Ceroplastes personatus Newstead,

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G., 2012, 3372, Zootaxa 3372, pp. 1-265: 81-89

publication ID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Ceroplastes personatus Newstead


Ceroplastes personatus Newstead 

( Figs 12, 44, 45, 46, 47; Map fig. 104; Table 1)

Ceroplastes personatus Newstead, 1898: 94  .

Ceroplastes uapacae Hall, 1931: 300  . Syn. nov.

Ceroplastes uapacae Hall  ; De Lotto, 1967b: 782; Hodgson, 1969a: 14.

Ceroplastes uapacae var. chrysophyllae Hall, 1931: 302  . Synonymised with C. uapacae Hall  by Hodgson, 1969a: 14). Here synonymised with C. personatus  . Syn. nov.

Ceroplastes vinsonioides Newstead, 1911a: 96  . Syn. nov.

Ceroplastes vinsonioides Newstead  ; De Lotto, 1965: 188; 1968: 83; Hodgson, 1969a: 17; Boboye, 1971: 309; Almeida, 1973: 2; Matile-Ferrero & Nonveiller, 1984: 62.

Material examined. Ceroplastes personatus Newstead  : Lectotype ♀ (here designated): Nigeria: Ceroplastes  / personatus n. sp. / Newstead / on Coffee, Lagos / W.C. Africa, Cyril / Punch coll. Aug. 1897. / BM 1945, 121 ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair). 

Paralectotype ♀: probably Ghana: right label: Ceroplastes  / personatus / Newstead / on Coffea  / liberica / Bota. Gardens / Acra / W.C. Africa / Humphries ( BMNH) 1/2 (fair).

Ceroplastes uapacea Hall  : Lectotype ♀ (here designated): Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe): (scratched on glass slide): top label: Ceroplastes  / uapacae / Hall / Uapaca  / kirkiana / Salisbury / 4/8/17; bottom label stuck on: Cotype / 22.iii.30 / (i) WJHall ( BMNH): 1/4 (fair). Lectotype top right-hand specimen.

Paralectotype ♀: remaining 3 specimens on Lectotype slide plus: data as for lectotype ( BMNH): 1/3 (good)  .

Ceroplastes uapacae chrysophyllae Hall.  Lectotype ♀ (here designated): Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe): (scratched on glass slide): top label: Ceroplastes  / uapacae var. / chrysophyllae Hall / Chrysophyllum  / argyrophyllum / Mtoroshanga pass / Btn Umvukwes / WJH 5/8/28 ( BMNH): 1/1 (good).

Paralectotype ♀: as for lectotype ( BMNH): 3/6 (good)  .

Ceroplastes vinsonioides Newstead  : Lectotype ♀ (here designated): Uganda Protectorate: left label: colonial Office / Ent. Res. Com. (T.A.) / 676 / on Coffee / Namukekera / 14/8/09; right label: Ceroplastes  / vinsonioides / Newstead / Cotype ♀ / 1912–152. ( BMNH): 1/1 (good). 

Paralectotype ♀: remaining specimen on lectotype slide (fair), plus: data as for lectotype ( BMNH:): 2/2 (fair to good)  .

Also: Cameroon, N’KongSamba, Coffea robusta  , 1932, Pascalet ( MNHN #14791): 1/1 (fair-poor; as C. uapacae  ). Côte d’Ivoire, Bingerville, on coffee, 1935, Castelli ( MNHN #17788): 9/16 (good-poor; as C. vinsonioides  ). Gabon, Libouga, on coffee, -. ii.1939, Loubet ( MNHN #14790): 5/5 (fair-poor; as C. vinsonioides  ). Ghana [as Gold Coast], Aburi [probably Abusi], no host, no date, W.H. Patterson ( BMNH): 1/3 (fair, as C. vinsonioides  ); Acra [Accra?], Botanic Gardens, on Coffea liberica  , no date, Humphries ( BMNH): 1/2 (fair-good, as C. personatus  ); Tafo, on Citrus paradisi  , 5.ii.1946, E.O. Boafo ( BMNH): 1/2 + 1 imm (fair, as C. vinsonioides  ). Guinea, Labé, on citrus, no coll. ( MNHN #14783): 1/1 (fair, as Gascardia sp.  ); Sérédou, on coffee, 24.x.1959, R. Pujol ( MNHN #14781): 1/1 (fair, as Ceroplastes sp.  ).

