Hisonotus vespuccii, Roxo, Fabio F., Silva, Gabriel S. C. & Oliveira, Claudio, 2015
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Taxon classification Animalia Siluriformes Loricariidae
Hisonotus vespuccii sp. n. Figure 1, 3; Table 1
MZUSP 115274 (female 32.6 mm SL) Brazil, Minas Gerais State, municipality of Pirapora, rio São Francisco, 17°21'00"S, 44°57'08"W, 11 November 2014, LE Ochoa, FF Roxo, LH Roxo, GSC Silva.
All from Brazil, Minas Gerais State, rio São Francisco basin (249 specimens in total). LBP 8960 (4 females 32.3-35.8 mm SL, 3 males 27.0-28.2 mm SL), municipality of Presidente Juscelino, rio das Velhas, 18°40'21"S, 44°11'33"W, 01 October 2009, C Oliveira, FF Roxo, GJC Silva, BF Melo. LBP 10421 (9 females 27.7-30.3 mm SL, 9 males 23.6-26.5 mm SL, 5 c&s sex not determined 20.2-29.6 mm SL), municipality of Pirapora, rio São Francisco, 17°21'00"S, 44°57'08"W, 15 July 2010, JA Senhorini, M Mehanna. LBP 19491 (9 females 19.9-32.4 mm SL, 12 males 21.1-27.9 mm SL, 1 female c&s 32.6 mm SL, 1 male c&s 27.7 mm SL), collected with holotype. LBP 19495 (1 female 32.6 mm SL, 1 male 28.7 mm SL), municipality of Presidente Juscelino, rio das Velhas, 18°40'21"S, 44°11'33"W, 11 November 2014, LE Ochoa, FF Roxo, LH Roxo, GSC Silva. MZUSP 39208 (5 sex not determined 23.8-30.0 mm SL), rio São Francisco, 29 November 1987, Y Sato (UHE Formoso project). MZUSP 39280, (3 sex not determined 28.4-30.2 mm SL), rio São Francisco, 20 January 1988, Y Sato (UHE Formoso project). MZUSP 39351 (33 sex not determined 16.5-34.4 mm SL), rio São Francisco, 23 January 1988, Y Sato (UHE Formoso project). MZUSP 39446 (9 sex not determined 22.9-30.5 mm SL), rio Formoso, 08 February 1988, Y Sato (UHE Formoso project). MZUSP 39482 (1 sex not determined 24.5 mm SL), rio Formoso, 08 to 10 February 1988, Y Sato (UHE Formoso project). MZUSP 39511 (1 sex not determined 30.4 mm SL), córrego Marambaia, rio São Francisco, 09 February 1988, Y Sato (UHE Formoso project). MZUSP 51507 (2 sex not determined 25.6-31.3 mm SL), municipality of Fortuna de Minas, rio Paraopeba, 13 July 1995, CBM Alves. MZUSP 57587 (110 sex not determined 20.8-33.6 mm SL), street between municipalities of Itacarambí and Manga, córrego das Missões, 15 July 1993, RE Reis. MZUSP 57588 (7 sex not determined 20.2-24.9 mm SL), street between municipalities of Manga and Montalvânia, rio Japuré, rio São Francisco, 15 July 1993, RE Reis. MZUSP 57590 (20 sex not determined 22.8-31.4 mm SL), municipality of Januária, rio São Francisco, 15°29'25"S, 44°21'50"W, 14 July 1993, JC Garavello. MZUSP 57591 (3 sex not determined 23.1-26.5 mm SL), street between municipalities of Manga and Montalvânia, rio Calindó, rio São Francisco, 15 July 1993, RE Reis.
Hisonotus vespuccii differs from the congeners by having a unique coloration pattern of caudal fin with one black spot extending from its origin to the ventral lobe and two dark spots at the end of the lobe`s rays and the following combination of character states (none is unique): odontodes forming longitudinally aligned rows (one odontode after the other, but not necessarily forming parallel series) on head and trunk; a functional V-shaped spinelet; the presence of a single rostral plate at tip of the snout; the lack of contrasting dark geometric spots on the anterodorsal region of the body; a low caudal peduncle (depth 6-8% SL); few lateral median plates (21-23); and numerous premaxillary and dentary teeth (13-21 and 11-21, respectively).
Counts and measurements are presented in Table 1. Maximum body size 35.7 mm SL. Dorsal profile of head, in lateral view, slightly convex from snout tip to margin of posterior naris; strongly convex to posterior margin of parieto-supraoccipital; and almost straight to dorsal-fin origin. Dorsal profile of trunk, in lateral view, straight and descending from dorsal-fin origin to insertion of caudal-fin. Ventral profile, in lateral view, straight from snout tip to anal-fin origin; concave and ascending to caudal-fin insertion. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin (14−18% SL). Greatest body width at cleithral region (21−25% SL), progressively narrowing towards to both snout and caudal fin. Cross-section of body between pectoral and pelvic fins dorsally rounded and ventrally flat; cross-section of caudal peduncle ellipsoid, rounded laterally and almost flat dorsally and ventrally.
