Diochus verhaaghi, Irmler, 2017

Irmler, Ulrich, 2017, A review of the Neotropical genus Diochus ERICHSON, 1840 (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Staphylininae), Beiträge Zur Entomologie = Contributions to Entomology 67 (1), pp. 1-62: 32-34

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.21248/contrib.entomol.67.1.001-062

publication LSID


persistent identifier


taxon LSID


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scientific name

Diochus verhaaghi

spec. nov.

Diochus verhaaghi   spec. nov.


Figs 32A–C View Figs 30–33 , 40E View Fig , 44H View Figs 44

Type material: male, Holotype: Peru: Huanuco, Panguana Station (74°56'W, 9°37'S), pitfall trap, 10.– 24.10.1984, leg. M. Verhaagh, #GuU ( UIC). GoogleMaps  

Paratypes: Mexico: Camp.El Tormento, 6 km W Escarcega, evergreen trop. forest, fungi & litter, Berlese , 23.7.1983, leg. S. & J. Peck ( FMNH)   ; Cost Rica: Puntarenas, Monte Verde , from Xylaria   , 1550 m elev., female, 25.5.1989, leg. J. Ashe, R. Brooks, R. Leschen ( KNHM)   ; OSA Peninsula, 5 km W Rincon de Osa (83°31'W, 8°42'N), 50 m elev., Berlese , log, under bark, 45° lean in stream bed, forest covered, 3 males, 4 females, 24.– 30.3.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley ( FMNH) GoogleMaps   ; OTS, Sta, finca Las Cruces, San Vito (82°58'W, 8°46'N), 4000 ft. elv., Berlese , under bark & rot. log galleries, old saw mill site, 1 male, 1 female, 19.3.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley ( FMNH) GoogleMaps   ; same location, but, Berlese, floor litter from Virgin forest moderate slope, 2 males, 1 female, 18.3.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley ( FMNH) GoogleMaps   ; same location, but loop rd. nr. sawmill, under sawdust, 2 males, 2 females, 14.3.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley ( FMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Alajuela, E.B. San Ramón , 27 km N & 8 km W San Ramón (10°13.4'N, 84°35.46'W), 810 m elev., fogging fungus covered log, female, 7.7.2000, leg. J. Ashe, R. Brooks, Z. Falin #CR1 ABF00068 View Materials ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; Heredia, OTS Field Sta. Puero Viejo Sarapiui, Rio Puerto Viejo (83°59'W, 10°26'N), Berlese , bromeliad root fibres, cups, axils, 9 males, 12 females, 5.– 11.3.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley (19 FMNH, 2 UIC) GoogleMaps   ; La Selva Field Sta. OTS, under bark, 2 males, 1 female, 10.3.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley ( FMNH)   ; Puerto Viejo de Sarapiqui , La Selva Field Sta., 100 m elev., under bark, male, 7.3.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley ( FMNH)   ; Guanacaste, Canas, Miravalles Volcano (82°7'W, 10°42'N), Berlese , bark mixed log mold, 4 males, 10 females, 8.4.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley (12 FMNH, 2 UIC) GoogleMaps   ; Comelco, Palo Verde, OTS 9 km W Bagaces (85°18'W, 10°32'N), 40 m elev., Berlese , log mold, bark + fungi, female, 9.4.1973, leg. J. Wagner & J. Kethley ( FMNH) GoogleMaps   ; Las Mercedes , 22.12.1922, leg. Nevermann ( FMNH)   ; S.M. de Barranca , female, 12.– 16.2.1940, leg. Bierig ( FMNH)   ; Panama: Canal Zone , Barro Colorado Is., litter under rotting logs, litter under old tree and vine fall, wet leaves and debris, forest stream, litter under fungusy logs, under bark rotting logs, 11 males, 13 females, 4.2., 6.2., 12.2., 13.2., 25.2., 27.2.1976, leg. A. Newton (22 FMNH, 2 UIC)   ; same location, but Berlese , debris in rotten hollow stub, male, 24.1.1959, leg. H.S. Dybas ( FMNH)   ; 4.1 mi. NW Gamboa, Rio Frijoles , flood debris and wet leaves along river, 2 females, 19.2.1976, leg. A. Newton ( FMNH)   ; Panama Prov., Altos de Majé, Berlese , debris at base of palmetto leaves, rotten wood in old forest, center of rotten palm, 2 males, 1 female, 6.– 15.10.1975, leg. D.S. Chandler ( FMNH)   ; Cerro Azul , 2000 ft. elev., Daedalea elegans   , female, 21.– 22.6.1976, leg. A. Newton ( FMNH)   ; Cerro Campana, 3200 ft. elev., Berlese , cloud forest leaf litter, 3 males, 1 female, 14., 23.2.1976, leg. A. Newton ( FMNH)   ; Las Cumbres , UV light, female, 26.12.1975, leg. H. Wolda ( FMNH)   ; Coclé, El Valle, trail to Las Minas from “La Mera” 2400–2600 ft. elev., Berlese , thatch from nest of snapping ant along trail, male, 21.2.1959, leg. H.S. Dybas ( FMNH)   ; same location, but 2500 ft. elev., log debris, male, 22.2.1959, leg. H.S. Dybas ( FMNH)   ; Chririqui Prov., Boquete , sifted, coffee tree litter, male, 2.10.1975, leg. D.S. Chandler, ( FMNH)   ; trail to Cerro Colorado peak, 1490 m elev., litter damp pocket, Sphagnum , 2 females, 23.1.1981, leg. W. Suter ( FMNH)   ; Cerro Colorado , 1290 m elev., wet basal pseudo-fork between small trees, litter of stage III stump, semidry, litter of upright log with polypores, floor litter pocket nr. tree, 4 females, 10.1.1981, 13.1.1981, leg. W. Suter ( FMNH)   ; Bocas del Toro Prov., Cerro Colorado, Qda , 3w, 1490 m elev., woody slash, clearing, 4 females, 1.11.1981, W. Suter ( FMNH)   ; French Guiana: nr. Eaux Claires , 3.5 mi N Saül (3°38-40'N, 53°13-14'W), leaf litter near stream, 155–200 m elev., 3 males, 4 females, 5.