Kenya (as British East Africa), Nairobi, on Citrus sp.  , 9.ix.1914, R.H. Deakin ( BMNH): 1/2 (fair-good, as C. vinsonioides  ). Liberia, Suakoko, no host, 18.x.1984, Kpabar ( USNM): 1/3 (good, as C. uapacae  ). Malawi, Mt. Mlanje, on Syzygium gerrardii  , 17.vii.1966, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH): 1/2 imm (fair). Mozambique, Chimanimani Mountains, on Uapaca kirkiana  , 28.ix.1966, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH): 2/2 (fair-good, as C. uapacae  ). Nigeria, Ibadan, on coffee, -. i.1960, G.H. Caswell ( BMNH): 2/6 (fair, as C. vinsonioides  ); Ibadan, on coffee, 21.iii.1958, no coll. ( BMNH): 2/4 (fair, as C. personatus  ). São Tomé [San Tomé], no host, 1918, De Seabra ( MNHN #5610): 2/6 (fair-poor; as C. uapacae  ). Senegal, Djibelor, on citrus, 14.xi.1980, Etienne ( MNHN #8672): 1/1 (good; as C. uapacae  ); Dakar, no host, 30.i.1979, Castel ( MNHN #7631): 5/5 (good; as C. uapacae  ). Sierra Leone, Shinge, on Sapota (Manilkara)  sp., 10.viii.1925, E. Hargreaves ( BMNH): 2/7 (fair-poor, as C. vinsonioides  ); Njala, on lime, 17.vii.1930, E. Hargreaves ( BMNH): 1/4 (fair-poor, as C. vinsonioides  ). Sudan, Dumo, on Coffea canephora  , 29.xii.1959, coll. unknown ( BMNH: CIE A7063): 1/1 (fair, as C. vinsonioides  ). Tanzania [Tanganyika], Bukoba, on Coffea arabica  , 17.ix.1926, A.N. Ritchie ( BMNH): 1/3 (fair-good); Burka, Arusha, on Coffea arabica  , 17.iv.1933, A.N. Ritchie ( BMNH): 1/3 (fair-good). Uganda, Nanimahila Estate, on citrus, 8.xii.1922, H. Hargreaves ( BMNH): 1/2 (fair, as C. vinsonioides  ); Toro Ebinamba, on unknown host, no date, W.H. Patterson ( BMNH): 1/3 (fair-good, as C. vinsonioides  ); Bwamba, on Coffea robusta, Jan. 1929  , H. Hayman ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair-good); Nkosi, S. Sesse, Lake Victoria, no host, 25-27.v.1928, G.D.H. Carpenter ( BMNH): 2/9 (fair-poor, as C. vinsonioides  ). Zambia, Kitwe, on Uapaca kirkiana, Jan. 1977  , E.J. Parker ( BMNH): 2/4 (fair, as C. uapacae  ? chrysophyllae). Democratic Republic of the Congo [Belgian Congo], Lubumbashi [Elisabethville], on unknown host, 11-17.ix.1931, T.D.A. Cockerell ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair-good, as C. uapacae chrysophyllae  ); no site, on Annona sp.  , -. x.1935, J. Ghesquière ( MNHN, TERV): 2/4 (fair). Zimbabwe [Southern Rhodesia], Mazoe, Citrus sp.  , -. iv.1962, no collector ( BMNH): 2/3 + 2 imm. (fair-good, as C. vinsonioides  ); Vumba, on coffee, June 1965, A. Pratt ( BMNH): 1/ 2 imm. (fair, as C. vinsonioides  ); Harare [Salisbury], Retreat farm, no host, 29.iv.1967, R.K. Brooke ( BMNH): 1/1 + 2 imm (fair, as C. vinsonioides  ).

Note. In the following description, the main data are taken from the type specimens of C. personatus  . These are followed by the data of (mainly) the type specimens of C. uapacae  and C. vinsonioides  in brackets, i.e., (../..). Table 1 also compares some data from these 3 species and, in places, the total range from this Table is also given in the text.

Unmounted material. C. personatus  : “Waxy covering of adult ♀ dirty white, much stained with rusty brown; the lateral plates (six in number) are flat, and slightly reflexed at the extremities; anterior pair short and broad, lateral pair largest, posterior pair much the smallest. I can find no trace of nuclei in the plates, but there is a single nucleus on the low convex dorsum. Long 3 mm; wide 3.5 mm.” ( Newstead, 1898: 94).