Head rounded in dorsal view; snout round and slightly pointed. Dorsal and ventral series of odontodes along anterior margin of snout completely covering its tip; odontodes larger than remaining ones on head. Odontodes on head and trunk hypertrophied and arranged in longitudinal rows. Head without conspicuous crests. Some specimens with a poor developed tuft of odontodes in posterior portion of parieto-supraoccipital. Eyes small (13-17% HL), dorsolaterally positioned. Iris operculum present and developed. Premaxillary teeth 13-21; dentary teeth 11-21. Teeth bifid, major (medial) cusp large and rounded, minor (lateral) cusp minute and pointed. Accessory patch of teeth absent on dentary and premaxilla. Oral disk oval, covered with papillae uniformly distributed on base of dentary and premaxilla and slightly decreasing in size distally. Lower lip larger than upper lip; its border fringed. Maxillary barbel present and joined to lower lip. Presence of conspicuous V-shaped buccal papilla located immediately anterior to buccal valve. Tip of snout with large rostral plate.
Dorsal fin II,7; its origin slightly posterior to pelvic-fin origin. Tip of adpressed dorsal fin surpassing vertically through end of anal-fin origin. Dorsal-fin spinelet short and V-shaped; dorsal-fin lock functional. Pectoral fin I,6; its tip reaching middle of pelvic-fin length when depressed. Pectoral-axillary slit present between pectoral-fin insertion and lateral process of cleithrum. Pectoral spine supporting sharp odontodes on dorsal and ventral surfaces (well developed posteriorly). Pelvic fin I,5; its tip reaching anal-fin origin when depressed in males and far from reaching anal-fin origin in females. Pelvic-fin unbranched ray with dermal flap along its dorsal surface in males. Pectoral spine supporting sharp odontodes on ventral surface turned mesially.
Anal fin i,5; its tip reaching seventh or eighth plate from its origin. Caudal-fin i,7-7,I; distal margin forked. Adipose fin absent. Total vertebrae 27 (in 7 c&s specimens). Body almost entirely covered by bone plates, except on ventral portion of head, around pectoral- and pelvic-fin origins, on dorsal-fin base and area around anus. Abdomen partially covered by bony plates randomly distributed and surrounded by naked areas (in some specimens abdomen is completely covered by bony plates). Laterally, body completely covered by plates; mid-dorsal and mid-ventral plate series well developed reaching vertical through half of caudal peduncle; median plate series continuous in median portion of body. Coracoid and cleithrum completely exposed, covered with odontodes. Arrector fossae partially enclosed by ventral lamina of coracoids.
Color in alcohol.
Ground color of dorsal surface of head and body dark gray to lighter brown (juveniles lighter than adults). Ventral surface light brown to yellow in juveniles. All body and fins covered by scattered chromatophores, more visible on ventral portions and around fins insertions (Fig. 1). Caudal-fin hyaline, except for one black spot at its origin extending to ventral lobe and two dark spots at end of rays (Fig. 2a). In some specimens, caudal-fin with chromatophores irregular distributed and sometimes badly forming two dark strips (more visible in juveniles). Neither variation nor variability of caudal-fin coloration patter found in samples we examined (holotype and 249 specimens widely distributed in rio São Francisco basin) with specific emphasis to variability between populations and variation depending on feeding.
Color in life.
Similar to pattern described for alcohol individuals, but with ground color light green (Fig. 3).
Adult males distinguished from females by five characters: (1) presence of a papilla at urogenital opening in males (vs. papilla absent in females); (2) pelvic-fin extending beyond anal-fin origin in males, mean 19% SL (vs. pelvic fin far from reaching anal-fin origin in females, mean 17% SL); (3) unbranched pelvic-fin ray supporting a dermal flap (flap slightly wider in basal portion and progressively narrowing distally) on proximal dorsal surface in males (vs. dermal flap absent in females); (4) nares opening wider in males (13-18% HL) than females (10-13% HL); (5) body size smaller in males (mean 26 mm SL) and larger in females (mean 30 mm SL). See Table 1 for values of morphometric characters between males and females.
Habitat and distribution.
Hisonotus vespuccii was found associated with marginal vegetation (Fig. 4) in the rio São Francisco and in three of its tributaries, rio das Velhas, rio Paraopeba and rio Formoso (Fig. 5). The new species seems to be abundant through all rio São Francisco basin.
The specific name “vespuccii” comes from Italian and is in reference to Américo Vespúcio (Amerigo Vespucci in Italian), navigator and explorer to whom is attributed the discovery of the rio São Francisco in 1501.
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