermore, the ‘recurved’ gall morphology from which the name of the junior synonym was derived is found occasionally in galls of smaller specimens that match the types of Opisthoscelis maculata   . The type locality for Opisthoscelis maculata   is Bendigo, Victoria, with galls reported from Eucalyptus leucoxylon   and Eucalyptus gracilis   ( Froggatt 1894b), whereas Opisthoscelis recurva   was described from specimens collected on the hills at Warrah Station, a farming property near Willow Tree [not Willowtree as in the description], New South Wales, on an undetermined species of Eucalyptus   ( Froggatt 1929).


(Fig. 2f, g). Female. On stem (mostly), fruit, leaf petiole and midrib. Conical (Fig. 2f) to thorn-like (Fig. 2g), height 3.2-16.2 mm, width 2.7-6.9 mm, length of basal attachment 3.6-11.2 mm. Gall opening oblong, 0.1-0.4 mm wide, 0.3-1.2 mm long. Base of gall broad, surface smooth, distal portion attenuated and annulated, may be recurved, 1-6 rings.

Male. On stem and either leaf surface (Fig. 2f), height 1.9-8.0 mm, width 0.9-2.8 mm, length of basal attachment 1.1-3.8 mm. Gall thin-walled and cylindrical, distal edge crenulate, opening round to oblong, 0.3-2.4 mm maximum wide.

Adult female

(Fig. 14) (n = 53). Body outline ovate to turbinate, length 1.7-5.6 mm, greatest width 0.9-4.6 mm; abdomen tapered, quite small relative to thorax and head. Eyespots large, each 45-123 mm wide, highly convex, surrounded by dense cluster of stout setae. Antennae each 1-segmented, 45-520 mm long. Frontal lobes difficult to see, each 180-650 µm long, 180-580 µm wide. Tentorial box 260-520 mm long. Pump chamber 33-60 µm long, 34-55 µm wide. Labium 50-163 mm long, 60-138 mm wide. Spiracles 85-240 mm long, 38-130 mm wide across atrium. Fore and mid legs small sclerotic protuberances, 15-120 µm long. Hind legs slender and elongate; coxa 240-730 µm long, trochanter + femur 240-930 µm long, tibia 840-4500 µm long, tarsus 140-350 µm long; translucent pores sparsely scattered on dorsal and ventral surfaces of tibiotarsus; trochanter with 3 or 4 campaniform sensilla on each side; femur-tibia articulation non-functional, tibia fixed in orientation parallel to long axis of femur; claw and digitules absent. Anal opening poorly formed, 10-45 µm wide, sclerotic anal ring and anal ring setae absent.

Dorsum. Derm membranous in young females, older specimens may have clusters of small circular sclerotic regions on margin and submargin of head and thorax, or broad areas of sclerotic cuticle on medial portions of head and thorax. Dorsal setae robust, 10-125 mm long; arranged in a transverse band across each body segment and scattered along margin, longer setae present on abdominal segments. Macrotubular ducts 12 mm long, dermal orifice with rim 5 mm wide; restricted to posterior abdominal segments. Microtubular ducts absent. Quinquelocular pores, 7-11 µm in diameter, scattered across posterior abdominal segments.

Venter. Setae 20-165 mm long, in a transverse row across each posterior abdominal segment plus a cluster extending from each spiracle to margin, a few mesad to each metacoxa, otherwise ventral body surface naked. Macrotubular ducts absent. Quinquelocular pores large, 7-11 mm in diameter, similar in distribution to ventral setae.

Material examined.

Lectotype of Opisthoscelis maculata   (here designated): AUSTRALIA: Victoria: 1 adult female (2.3 mm long, 2.2 mm wide): ex dry gall on stem, with printed label: "No. 1787 E / GALL MAKING COCCIDS. / Opisthoscelis maculata   , Frogtt. / Female galls on Eucalyptus / Bendigo, Victoria", ASCT00004880 (ASCU).