Unmounted material. C. uapacae  ): "Test of the adult female pure white, relatively low convex, with a large medio-dorsal depression, from the middle of which rises a minute, longitudinally orientated, elongate boss. There are no plates discernible, but usually two outgrowths of the wax on the frons and 3 bilaterally are present. The position of these is somewhat variable, and 1 or more may be missing; although small, they are conspicuous, being narrowly conical, generally somewhat upturned, and tinged with red except at the tip, which is always white; there is also usually a reddish circumscribed area at the base of each prominence. In most examples, these outgrowths appear to arise as shallow depressions in the waxy test. The wax is extremely soft". "Test of the adult female 4–6 mm in diameter." ( Hall, 1931: 300).

"Very young individuals are plum coloured with a centrally placed elongate boss, the colour immediately around which is darker. There are 3 white outgrowths on each side directed outwards and upwards, and a similar one at the caudal extremity. Two much smaller outgrowths occur within the margin of the frons; these are divergent and not so upturned; the margin of the frons is apparent between these in the form of a crescent."

"Denuded of wax, the adult female is hemispherical and uniformly rounded. Stigmatic areas narrow but deep. No dorsal tubercles are present. Caudal process short, stout, slightly tapering and bluntly rounded at the apex. The dermis is not highly chitinised, but thin and brittle." ( Hall, 1931: 300).

Unmounted material. C. vinsonioides  : "Dusky crimson or brownish with a faint tinge of dusky crimson; anterior margin sometimes paler (possibly pale crimson or pink when fresh); form rather  broader than long; flattish above, with a central nucleus; sides slightly recurved and projecting, and radiating from them are four short, thick elevated arms, the anterior pair sometimes deeply concave dorsally, and all of them may be tipped with white wax." Test of young adults "similar in colour to the older examples; flat, with central area slightly raised and nucleated; side with four large and two small arms, the posterior pair shortest and tipped with greyish wax. Ventral surface with rather broad and conspicuously white line of secretion (wax) extending from each of the four stigmatic clefts to the tips of the radiating arms; the anterior half of the short posterior arms are also formed of pure white wax, but this rarely extends to the dorsal surface. Length of old examples 4–5 mm; width 5–6 mm; height 1–1.5 mm." ( Newstead, 1911a: 96).

Mounted material. Body oval, not very convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum probably with small distinct tubercles. Caudal process short and stout. Length 1.8–2.25 (1.4–1.9/1.8–2.0) mm, total width of mounted specimen 1.40–1.63 mm; width of venter 1.25–1.48 (1.0–1.5/1.0–1.5) mm.

Dorsum. Derm entirely membranous, except for caudal process which lightly sclerotised on Lagos and Accra material but quite distinctly sclerotised on Ibadan specimens (generally distinctly sclerotised); also each anal cleft margin on either side of anal plates quite heavily sclerotised. Caudal process: length 0.23–0.35 (0.32–0.41/ 0.27–0.39) mm, width 0.28–0.40 (0.32–0.46/0.33–0.49) mm; often with dorsal setae and loculate pores. Derm with eight clear areas, distributed as usual, each without dorsal setae. Dorsal setae each sharply spinose, subequal to or slightly longer than width of basal-socket (length 2.5–5.0 (2.0–3.5/1.5–3.0) µm; basal socket width 4.0–4.5 (2.5–3–5/2.5–3.0) µm); sparse, most abundant near margin and clear areas. Dorsal pores: (i) loculate microducts of intermediate type, each with 1–3 satellite loculi; pores with 2 or 3 satellite loculi by far the most abundant, randomly distributed but most abundant around medio-dorsal clear area; frequent throughout but absent from all clear areas; wax-plate lines not detected; and (ii) simple microducts sparse, present in clear areas and very sparsely around margin. Preopercular pores present in a narrow transverse band of 5–15 (17–33/14–17, but up to 58 on 1 specimen from Uganda) pores; each small and convex. Anal plates each with 3 long dorsal setae, anterior seta rather setose, 35–47 (40/37–47) µm long; most posterior seta blunter, 50–55 (55–65/50–55) µm long, outer margin seta 25–30 (23–28/28–30) µm long; also with a short apical seta, about 12 µm long; length of plates 128–141 (128–166/ 145–155; 116–195 for all specimens ( Table 1)) µm, width of both plates combined 155–175 (125–160/155–165) µm. Anal ring setae each about 225–230 (200–250/275) µm long; anal tube about twice length of anal plates.

