Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall,

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G., 2012, 3372, Zootaxa 3372, pp. 1-265: 148-152

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Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall


Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall 

( Fig. 68; Map fig. 104; Table 7)

Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall, 1931: 299  .

Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall  ; Hodgson, 1969a: 11; Qin & Gullan, 1995: 295.

Material examined: Lectotype ♀ (here designated): Rhodesia [now Zimbabwe]: (scratched on glass slide): top: Ceroplastes  / toddaliae / Hall; on bottom of slide: Toddalia  / austriaca* / Imbeza [Embeza] / WJH 11/3/28 / Cotype / 22.iii.30 / (3) WJHall ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair; *note that the host species T. austriaca  does not exist — almost certainly a typing error as other slides with the same data are labelled T. asiatica  ).

Paralectotype ♀: as for lectotype but on T. asiatica (BMNH)  : 3/3 (mainly fair; 2 split into dorsum and venter).

Also: Mozambique, Chimanimani Mtns, 5000’, on Myrica pilulifera  , 28.ix.1966, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair); as previous but on Cassine aethiopica (BMNH)  : 2/2 (fair-poor). South Africa, Mpumalanga Province [Eastern Transvaal], Nelspruit, on Ficus natalensis  , 15.ix.1954, E.C.G. Bedford ( BMNH): 3/6 (fair); Western Cape Province, Stellenbosch, Jonkershoek, on Cliffortia polygonifolia  , 6.iv.2009, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH): 1/2 (fairgood). Zimbabwe [Southern Rhodesia], Inyangombe Falls, on Ficus sp.  , 25.v.1964, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH): 1/2 (good); Inyangombe Falls, on Cliffortia nitidula  , 7.i.1966, C.J. Hodgson ( BMNH): 1/3 imm (fair); Mutare [Umtali], on japonica ( Chaenomeles lagenaria  ), 24.ii.1966, Mrs. Becker ( BMNH): 1/1 (fair); Gendingwe Est., Malus sylvestris  , 12.vii.1966, E.E.C. Green ( BMNH: BM 1967:758): 1/1 (fair, misidentified as C. eugeniae  ); Mazoe, on Ficus sp.  , 3.ii.1929, W.J. Hall ( BMNH): 1/2 (fair).

Note. Description made mainly from lectotype and paralectotype specimens with additional data in (..) brackets from remaining material from Zimbabwe. Some data from several lots of cryptic or sibling species also given in Table 7  .

Unmounted material. "Test of the adult female highly convex; the dome with a shallow median depression carrying a very small elongate boss, longitudinally orientated, rising from its base. Submarginal depression confined to a lateral indentation on either side above the stigmatic areas. The test is waxy white, often somewhat semi-transparent, and is characterised by thin radiating lines of dark colour of indeterminate hue. These lines resemble a shaded pencil effect; they are fine, straight, close together as they leave the boss but gradually diverge and become fainter. Diameter of test of adult female 5–6.5 mm.”

"Denuded of wax, the female is not very convex, but the central portion of the dermis, or dome, assumes the form of a laterally compressed cone. Sub-marginal area flattened with what appears to be numerous irregularly shaped and distributed depressions of a darker colour. The marginal area is flattened, with 3 rounded bi-lateral tubercles and a cephalic tubercle. These tubercles have a few faint dark marks simulating those of the submarginal region, but less conspicuous. Beneath the extension of the integument carrying the tubercles there is a marked narrow but deep indentation separating it from the true margin which is correspondingly flattened. Caudal process very short, triangular, directed upwards at an angle of 30–45 degrees. The caudal process is dark brown with a clearly defined circular circumscribed chitinous area in the younger examples. Stigmatic clefts shallow but well marked." ( Hall, 1931: 299).

Mounted material. Body oval, probably rather convex, with shallow, stigmatic clefts; dorsum probably with distinct tubercles. Caudal process short and stout. Length 1.5–3.0 mm, total width of mounted specimen 1.57–2.2 mm; width of venter 1.8 mm.

Dorsum. Derm entirely membranous on young individuals, except for heavily sclerotised caudal process; derm becoming more sclerotised on old individuals. Caudal process 0.6–0.7 mm long, 0.7–1.1 mm wide, with few pores. Derm with eight clear areas, distributed as usual, each with few or no setae. Dorsal setae each bluntly spinose, margins almost parallel, each subequal to or slightly longer than width of basal-socket (length 3.0–5.0 µm; basal socket width 2.5–4.0 µm); quite frequent throughout but scarce or absent in clear areas. Dorsal pores: (i) loculate microducts of rusci-type most abundant, those with 2 satellite loculi scarcer but relative frequency variable; pores with 3 or more loculi not detected; pores with 2 satellite loculi perhaps mainly restricted to waxplate lines; abundant throughout but absent from all clear areas; and (ii) simple microducts present in clear areas, sparse. Preopercular pores present in a transverse band of 10–12 pores. Anal plates each with 3 pairs of large setae dorsally plus a smaller apical seta; anterior-most setae about 80 µm long, sometimes with a capitate apex; other longer setae 50–75 µm long, with sharp apices; apical seta each 25 µm long; length of plates 135–145 µm, width of both plates combined 150–170 µm. Anal ring setae each about 220 µm long.

