Phyllodoce tupana, Oliveira & Magalhães & Lana, 2021

Oliveira, Verônica Maria De, Magalhães, Wagner F. & Lana, Paulo Da Cunha, 2021, Ten new species of Phyllodoce Lamarck, 1818 (Phyllodocidae, Annelida) from Brazil, Zootaxa 4924 (1), pp. 1-61 : 45-48

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Phyllodoce tupana

sp. nov.

Phyllodoce tupana   sp. nov.

Figures 31–33 View FIGURE 31 View FIGURE 32 View FIGURE 33

Holotype. Mel Island , Paraná, southern Brazil, 25º33’02’’S 48º17’48’’W, March 2010 ( ZUEC–POL 16562 ). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. A total of 29 paratypes, length 20.9 ± 11.6 mm for 95.4± 39.5 segments. Paranaguá Bay: Perequê River, 25º33’53.7’’S 48º21’19.7’’W, 1 m, 5 Sep 1988 (2 paratypes, ZUEC–POL 16420 );   Saco do Limoeiro   GoogleMaps shoals–Mel Island, 25°32’29.9”S 48°19’37.6”W, 13 Feb 2003 (1 paratype, NHMD–865963);   25º33’21.3’’S 48º18’35.1’’W, Jan 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16472 );   25°32’29.99”S, 48°19’37.61”W, 0.0 m, 1 Feb 2009 (2 paratypes, NHMD– 2384);   Cotinga Channel   GoogleMaps , 25°32’54”S 48°25’40’’W, 14 m, Mar 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16484 );   Cotinga Channel   GoogleMaps , 25°33’03”S 48°25’10’’W, 13Apr 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16573 );   Guaraguaçu River   GoogleMaps , 25º32’35.3’’S 48º27’05.4’’W, Oct 2010 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16563 );   harbor site, 25º31’52’’S 48º30’08’’W, Feb 2011 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16490 );   between the Papagaios Islands and Guaraguaçu   GoogleMaps , 25º33’05.6’’S 48º26’27.1’’W, Feb 2011 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16491 );   Papagaios Island   GoogleMaps , 25º33’05.6’’S 48º26’27.1’’W, 6 Feb 2011 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16492 );   25º31’52’’S 48º30’08’’W, 6 Mar 2011 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16493 );   Papagaios Islands   GoogleMaps , 25º32’56’’S 48º26’08’’W, Jun 2011 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16565 );   Itiberê River   GoogleMaps , 25º30’41.6’’S 48º28’50.3’’W, 12 Feb 2014 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16574 );   25°32’29.9”S, 48°19’37.6”W, 6 Jun 2003 (1 paratype. NHMD– 865964);   25°32’29.9”S, 48°19’37.6”W, 06 Jul 2003 (1 paratype, NHMD–865965);   Matinho, Paraná, 20 Oct 2003 (1 paratype, NHMD–865967).   Continental shelf in the Campos Basin   GoogleMaps : Hab   GoogleMaps 11 F01 R3 , 21º57’16.1”S 40º37’59.6”W, 26 m, 26 Jan 2009 (4 paratypes, ZUEC–POL 16645 );   Hab   GoogleMaps 11 B02 R3 , 22º37’31.8”S 41º21’51.7”W, 53 m, 27 Feb 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16415 );   Hab   GoogleMaps 16 E03 R3 , 22º8’9.3”S 40º27’27.8”W, 65 m, 4 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16466 );   Hab 13 Foz   GoogleMaps 27 R3 , 21º17’51.6”S 40º30’59.6”W, 29 m, 7 Mar 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16602 );   Hab   GoogleMaps 16 H01 R3 , 21º43’22.6”S 40º31’53.4”W, 24 m, 9 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16599 );   Hab   GoogleMaps 17A01 R1 , 22º55’8.3”S 40º0’50.1”W, 29 m, 15 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16353 );   Hab 17 Foz   GoogleMaps 21 R3 , 22º6’20.1”S 40º43’41.0”W, 47 m, 17 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16377 );   Hab 17 Foz   GoogleMaps 07 R2 , 21º55’16.6”S 40º55’1.7”W, 16 m, 18 Jul 2009 (1 paratype, ZUEC–POL 16392 ), Brazil.  

Diagnosis. Distal part of proboscis with less than half the length of proximal part. Distal end with basal brown pigmentation. Tentacular cirri short, not exceeding segment 6. Median-dorsal spots of green pigmentation alternating with spots in lateral extremities of body in living individuals. First pair of tentacular dorsal cirri similar to ventral cirri in posterior parapodia. Dorsal cirri rounded and ventral cirri conical to elongated on posterior segments.

