Phyllodoce colorata, Oliveira & Magalhães & Lana, 2021

Oliveira, Verônica Maria De, Magalhães, Wagner F. & Lana, Paulo Da Cunha, 2021, Ten new species of Phyllodoce Lamarck, 1818 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida) from Brazil, Zootaxa 4924 (1), pp. 1-61: 16-20

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4924.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8C98968D-AAF8-403C-AFCC-381B2CC76844

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4538321

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/D7FF0EAA-4789-4B10-96F8-C1ED6A390B29

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:D7FF0EAA-4789-4B10-96F8-C1ED6A390B29

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phyllodoce colorata
status

sp. nov.

Phyllodoce colorata   sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:D7FF0EAA-4789-4B10-96F8-C1ED6A390B29

Figures 12–15 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15

Holotype. Continental Shelf in Campos Basin , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Hab 17 A01 R3, 23º55’8.6”S 43º0’49.5”W, 29 m, 15 Jul 2009 ( ZUEC–POL 16661). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. 22 paratypes, length 7.2 ± 4.1 mm for 41.8 ± 12.9 segments.   Paranaguá Bay   GoogleMaps , Cotinga Channel   GoogleMaps , 25°30’S 48°25’W, Intertidal   GoogleMaps , 15 m, Aug 2008 (1 paratype, NHMD–865950);   23°31’05”S 48°29’09”W, Mar 2009 (1 paratypes, ZUEC–POL 16617);   25°30´S, 48º25’W, 15 m, Mar 2009 (1 paratype, NHMD–865948);   Itiberê River   GoogleMaps , 25°32’46”S, 48°22’43”W, 3 Apr 2009 (1 Paratype ZHMD–2383);   25°37’18”S 48°23’57”W, 10 m, 26 Apr 2009 (1 paratype, NHMD–865949);   25°32’54”S 48°25’40”W, 15 m, Jul 2009 (2 paratypes, ZUEC–POL 16609);   25°32’54”S 48°25’40”, 14 m, Aug 2008 (2 paratypes, ZUEC–POL 16612);   25°32’54”S 48°25’40”, 14 m, Aug 2008 (3 paratypes, ZUEC–POL 16613);   25°32’54”S 48°25’40”, 14 m, Aug 2008 (2 paratypes, ZUEC–POL 16614).   Continental   GoogleMaps shelf in Campos Basin   GoogleMaps : Hab   GoogleMaps 13 Foz   GoogleMaps 05 R2, 21º40’22.9”S 40º58’26.4”W, 17 m, 11 Mar 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16658);   Hab   GoogleMaps 13 Foz   GoogleMaps 05 R3, 21º40’22.9”S 40º58’26.6”W, 17 m, 11 Mar 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16540);   Hab   GoogleMaps 13 Foz   GoogleMaps 05 R3, 21º40’22.9”S 40º58’26.6”W, 17 m, 11 Mar 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16541);   Hab   GoogleMaps 7 D06 R3, 22º33’33.8”S 40º26’40.2”W, 393.4 m, 11 Jul 2008 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16533);   Hab   GoogleMaps 17 A04 R3, 23º6’52.2”S 41º55’13.1”W, 110 m, 15 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16559);   Hab   GoogleMaps 17 B02 R1, 22º45’49.6”S 41º45’34.1”W, 53 m, 16 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16502);   Hab 17 D02 R1, 22º12’53.1”S 40º51’13.5”W, 52 m, 17 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16560);   Hab 17 I04 R2, 21º9’9.2”S 40º16’7.4”W, 103 m, 21 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16555), Brazil.  

Diagnosis: Prostomium with pigmentation in posterior part, dusky brown to green in live individuals. Proboscis basally with dense cover of papillae and unique pointed cusp in proximal half, separed by unpapillated median-dorsally area and two papillae in median-ventral area; glandular papillae, formed into irregular crowded rows, sometimes oriented anteriorly to posteriorly, sometimes more or less obliquely oriented. Distal part of proboscis with six rows of tubercles showing black pigmentation. Terminal ring with mucronate-shaped papillae.

Description. Holotype complete mature female, 5 mm long for 46 segments. Body long, dorso-ventrally flattened and gradually tapering posteriorly. Prostomium inverted heart-shaped, longer than wide, discrete nuchal papilla, easily overlooked by dark pigmentation of prostomium ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ). Paired antennae and palps short, frontal, and cylindrical, of similar length, sub-apically located, not covering anterior part of prostomium. Prostomium distal end free and rounded ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ). One pair of small subepidermal eyes, black, with lenses, placed posteriorly on prostomium. Proboscis basally densely covered with pointed papillae separated by non - papillated median-dorsal area and two papillae in median-ventral area; glandular papillae, formed into irregular rows, sometimes oriented anteriorly to posteriorly, sometimes more or less obliquely oriented; three sclerotized cusps triangular-shaped located between ventral-most papillae. Distal region with six rows of dark pigmented tubercles ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 C–E). Terminal ring with about 18 mucronate-shaped papillae ( Fig. 12B View FIGURE 12 ). Segment 1 not visible dorsally; segment 2 fused laterally to insertion of dorsal tentacular cirri ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 A–B). Four pairs of cylindrical tentacular cirri, biarticulated with short cirrophores and long cirrostyles located on first three segments. Tentacular cirri of segment 1 reaching segment 4. Dorsal and ventral tentacular cirri of segment 2 reaching segments 6 and 4, respectively. Dorsal tentacular cirri of segment 3 extending to segment 10. Neuropodia and ventral cirri from segment 3. Dorsal cirri with well-developed cirrophores with dorsal extensions on anterior and median parapodia and beginning from segment 4. Dorsal cirri subrectangular; cirri from anterior and median segments asymmetrical with rounded edges and symmetrical posteriorly ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 A–C). Parapodial lobes shorter than dorsal and ventral cirri, with light brown aciculae and bundles of chaetae. Prechaetal lobes bilobed, asymmetrical and rounded, supra-aciculars twice the length of sub-aciculars. Postchaetal lobes rounded ( Fig. 13D View FIGURE 13 ). Ventral cirri horizontally oriented in relation to lobes, from segment 3, asymmetrical, dorso-ventrally flattened, long and slender. Compound spinigerous chaetae from segment 3. Rostrum of chaetal shaft with numerous conical teeth, articles with serrated outer edges ( Fig. 14A View FIGURE 14 ). Pygidium with one pair of anal cirri; cirri cylindrical and basally inflated ( Fig. 14C View FIGURE 14 ). Pygidial papilla present ( Fig. 14D View FIGURE 14 ). Some specimens with two pairs of anal cirri, probably anomalous.