Margin. Marginal setae strongly setose, each 13–16 (10–12/10–12) µm long; with perhaps 3–6 (4 or 5/4–7) between eyespots, 1 (0–2/0–4) between eyespots and anterior stigmatic setae, 1 or 2 (1 or 2/1–3) on each side between stigmatic clefts and maybe 4–6 (4–6/4–6) on each side of abdomen; each anal lobe with 3 (3–6/3–5) long setae, each about 26–28 (16–30/23–28) µm long. Stigmatic clefts shallow, each with a line of sharply-conical stigmatic setae, line broadening to 2 or 3 setae deep in each cleft; with 10–25 (16–28/17–31) setae forming marginal row, each 8–10 (8–12/5–16) µm long, 5.5–8.0 (5–8/5–13) µm wide; inner rows with few setae, each slightly larger but generally with a large bifid seta set well onto dorsum (occasionally large seta not bifid), each 55–60 (50–70/38–45) µm long and 18–20 (22–25/30–33) µm wide at base; total number of stigmatic setae in each anterior cleft 15–29 (21–32/24–32; 12–57 for all specimens) and 15–34 (24–40/33–39; 15–70 for all specimens) in each posterior cleft. Eyespots each rather large, 50–55 (40–65/50–55) µm wide.

Venter. Derm entirely membranous. Pregenital disc-pores abundant around genital opening and across preceding segment; absent more anteriorly. Spiracular disc-pores present in narrow bands of about 65–80 (70–100/ 70–80) pores; none extending medially past peritreme. Ventral microducts showing nothing distinctive. Ventral tubular ducts each with a narrow inner ductule without an obvious terminal gland; absent anteriorly between antennae, sparse submedially on abdominal segments V and VI. Submarginal setae sparse, each very short, 2.5–3.0 (4–5/4–5) µm long.

Antennae each with 6 segments, without any sign of pseudo-articulations in segment III; total length 231–245 (244–256/256–290; 195–315 for all specimens) µm. Clypeolabral shield about 124–145 (150–160/132–165) µm long. Spiracles: width of peritremes 41–52 (48–58/55–62; 37–70 for all specimens) µm. Legs well developed, each without a tibio-tarsal articulation, indeed tibia and tarsus sometimes fused; each claw without a denticle; claw digitules both broad, each subequal to or slightly shorter than tarsal digitules; dimensions of metathoracic legs (µm): coxa 115–120 (132–165/120–132); trochanter + femur 140–150 (202–207/178–190; 132–260 for all specimens), tibia 85–95 (120–140/99–112), tarsus 60–65 (80–112/65–80). Claws about 16 (22–24/16–20) µm long. chrysophyllae from various parts of Africa.

Where: No. stig. setae ant. cleft = total number of setae in each anterior stigmatic cleft; no. stig. setae post. cleft = number of stigmatic setae in each posterior cleft; no. preoperc. pores = total number of preopercular pores; width of posterior peritreme = width of posterior spiracular peritreme; length tr. + fem = length of posterior trochanter + femur; total length antenna = length of each antenna, and length of anal plates = length of each anal plate; also where boxes with - = no data taken, and? = structure too poor to count or measure.

Material studied: Ghana: type specimens: Ceroplastes personatus Newstead, Botanic Gardens, Accra  , on Coffea liberica, Humphries (BMNH)  ; Aburi (probably Abusi), no host, no date, W.H. Patterson ( BMNH); Tafo, on Citrus paradisi  , 5.ii.1946, E.O. Boafo ( BMNH). Kenya: Nairobi, on Citrus sp.  , 9.ix.1914, R.H. Deakin ( BMNH). Mozambique: Chimanimani Mountains, on Uapaca kirkiana  , 28.ix.1966, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH). Nigeria: type specimens Ceroplastes personatus Newstead  , Lagos, on Coffee, Aug. 1897, C. Punch ( BMNH). Sierra Leone: Shinge, on Sapota (Manilkara)  sp., 10.viii.1925, E. Hargreaves ( BMNH); Njala, on lime, 17.vii.1930, E. Hargreaves ( BMNH). South Africa, Transvaal, Nelspruit, on Bequaertiodendron sp.  , 14.iv.1966, G.J. Snowball ( SANC). Sudan: Dumo, on Coffea canephora  , 29.xii.1959, coll. unknown ( BMNH). U ganda: type material: Ceroplastes vinsonioides, Namukekera  , on coffee, 14.viii.1909 ( BMNH); Nanimahila Estate, on citrus, 8.xii.1922, H. Hargreaves ( BMNH); Toro Ebinamba, on unknown host, no date, W.H. Patterson ( BMNH); Toro Ebinamba, on Avocado, Sept. 1933, H. Hargreaves ( BMNH); Bwamba, on Coffea robusta, Jan. 1929  , H. Hayman ( BMNH); Nkosi, S. Sesse, Lake Victoria, no host, 25-27.v.1928, G.D.H. Carpenter ( BMNH); Imp. Bur. Ent., 1697, Entebbe, on coffee, 20.xi.1912, C.C. Gowdey ( BMNH). Zaire: Elizabethville, on unknown host, 11-17.ix.1931, T.D.A. Cockerell ( BMNH). Zambia, Kitwe, on Uapaca kirkiana  , -. i.1977, E.J. Parker ( BMNH). Zimbabwe: type material: Ceroplastes uapacae Hall, Salisbury  , Uapaca kirkiana  , 4.viii.1917 ( BMNH); type material: Ceroplastes uapacae chrysophyllae Hall, Mtoroshanga Pass, Umvukwes  , on Chrysophyllum argyrophyllum  , 5.viii.1928 ( BMNH); Vumba, on coffee, June 1965, A. Pratt ( BMNH); Harari (Salisbury), Retreat farm, no host, 29.iv.1967, R.K. Brooke ( BMNH); Inyangombe Falls, on Syzygium cordatum  , 25.v. 1964, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH); Chimanimani Mountains, on Syzygium guineense  and Syzygium sp.  , 21-26.ix.1966, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH).