– 13.10.1995, leg. L. Herman ( AMNH)   ; Saül , under bark, 2 females, March-April 1999, leg. A. Berkov ( AMNH)   ; Suriname: Brokopondo, Brownsberg Nature Preserve, Witi Creek Trail (55°10.53'W, 4°56.55'N), under bark, 1 male, 23.6.1999, leg. Z. Falin #SUR1F99 98 ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; Ecuador: Esmeraldas, San Francisco (78°41.749'W, 1°06.454'N), female, 11.11.2014, leg. Brachat ( VAC) GoogleMaps   ; Pichincha Prov., W of Alluriquin, Tinalandia , litter near stream, 2600–2800 ft. elev., female, 19.– 20.5.1993, leg. L. Herman #2724-2725 ( AMNH)   ; Tinalandia, 16 km SE Sto. Domingo, 680 m elev., Berlese , leaf litter & soil, female, 15.6.1975, leg. S. Peck ( FMNH)   ; Napo Prov. 25 km W Tena, Tena-Talag Grande road, 2000 ft elev., male, 23.5.1993, leg. L. Herman #2739 ( AMNH)   ; Napo, 69 km NE Baeza, 15 km SW Reventador , litter, 4600 ft elev., 28.– 30.10.1988, leg. L. Herman ( AMNH)   ; Peru: same location as holotype, Manioc field, 4 males, 3 females, 4.5.1976, leg. W. Hanagarth, #186 (6 UIC, 1 MSC) GoogleMaps   ; same location and same collector, pasture, pitfall trap, female, 20.5.1976, #272 M9, ( UIC) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same collector, cut forest planted with manioc, pitfall trap, male, 4.5.1976, #181 Sek 2 ( UIC) GoogleMaps   ; same location, Panguana Station at Rio Llullapichis (74°56'W, 9°37'S), 260 m elevation, collected at light, female, 1.– 23.10.2010, leg. G. Riedel ( VAC) GoogleMaps   ; Tambopata , 15 km NE Pto. Maldonado (69°03'W, 12°33'S), fungus on log or fungusy log, 200 m elevation, 8 males, 14 female, 13.6.1989, 13.7.1989, leg. J. Ashe & R. Leschen, #501 (20 KNHM, 2 UIC) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same date, same collectors, but swamp trail, fungus, 5 males, 7 females (10 KNHM, 2 UIC) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same date, same collectors, but rotting tree, male, #507 ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same collectors, pile of dead ants, female, 24.6.1989, #267, female, 6.7.1989, #417 ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same collectors, but under leaves by stream, 2 females, 5.7.1989, #397 (1 KNHM, 1 UIC) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same collectors, but woody polypore, 1 male, 1 female #577, 19.7.1989 ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; same location, but berlese in fruit fall, Plot #Z1U16, 3 males, 25.6.1989, leg. R.A. Leschen, (2 KNHM, 1 UIC) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same date, but Palm flowers, 1 female #338, flower-fall log, 1 male, 1 female #400, leg. J. Ashe, R. Leschen ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; same location, same collectors, but log/ Irpex   -like, female, 10.7.1989, #489 ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; same location, but compost pile, 1 male, 3 females #218, 22.6.1989, ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; Loreto, Campamento, San Jacinto (75°51.77'W, 2°18.75'S), 175–215 m elevation, berlese, female #1, 2.7.1993, leg. R. Leschen ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; 1.5 km N Teniente Lopez (76°06.92'W, 2°35.66'S), 210–240 m elevation, fruit fall, female #112, 17.7.1993, leg. R. Leschen ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; Madre do Dios, Tambopata , leaf & grass litter, 2 male, 6 females, 25., 26., 27.10.1982, leg. L.E. Watrous & G. Mazureck ( FMNH)   ; same location and collectors, 3 females, bamboo litter, 11 males, 18 females, but rotten figs, 28.10.1982 (30 FMNH, 2 UIC)   ; Cuzco Dept., Consuelo, Manu Rd. , km 165, litter along stream, female, 4.10.1982, leg. L.E. Watrous & G. Mazureck ( FMNH)   ; Bolivia: Santa Cruz Dept., 3.7 km SSE Buena Vista Hotel Flora y Fauna (63°33.15'W, 17°29.95'S), 400–440 m elevation, primary forest flood debris, 1 male, 1 female, 7.11.2002, leg. R. Leschen #BOL1L02-41 ( KNHM) GoogleMaps   ; El Beni, Beni Stn., Palm Camp., NE San Borja, under bark, female, 30.7.1988, leg. R.W. Brooks, BIOLAT-SI/MAB, larvae in ETOH coll’n ( KNHM)   ; Brazil: Minas Gerais, Paso Quatro , 2 males, leg. Reichensperger ( NMW)   .