Description. Holotype complete ovigerous female ( Fig. 31E View FIGURE 31 ), 50 mm long, 2.0 mm wide at median part of body, including parapodia and excluding chaetae for 150 segments. Body long, dorso–ventrally flattened and tapered posteriorly. Prostomium triangular, longer than wide, with a well-developed and distinct nuchal papilla ( Fig. 31A View FIGURE 31 ). Paired frontal antennae and palps tapered, slender and of similar lengths. Antennae and palps with 1/3 prostomial length. One pair of subdermal black eyes with lenses ( Fig. 31A View FIGURE 31 ). Proboscis basally with 26 longitudinal rows of conical papillae irregularly arranged. Distal part with six longitudinal rows of tubercles. Terminal ring containing 17 oval papillae; each papilla with two longitudinal rows of micropapillae ( Fig. 31 View FIGURE 31 A–E). Segment 1 not visible dorsally. Proboscis with eggs in basal part ( Fig. 31E View FIGURE 31 ). Four pairs of cylindrical tentacular cirri, biarticulated with short cirrophores and long cirrostyles, arranged on first three segments. Tentacular cirri of segment 1 extending to segment 5. Dorsal and ventral tentacular cirri of segment 2 reaching segments 7 and 5, respectively. Dorsal tentacular cirri of segment 3 reaching segment 6 ( Fig. 31A View FIGURE 31 ). Neuropodia and ventral cirri from segment 3. Dorsal cirri asymmetrical from segment 4, with well-developed cirrophores and dorsal extensions in median parapodia. Dorsal cirri of anterior segments cordiform with rounded edges, on median segments sub-rectangulars, and rounded posteriorly. Parapodial lobes shorter than dorsal and ventral cirri, with light-brown median aciculae and bundles of chaetae. Prechaetal lobes bilobate, asymmetrical and rounded, supracicular bundles with twice the length of subaciculars, and stronger asymmetry in median parapodia ( Figs 32 View FIGURE 32 A–D; 33A). Postchaetal lobes rounded. Ventral cirri horizontally oriented in relation to lobes, dorso-ventrally flattened, present from segment 3. Ventral cirri asymmetrical, rounded anteriorly, conical on median segments, and conical to elongated on posterior segments. Ventral cirri ¼ longer than lobes ( Fig. 32 View FIGURE 32 A–B). Compound spinigerous chaetae uniform and from segment 4. Chaetal rostrum surrounded by irregularly distributed conical denticles; articles with serrated outer edges ( Fig. 33 View FIGURE 33 A–B). Pygidium with a pair of cylindrical anal cirri; a second pair could be observed in some specimens ( Fig. 33 View FIGURE 33 C–D).

Colour. Two patterns of pigmentation could be observed in preserved specimens. The first pattern shows median-dorsal dark pigmentation spots alternating with spots in the lateral body extremities. These black spots on preserved animals are green in live animals. The second pattern shows dark brown pigmentation in the median-dorsal segments alternating with light brown areas. This second pattern was observed in adult individuals with more than 30 mm suggesting that the colouration varies with growth.

Habitat. Sandy bottoms and muddy shoals in the tidal region up to 53 m.

Distribution. Atlantic Ocean, Brazilian continental margin; areas of the continental shelf in the Campos Basin—Paranaguá Bay, Mel Island and Guaratuba Bay in Paraná, and Cananéia in S„o Paulo—Brazil.

Etymology. The species is named to honour Tup„ (meaning thunder in Tupi-Guarani language), a dog and fellow of the first author that has been a great companion throughout all these phyllodocid years.

Remarks. Nereiphylla colorata ( Marenzeller, 1879)   has mistakenly been recorded from Brazil ( Lana 1984; Amaral et al. 2010, 2012) and these Brazilian records may actually belong to P. tupana   sp. nov. The genus Nereiphylla Blainville, 1828   differs from Phyllodoce   by lacking the proboscis divided into two areas (proximal and distal), by presenting one additional pair of cylindrical tentacular dorsal cirri, and lacking nuchal papillae ( Pleijel 1993a; Ushakov 1972; Viéitez et al. 2004). Some specimens of P. tupana   sp. nov. have two pairs of pygidial cirri, however, the validity of this character has not yet been evaluated. In fact, this can be considered an anomaly or a character of difficult to see because the small pygidial cirri tend to be vestigial and the scars are only visible under scanning electron microscopy.

Subrectangular dorsal cirri in median parapodia are also present in the species P. tamoya   sp. nov., P. hartmanae   , P. maculata   , and P. laminosa   . P. tupana   sp. nov. is distinct from these species in regards to the arrangement of the papillae from the basal part of the proboscis, in the number of papillae on the terminal ring and shape of ventral cirri. P. tupana   sp. nov. differs from P. madeirensis   , P. thalia   sp. nov., P. brasiliensis   sp. nov., P. longipes   , P. erythrophylla   , and P. medipapillata   because the distal part of the proboscis is much shorter than the proximal part ( Viéitez et al. 2004). It differs from P. concava   sp. nov., P. lamella   sp. nov., P. ovalis   sp. nov., and Phyllodoce   sp. B. by the presence of eyes, and the rounded parapodial cirri in P. ovalis   sp. nov. The cuspidate papillae in the proboscis is present in P. colorata   sp. nov., P. rosea   , P. concava   sp. nov., and Phyllodoce   sp. B. is a lacking in P. tupana   sp. nov.