Paralectotypes of Opisthoscelis maculata   : AUSTRALIA: Victoria: 1 adult female, same data as lectotype (ASCU).

Lectotype of Opisthoscelis recurva   (here designated): AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 1 adult female (5.2 mm long, 4.1 mm wide): on WWF original slide-mount labelled: " Opisthoscelis   / recurva / n sp / Warrah NSW" (ANIC).

Paralectotypes of Opisthoscelis recurva   : AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 1 adult female and 2 dry galls of female on base of leaves (female ex one of these galls slide-mounted by PJG 2008), with WWF labels: "Warrah / Sydney, N.S.W. / W. W. Froggatt. / Eucalypt / 8.5.1921" and “1045”, ASCT00004859 & ASCT00004860 (ASCU); 1 adult female and 2 slides of first-instar nymphs ex dry gall on leaf, plus other associated dry galls, with 2 labels: "1579 / Opisthoscelis   / recurva / n sp MS / WWF Warrah, N.S.W." and "Opisth. recurva. (Frogg. MS) / on Eucalyptus sp. / Warrah. N.S.W., Australia " (BMNH). Note: The labels on the 2 dry type galls of Opisthoscelis recurva   at ASCU say "Warrah / Sydney" but this is an error; Warrah is property near Willow Tree, in northeastern N.S.W. The paralectotypes in the BMNH are labelled correctly.

Additional material:

AUSTRALIA: New South Wales: 1 adult female: ex dry stem gall, Eucalyptus   sp., WWF, 1919-299 (BMNH); 10 adult female: ex gall on stem, Eucalyptus melliodora   , 1 km N of Thurgoona (Albury), -36.05°; 146.98°, 30 Dec., 1991, PJG (ANIC); 1 adult female: ex stem gall, Eucalyptus polyanthemos   , 2 km NE of Thurgoona, Ettamogah Rd, -36.03°; 146.98°, 8 Feb., 2004, PJG, LGC00134 (ANIC); 1 adult female: ex gall, Eucalyptus camaldulensis   , Deniliquin Landcare Project, 10 June, 1993, P. Bacon, Tree 2-1-5-N (ANIC); 1 adult female: ex dry stem gall, Eucalyptus   sp., [locality not given], WWF, #1919-299" (BMNH). Queensland: 3 adult females: ex stem galls, Eucalyptus populnea   , 3 km WSW of Millmerran, Turallin Rd, -27.88°; 151.24°, 1 May, 1995, LGC (ANIC). South Australia: 2 adult females: ex conical twig galls, Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Aldinga Beach, scrub area, 25 Apr., 1972, J. W. Beardsley (ANIC); 5 adult females: Eucalyptus   sp., Hindmarsh Waterfall, 10 Oct, 1966, N. L. Berlinsky (ANIC); 5 adult females, 140 first-instar nymphs: ex stem and leaf galls, Eucalyptus lansdowneana   subsp. albopurpurea, Kangaroo Island, South Coast Rd, at Eleanor River, -35.93°; 137.23°, 29 Sep., 1994, PJG (ANIC); 27 adult females: ex galls, Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Keith, 18 Feb., 1963, T. C. R. White, Specimen Index No. 16/63 (ANIC); 12 second-instar females: Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Keith, Dec., 1963, T. C. R. White, Specimen Index No. 63/63 (ANIC); 6 adult females: ex galls, Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Keith, 9 Jan., 1964, T. C. R. White (ANIC); 4 adult females: ex galls, Eucalyptus   sp., Mt Bold area, 6 May, 1968, V. Cruickshank (ANIC); 3 adult females: Eucalyptus   sp., Mt Bold Reservoir, 18 Sep., 1966, N. L. Berlinsky (ANIC); 5 adult females: ex galls, Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Mt Lofty Ranges, Kuitpo Forest Reserve, 13 Mar., 1977, R. C. Robinson and PJG (ANIC); 22 adult females: ex galls, Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Mt. Lofty Ranges, Kuitpo Forest Reserve, 13 Mar., 1977, PJG (ANIC); 12 adult females, 18 first-instar nymphs: ex galls, Eucalyptus   sp., nr Willunga, 7 July, 1965, HMB, Specimen Index No. 25/65 (ANIC); 3 adult females, 55 first-instar nymphs: Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Tintinara [near Keith], 4 July, 1963, T. C. R. White, Specimen Index No. 34/63 (ANIC); 11 adult females: ex galls, Eucalyptus fasciculosa   , Wilpena Pound, Pound Gap, 24 May, 1977, PJG (ANIC). Victoria: 1 adult female: ex stem gall, Eucalyptus ?melliodora   , 9 km N of Nagambie, Weir Road, -36.72°; 145.18°, 7 Feb., 2004, PJG, LGC00137 (ANIC); 5 adult females including DNA voucher LGC00103: ex stem gall, Eucalyptus ?microcarpa   , ca 10 km S of Nagambie, just E of railway line, -36.37°; 145.17°, 7 Feb., 2004, PJG (ANIC); 2 adult females, 1 second-instar female: ex galls on stems and leaf bases, Eucalyptus polybractea   , ca 3 km SW of Inglewood, on Arnold West–Inglewood Road, ca 1 km from Inglewood– Rheola Road, -36.59°; 143.85°, 3 Feb., 2005, PJG and NBH, NH74 (ANIC, NMV); 2 adult females: ex stem galls, Eucalyptus melliodora   , ca 9 km N of Nagambie, Goulburn Weir Road, -36.72°; 145.18°, 30 Jan., 2005, PJG, NH25 (ANIC); 5 adult females: ex small, conical galls on twigs, Eucalyptus melliodora   , Melbourne, Lower Plenty, 16 Oct., 1971, J. W. Beardsley, V-127 (BPBM); 2 adult females: ex twig galls, Eucalyptus melliodora   , Melbourne, Lower Plenty, 1 Jan., 1972, J. W. Beardsley (BPBM); 90 first-instar nymphs: Eucalyptus melliodora   , Melbourne, Park Orchards, 18 & 30 Oct., 1976, J. Nelson (ANIC); 4 adult males: Eucalyptus melliodora   , Melbourne, Park Orchards, 4 & 7 Jan., 1977, J. Nelson (ANIC); 7 adult females: Eucalyptus melliodora   , Melbourne, Park Orchards, 27 Feb., 1976, J. Nelson (ANIC); 2 adult females: Eucalyptus polyanthemos   , Melbourne, Warrandyte, behind 134 Brackenbury Street, 7 May, 1977, PJG (ANIC); 2 adult females: Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha   , nr Heathcote, 24 Feb., 1972, J. W. Beardsley (ANIC); 1 adult female: ex twig gall, Eucalyptus   sp., Wattle Park (reserve), nr Melbourne, 8 Feb., 1964, HMB, Specimen Index No. 10/64 (ANIC).


Adult females of Tanyscelis maculata   are very similar to those of Tanyscelis maskelli   . The latter can be distinguished by the much smaller eyes, the distinct marginal fringe of setae, and the longer dorsal setae on the abdomen and along the margin. Tanyscelis maculata   is known from many more collections, and appears to be common in the south of Australia, whereas Tanyscelis maskelli   has a more northern distribution. Populations of both species have been collected in New South Wales, although never from the same site. Except for one sample of Tanyscelis maculata   collected by J. W. Beardsley, apparently from Eucalyptus macrorrhyncha   (subgenus Eucalyptus   : section Aromatica   ), and Froggatt’s (1894b) unconfirmed record from Eucalyptus gracilis   (subgenus Symphyomyrtus   : section Bisectae   ), all material of Tanyscelis maskelli   and Tanyscelis maculata   has been collected from eucalypt species in the section Adnataria   (subgenus Symphyomyrtus   ).