Margin. Marginal setae strongly setose; each 20–25 µm long; with perhaps 14–22 between eyespots (usually 15+) and, on each side, 2–6 between eyespots and anterior stigmatic clefts, 0–4 between stigmatic clefts and about 15–18 on abdomen; usually with 1 or 2 amongst stigmatic setae near outer margins of clefts; each anal lobe with 3–5 long setae, each up to 90 µm long. Stigmatic clefts shallow, each with a line of conical stigmatic setae, broadening to 2 or 3 setae deep in each cleft; central, most dorsal spinose seta in each cleft largest, 12–15 µm long, 10–11 µm wide at base; other spinose setae smaller, smallest 7–9 µm long, 5–7 µm wide at base; setae extending along margin on either side of each cleft and usually meeting between clefts; with a total of about 65–95 on each side (i.e. about 25–42 marginal and 2–14 non-marginal stigmatic setae in each cleft, latter in a shallow triangle on dorsum; also often with 1 or more stigmatic setae between eyespots anteriorly. Eyespots each about 30–33 µm wide.

Venter. Derm entirely membranous. Pregenital disc-pores abundant around genital opening and across preceding segment; much less frequent medially on segment V, but with 0–6 on IV and 0–2 on III and II. Spiracular disc-pores present in broad bands of about 70–100 pores, rarely extending medially past peritreme. Ventral microducts showing nothing distinctive. Ventral tubular ducts each with a narrow inner ductule with a terminal gland; present in a group of about 10–30 in cephalic region, plus 1–3 associated with abdominal anogenital folds posteriorly on each side of segments V and 0–2 mediolaterally on each side of segments II, III and IV. Submarginal setae about twice as frequent as marginal setae, each 11–17 µm long.

Antennae each with 6 segments, with no sign of pseudo-articulations in 3rd segment; total length 260–310 µm. Clypeolabral shield about 155–165 µm long. Spiracles: width of peritremes 75–85 µm (58–65 µm on non-type material). Legs well developed, each with a well-developed tibio-tarsal articulatory sclerosis; each claw sometimes with a suggestion of a denticle; claw digitules both broad and distinctly shorter than tarsal digitules; dimensions of metathoracic legs (µm): coxa 165 (130–140); trochanter + femur 200 (173–180); tibia 125 (115); tarsus 70–80 (66–76), and claw 25–28 (20–22).

Discussion. C. toddaliae  is close to both C. eucleae  and C. eugeniae  as understood here. The main difference between C. toddaliae  and these 2 species is the greater number of marginal stigmatic setae in each cleft, stretching outwards so that they generally clearly meet between clefts. C. toddaliae  is similar to C. eucleae  in having the stigmatic setae in each cleft 3 deep (usually 4 deep on C. eugeniae  ), and it resembles C. eugeniae  in having more non-marginal stigmatic setae than on C. eucleae  (2–13 on C. eucleae  , 13–23 on C. eugeniae  and 12–21 on C. toddaliae  ); however, the stigmatic setae never meet between clefts on C. eucleae  and, when they do meet on C. eugeniae  , they are clearly denser within each cleft than between the clefts (as dense on C. toddaliae  ).

If all of the specimens listed under Material studied above from southern Africa are this species, then it has been recorded from Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe on Cassine aethiopica  (Celestraceae), Ficus sp.  ( Moraceae  ), Myrica pilulifera  ( Myricaceae  ), Chaenomeles japonica  and Malus sylvestris  , Cliffortia nitidula  ( Rosaceae  ) and Toddalia asiatica  ( Rutaceae  ). Hall (1931) also recorded it on Rhus sp.  ( Anacardiaceae  ), Annona senegalensis  ( Annonaceae  ) and Psorospermum febrifugum  ( Clusiaceae  ), whereas Hodgson (1969a) also recorded it from Zambia, and on the following additional hosts: Artabotrys (Dryopteris) brachypetalus  ( Annonaceae  ), Euclea sp.  ( Ebenaceae  ), Persea gratissima  ( Lauraceae  ), Strychnos innocua  ( Strychnaceae  ), and Osyris lanceolata  ( Santalaceae  ). Material on these latter specimens was not seen during this study.

Cryptic or sibling species. In addition to the above records, specimens which appear to be C. toddaliae  have been noted from the following locations: Canary Is, Gran Canaria, Las Palmas Botanic Gardens, on Asparagus  , 23.ii.2011, C.J. Hodgson (BMNH): 1/2 (fair-poor). Cape Verde Is., São Jorge, on Codiaeum variegatum  , 24.iv.1985, A. van Harten (BMNH): 4/4 (good; as C. rusci  ). Ghana, Agorko, Keta, on coconut, 29.vii.1959, no coll. (BMNH): 2/2 (fair-good; as C. rusci  ). Principe, no other data, F.J. Simmonds (BMNH): 1/1 (good; as C. rusci  ); Sudan, Yei District, on Coffea arabica  , 21.xii.1935, W. Ruttledge (BMNH): 1/1 (good; as C.? rusci  ). These countries are all a long way from southern Africa and it seems unlikely that they are actually C. toddaliae  . In addition, Etienne and Matile-Ferrero (1993) recorded C. toddaliae  from Senegal but it is here considered that these records are more likely to refer to C. newsteadi  described as new above.


Bristol Museum














Ceroplastes toddaliae Hall

Hodgson, Chris J. & Peronti, Ana L. B. G. 2012

Ceroplastes toddaliae

Qin, T. K. & Gullan, P. J. 1995: 295
Hodgson, C. J. 1969: 11

Ceroplastes toddaliae

Hall, W. J. 1931: 299