Discussion. The 3 species originally included in this species-group appear to be morphologically indistinguishable (see Table 1). As indicated above, the type specimens of these 3 species are from very different parts of Africa, and the Table has been laid out to show this distribution. It is clear that all specimens from all 3 areas have data that is remarkably similar. The only possibly significant differences appear to be the rather few preopercular pores in material from Nigeria and Ghana, which would represent C. personatus  — but some material from elsewhere had almost as few — and the type series of C. personatus  has rather fine, almost setose, dorsal setae but this is less obvious in non-type specimens from these countries. These differences could easily be explained by environmental and regional variation of a single species. In addition, there are a few possible differences in their waxy tests in both colour and in shape (see Hodgson, 1969a). However, we are of the opinion that this variation could be explained by differences in the age of the adults, with (for instance) the extension of the caudal process with age changing the shape of the test. In addition, the range in colour of the wax tests of such species as C. rusci  and C. stellifera  suggests that colour may well not be a good character for separating species (see Plates); indeed, Hall (1931) describes the wax of adult C. uapacae  as being “pure white” and that of “very young individuals” as “plum coloured”. We are of the view that these 3 species represent a single rather variable species and therefore that C. uapacae Hall  is a synonym of C. personatus Newstead  , and that C. vinsonioides Newstead  is also a synonym of C. personatus Newstead. 

C. personatus  , as understood here, has been recorded from many countries in Africa: Angola ( Almeida, 1973), Benin ( Ben-Dov et al., 2011), Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau ( Ben-Dov et al., 2011), Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, São Tomé, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. It has been collected off the following hosts: Annona sp.  ( Annonaceae  ), Uapaca kirkiana  ( Euphorbiaceae  ), Persea americana  ( Lauraceae  ), Strychnos sp.  ( Strychnaceae  ), Khaya sp.  ( Meliaceae  ), Eugenia sp.  , Syzygium cordatum  , S. gerrardiae  , S. guineense  ( Myrtaceae  ), Aidia macrantha  , Cinchona sp.  , Coffea arabica  , C. canephora  , C. liberica  , C. robusta  ( Rubiaceae  ), Citrus sp.  , C. paradisi  , lime ( Rutaceae  ), and Bequaertiodendron (Englerophytum)  sp., Chrysophyllum argyrophyllum  and Manilkara sp.  ( Sapotaceae  ).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute














Ceroplastes personatus Newstead

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G. 2012

Ceroplastes uapacae

Hodgson, C. J. 1969: 14
De Lotto, G. 1967: 782

Ceroplastes vinsonioides

Matile-Ferrero, D. & Nonveiller, G. 1984: 62
Almeida, D. M. de 1973: 2
Boboye, S. O. 1971: 309
Hodgson, C. J. 1969: 17
De Lotto, G. 1968: 83
De Lotto, G. 1965: 188

Ceroplastes uapacae

Hall, W. J. 1931: 300

Ceroplastes uapacae var. chrysophyllae Hall, 1931: 302

Hodgson, C. J. 1969: 14
Hall, W. J. 1931: 302

Ceroplastes vinsonioides

Newstead, R. 1911: 96

Ceroplastes personatus Newstead, 1898: 94

Newstead, R. 1898: 94