Colour. Anterior part of prostomium without pigmentation and posterior part dusky brown/black ( Fig. 12A View FIGURE 12 ). Black median-dorsal stripe at base of the dorsal cirri, evident in preserved animals, green in living ones ( Fig. 13A, B View FIGURE 13 ). This pattern of pigmentation pattern seems to be typical for this species, even in preserved specimens.

Habitat. Sandy-muddy substrates from the intertidal regions to 65 m.

Geographical distribution. Atlantic Ocean, Brazil: Margin of continental shelf in Campos Basin; Paranaguá Bay in Paraná.

Etymology. The epithet of this species is derived from the Latin ‘coloratilis’ meaning brown, tanned. This name was chosen because of the brown pigmentation characteristic of the posterior region of the prostomium.

Remarks. Some distinctive features of this species were only observed after staining with Shirlastain A, such as the circular -shaped papilla on the proximal part of the proboscis. Specimens of P. colorata   sp. nov. generally presented a pair of pygidial cirri, however, two pairs of cirri and one median pygidial papilla could be seen in smaller individuals and this was interpreted herein as an anomaly. The prostomium of P. colorata   sp. nov. is an inverted heart-shape with the papillae between the edges and this arrangement might be closer to that found in Paranaitis   . Phyllodoce colorata   sp. nov. is closely related to Phyllodoce rosea ( McIntosh, 1877)   , Anaitides subulifera ( Eliason, 1962)   and Phyllodoce pettiboneae Blake, 1988   in having an ovoid prostomium with subapical antennae, long ventral parapodial cirri, twice the length of the lobes, and heavily sclerotized cusps or teeth in the proboscis. The cusp papillae and long and slender ventral cirri are shared with P. concava   sp. nov. and P. rosea   according to Eliason (1962) sensu O`Connor (1987), Blake (1988), and Pleijel (1988). Additionally, the sclerotized cusps in the proboscis are triangular and closely packed, arranged with irregular rows of papillae in P. colorata   sp. nov. In P. rosea   , P. concava   sp. nov., and Phyllodoce   sp. A., the sclerotized cusps are pointed teeth-like structures that arise from a glandular area. These cusps are located in the anterior part in all groups of lateral papillae, which are arranged in oblique rows. Thus, cusps are integrated with the papillae in P. colorata   sp. nov., and separated in P. rosea   , P. concava   sp. nov., and Phyllodoce   sp. B. Phyllodoce colorata   sp. nov. differs from P. bipapillosa   sp. nov., P. lamella   sp. nov., P. groenlandica   , Phyllodoce multiseriata Rioja, 1941   , P. laminosa   , P. pettiboneae   and Phyllodoce cuspidata McCammon & Montagne, 1979   by the inclined prostomium from the median-anterior region and by the presence of oblique rows of papillae in the proximal part of the proboscis. Phyllodoce colorata   sp. nov. differs from P. madeirensis   by the presence of dorsal lanceolate cirri and regular rows of papillae in the proboscis. Phyllodoce colorata   sp. nov. shares the presence of sub-rectangular dorsal cirri with Phyllodoce erythrophylla ( Schmarda, 1861)   , P. medipapillata   , P. groenlandica   , P. cuspidata   , P. multiseriata   , P. laminosa   , P. lineata   , and P. rosea   but it differs from them by shape of the distal end from the dorsal cirri in median body segments ( Pleijel 1991; Blake 2001). The presence of asymmetric parapodial lobes separates P. colorata   sp. nov. from P. tamoya   sp. nov., P. concava   sp. nov., Phyllodoce   sp. A., P. lamella   sp. nov., P. ovalis   sp. nov., Phyllodoce williamsi ( Hartman, 1936)   , Phyllodce hawaiia ( Hartman, 1966)   , and Phyllodce hiatti Hartman, 1966   . Additionally, P. colorata   sp. nov. still differs from P. medipapillata   in the morphology of the anal cirri; the former presents cylindrical anal cirri, and the latter presents clavate anal cirri.

Phyllodoce colorata   sp. nov. differs from other species of Phyllodoce   by strong dusky brown/ black pigmentation in the prostomium and first three body segments. Phyllodoce pettiboneae   does not have any colour dorsally or ventrally.