Diagnosis: The species is mainly differentiated by the typical structure of the aedeagus with slender parameres and seminal vesical of endophallus. Within the species group, it is characterised by the smaller size, the small eyes, and the distinctly divergent head, compared to the larger D. santacatarinae   with approximately parallel head. Regarding the small size, D. verhaaghi   resembles the species of the D. nanus-group. It can be distinguished from those species by the darker head and the smaller eyes.

Description: Length: 2.7–3.0 mm. Colouration: eddish brown; head dark brown, nearly black; legs and antennae yellow; antennomeres four to eleven slightly darker; posterior margin of abdominal segments light brown.

Head: 0.41 mm long, 0.34 mm wide; eyes not prominent; small; temples nearly three times as long as eyes; EL: HL = 0.19; temples distinctly divergent posteriad; PW: EW = 1.40; posterior angles rounded, but nearly rectangular; posterior margin straight; neck only one fourth of head’s width; setiferous punctation moderately deep and sparse; adjacent to wide impunctate midline with row of four to five punctures; laterad to medial rows with few sparse punctures; postocular area with slightly denser punctation; without microsculpture; surface polished.

Antenna as long as head and half of pronotum combined; first antennomere thick and nearly as longer as following two antennomeres; second and third antennomere conical; second slightly thicker than third; second twice as long as its apical width; third only 1.5 times as long as its apical width; following antennomeres shorter; wider than long; antennomeres five to nine twice as wide as long; all antennomeres pubescent; basal antennomeres with setae.

Pronotum: 0.53 mm long, 0.42 mm wide; sides approximately parallel; anterior and posterior angles widely rounded; lateral margin fine; in dorsal aspect visible in posterior half; setiferous punctation moderately deep and very sparse; adjacent to wide impunctate midline with row of three punctures; interstice between anterior pair of punctures more than twice as wide as interstices between two posterior pairs; laterad to medial row of punctures two to three irregular punctures; without microsculpture, but with very sparse micro-punctures; surface polished.

Elytra: 0.46 mm long, 0.53 mm wide; sides distinctly divergent to posterior angles; shoulders distinct; obtusely angulate; posterior margin deeply emarginate; setiferous punctation in irregular longitudinal rows; first row adjacent to suture with four to five punctures; laterad two more rows on disc; with weak coriaceous ground sculpture; surface slightly less shiny than pronotum.

Abdomen densely pubescent.

Aedeagus broad; slender seminal vesical of endophallus diagonal; basal inner duct shortly looped; ending in irregular forceps; paramere slender; shorter than central lobe; narrow shaft widened to slight apical expansion pointing transversely; at apex with four fine setae; in apical half with few sensillae.

Spermatheca 0.28 mm long, 0.23 mm wide; bursa copulatrix in lateral position to coiled approximately circular duct; numerous coils of duct irregularly coiled.

Etymology: The species is named to honour one of the collectors, Dr. Manfred Verhaagh, of the Natural History Museum, Karlsruhe, Germany.


Field Museum of Natural History


The Educational Science Museum [=Kuwait Natural History Museum?]


American Museum of Natural History


Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien