Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G., 2012, 3372, Zootaxa 3372, pp. 1-265: 152-154

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Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio


Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio  

( Fig. 69; Map fig. 105)

Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio, 1900: 3   .

Material examined: Topotype, Italy: Liguria, on Erica arborea   , 21.iii.1913 ( USNM): 1/1   .

Also: Madeira, Funchal, on Streptosolen sp.   , Jan. 1921, T.D.A. Cockerell ( BMNH): 2/4 (good-poor); Funchal, no other data, T.D.A. Cockerell ( BMNH): 1/3 (fair-good). Australia, Sydney Region, Glenhaven, on Callistemon sp.   ( Myrtaceae   ), 7.vii.1982, No. 5, S. Goodwin ( BMNH): 1/2 (good); Western Australia, Harvey, on citrus leaves and stems, 5.viii.1988, B. Woods ( BMNH): 1/3 (good). Turkey, Samsun, O.m., on Punica granatum   ( Lythraceae   ) and Capsicum sp.   ( Solanaceae   ), 19.ii.1971, Dr. H. Canakçioglu ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair-good). United States of America, Virginia, Norfolk, 05.viii.1957, Ilex sp.   , R.N. Roymaster ( USNM): 1/1.

Note. The following description is based mainly on that of Gimpel et al. (1974) but with a few added details from the above specimens.

Unmounted material. “Wet wax rectangular in young females, rectangular in old specimens in dorsal view, hemispherical in lateral view, without horn, white in young females reddish brown in old material, marginal flange small or absent on young specimens not hiding lateral filaments, divided into 1 dorsal and 6 lateral plates on young females, plates normally absent on old specimens, young specimens with nuclei, old specimens with dorsal nuclei only. Dry wax with filaments as follows: cephalic filament trifurcate, with rounded apices, anterolateral, mediolateral, and posterolateral filaments simple; caudal filaments weakly bifurcate; dorsal dry wax of first and second instars forming central cap, surrounded by small dorsomedial nucleus; dorsal dry wax not tilted. Stigmatic wax bands present near both pairs of spiracles, anterior bands directed dorsally, filamentous wax confined to stigmatic areas. Length 4.0 mm (range 2.0–7.0), width 3.5 mm (range 2.0–6.0), height 3.0mm (range 1.5–5.0).” ( Gimpel et al., 1974: 62).

Mounted material. Body oval, probably rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum with distinct tubercles. Caudal process short and stout. Length 1.4–4.6 mm; width 0.9–4.0 mm.

Dorsum. Derm membranous on young individuals, except for heavily sclerotised caudal process. Caudal process about 500–600 µm long, 500–600 µm wide. Derm with eight clear areas, each without setae, except cephalic area with 1 or 2 cylindrical setae. Dorsal setae cylindrical with a rounded or pointed apex, length 4.5–11.5 µm; basal socket width 3.5–5.0 µm. Dorsal pores: (i) loculate microducts of intermediate type, each about 5–6 µm wide with 1–4 satellite loculi; those with 2 or 3 satellite loculi most abundant; those with 1 satellite loculus possibly mainly concentrated in submarginal areas; pores with 4 satellite loculi scarce; present throughout; wax-plate lines not detected; and (ii) simple microducts not detected. Preopercular pores in a transverse band of about 8–20 pores. Anal plates each with 3 large dorsal setae on posterior quarter of each plate plus a smaller apical seta; usually with 2 ventral (lateral margin) setae; length of plates 150–158 µm, combined width 125–145 µm. Anal tube about 1.1 times longer than anal plate.

Margin. Marginal setae each strongly setose; length of each seta 13–27 µm; with perhaps 5–7 between eyespots and, on each side, 1–3 between eyespots and anterior stigmatic setae, 2–4 between stigmatic clefts and about 6–10 between each posterior stigmatic furrow and anal cleft; anal lobe with 3 or 4 anal lobe setae, longest 40–50 µm long. Stigmatic clefts shallow, each with 18–54 hemispherical, bullet–shaped or lanceolate spiracular setae (most setae 8–26 µm long; 10–12 µm wide at base) in 3 or 4 irregular rows in each cleft; each group with 20–30 setae along margin and with 4–6 larger setae, largest 16–24 µm long and 14–17 µm wide, and sometimes bent. Eyespots each 30–33 µm wide.

Venter. Derm membranous. Pregenital disc-pores present around vulva and across preceding segment; much less frequent medially and occasionally mediolaterally on segment V; generally absent from IV and more anteriorly. Spiracular disc-pore band narrowest near spiracle and broadest near margin, each band with 60–80 discpores, with few extending medially past peritreme. Simple microducts (filamentous ducts), each about 1 µm wide, with a lightly sclerotised orifice, frequent in a narrow band or line around submargin, approximately level with submarginal setae (perhaps most easily seen in younger specimens). Ventral microducts showing nothing distinctive. Ventral tubular ducts each with a narrow inner ductule, generally without an obvious terminal gland; with about 7–25 ducts in cephalic region and quite abundant associated with anogenital-fold, particularly in abdominal segment VI, becoming less frequent anteriorly, with 0 or 1 on segments II & III. Submarginal setae more frequent than marginal setae, each 7–15 µm long.

Antennae each 7 segmented; total length 223–335 µm. Clypeolabral shield 185–226 µm long. Spiracles: width of each anterior peritreme 50–64 µm, each posterior peritreme 58–76 µm. Legs well developed; tibia 1.4 times length of tarsus, with a tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis; tarsal digitules 51–52 µm long; both claw digitules broad, 29–39 µm long; each claw with an almost imperceptible denticle; dimensions of metathoracic legs: coxa 149–170 µm; trochanter + femur 145–195 µm; tibia 87–125 µm; tarsus 66–83 µm, and claw 20–27 µm; setal distribution: coxa 5; trochanter 1 long plus 2 short on dorsal margin; femur 1; tibia 4 (3 apical and 1 basal), tarsus 3.

Discussion. Based on their cladistic analysis of wax scale insects, Qin et al. (1994) predicted that the native range of C. sinensis   was within Central or South America. This supposition was supported later by the discovery of heavily parasitized individuals of C. sinensis   in Argentina. In addition, we have observed (Peronti, pers. obs.) that the Neotropical species C. albolineatus Cockerell   and C. confluens Cockerell & Tinsley   , both from Neotropical region, are very close to C. sinensis   and both of these latter species might be synonymised with the former in the future.

Within the area covered by this paper, C. sinensis   is currently only reliably identified from the North African coast ( Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia ( Pellizzari & Camporese, 1994) and Egypt ( Ben-Dov et al., 2011) plus some outlying islands (Azores, Canary Islands and Madeira) ( Ben-Dov et al., 2011). C. sinensis   has a very large host range, Ben-Dov (1993) listing 44 plant families.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Ceroplastes sinensis Del Guercio

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G. 2012

Ceroplastes sinensis

Del Guercio, G. 1900: 3