Tetragnatha renatoi,

Castanheira, Pedro De Souza & Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira, 2020, Notes on slender species of the long-jawed spider genus Tetragnatha (Araneae Tetragnathidae) with description of three new species, Zootaxa 4768 (1), pp. 43-75: 51-56

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http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4768.1.4

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scientific name

Tetragnatha renatoi

new species

Tetragnatha renatoi  new species

( Figs 4–6View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6; Map 1)

Type-material. Holotype ♂. BRAZIL, Rio Grande do Sul: Viamão : 24.III.1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg. ( MCTP 43329View Materials ex 5944)  . Paratypes: ARGENTINA, Misiones: Parque Nacional Iguazú , 23–26.X.1995, M. Ramírez leg., 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MACN 24546View Materials)  ; BRAZIL, Paraná: Rio Negro : Franciscanos leg., 1 ♂ ( MNRJ 14148View Materials)  ; Rio Grande do Sul: Viamão: Est. Exp. Fitotécnica , 12.VIII.1994, A. A. Lise et al. leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 5261View Materials); 24.III.1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 43330View Materials ex 5944); 10.X.1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 6816View Materials); 17.X.1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 8090View Materials); 07.XI.1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg., 1 ♂, 1 ♀ ( MCTP 43331View Materials ex 7807); 15.XII.1995, 1 ♂ ( MCTP 8802View Materials)  ; Rondônia: Porto Velho : 15.IV.1996, Equipe IBSP leg., 1 ♂ ( IBSP 16123View Materials)  ; São Paulo: São Paulo: Parque Ilha dos Eucaliptos, Jardim Ângela, Reservatório de Guarapiranga , 09–15.IX.1999, pitfall traps, R. P. Indicatti et al. leg., 1 ♂ ( IBSP 132295View Materials); 07–13.X.2003, I. Cizauskas & C. R. M. Garcia leg., 2 ♂ ( IBSP 61387View Materials); VEN- EZUELA, Lara: Parque Nacional Yacambú, XII.2002, A. P. González & A. Giupponi leg., 1 ♂ ( MNRJ 60020View Materials)  .

Additional material examined. BRAZIL, Paraná: Pinhais: Serra da Farinha Seca , 15–20.XI.1995, A. A. Lise et al. leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 7602View Materials)  ; Pernambuco: Araçoiba: Centro de Instrução Marechal Newton Cavalcanti , 24.II.2011, C. A. Rheims & A. A. Costa Silva Filho leg., 1 ♂ ( IBSP 170200View Materials)  ; Rio Grande do Sul: Campo Bom: 19.X.1987, C. J. Becker leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 43326View Materials ex 0124); Novos Cabrais: Parque Witeck , 09.X.2008, R. G. Buss leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 28044View Materials); Santa Maria : 18.II.1999, C. B. Kotzian & L. Indrusiak leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 43328View Materials ex 40657)  ; Santa Catarina: Rio Uruguai , IX.2010, J. Cabra leg., 1 ♂ ( MCTP 43327View Materials ex 34356)  .

Etymology. The specific epithet is a noun given in honor to Renato A. Teixeira, curator of MCTP, where most of the specimens are deposited, and who graciously loaned countless material for the present and other research projects.

Diagnosis. Regarding to body morphology, males of Tetragnatha renatoi  new species are similar to all species herein described (see diagnosis T. megalocera  new species above). Unlike them, T. renatoi  new species lacks the lateral black patches on the abdomen ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Male chelicerae are more similar to T. gertschi Chickering, 1957  , insofar as both species have small sized chelicerae, similar row of upper teeth, where U2 and U3 are the most elongated teeth and have similar size, and fang with small inner cusp ( Figs 4A, BView FIGURE 4, 6AView FIGURE 6; Chickering 1957c, fig. 42; Okuma 1992, fig. 8A, B). The two species’ chelicerae are set apart by the following differences in T. renatoi  new species: carved ‘a’, placed nearest to the outer border, Gu very reduced, as a small nub near the basis of fang, presence of very reduced AXu (only visible at SEM photo), U2 clearly displaced upwards from the row itself, AXl reduced to a small tubercle (only visible in SEM photos), thick Gl apart from L2 by a moderate gap, L2 thick and slightly basalward projected and small L3 slightly displaced downwards from the row itself ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 C–F, 6A, B; Chickering 1957c, fig. 42; Okuma 1992, fig. 8A, B)

On the other hand, females of T. renatoi  new species have a more similar morphology to T. laboriosa Hentz, 1850  and T. vermiformis  . The three species have a bulkier, not very elongated and slender body, usually with a wrinkled abdominal lateral border, chelicerae with a short paturon, without AXu or AXl and with moderate gaps between Gu–U2 and Gl–L2, and short genital folds ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A–F, H; Levi 1981, figs 120, 121, 123; Okuma 1983, fig. 5D, E, J, K; Zhu & Zhang 2011, fig. 133C–G; Castanheira et al. 2019, figs 18A–H, 19B). However, T. renatoi  new species can be set apart by the following set of characters: upper row of chelicerae with much bigger gap between U2 and U3, L2 shorter than Gl and slightly displaced from the lower row itself, genital fold with pointed posterior rim and internal genitalia bearing two massive spermathecae and a perfectly rounded central membranous sac ( Figs 5View FIGURE 5 D–F, H, I).

Description. Male (Holotype MCTP 43329): Carapace light yellowish brown, lighter on edges, elongated, flat, with no patches or lines, tapering toward the slightly elevated anterior rim ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Fovea small with same colour of carapace ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Labium brown and subquadrate ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4). Sternum light brown with darker contour, concave near labium ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4). Posterior eyes evenly separate, AME centrally placed and apart, ALE the smallest and located on the edge of carapace, PME and PLE with a moderate gap, PME and PLE almost touching ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Legs light yellowish brown with spines on femur ( Fig. 4A, BView FIGURE 4). Paturon approximately 2.5x longer than wide and about 70% as long as carapace, slightly curved outwards, around 50° from median line of the body, rounded with a straight apex ( Figs 4C, EView FIGURE 4; 6A, BView FIGURE 6). ‘a’ thin, slanted, with a distalward projected excavated tip ( Figs 4C, EView FIGURE 4, 6A, BView FIGURE 6). AXu very reduced ( Fig. 6AView FIGURE 6). Upper row with seven teeth ( Figs 4C, DView FIGURE 4, 6AView FIGURE 6): Gu reduced to a thick nub near the basis of fang; ‘sl’ absent; U2 thick, sclerotized, slightly pointed distal- and upward and apart from Gu by a significant gap located on a bulge; U3–U7 pointed, straight and decreasing in size, with U7 reduced.AXl reduced to a small tubercle ( Fig. 6BView FIGURE 6). Lower row with five normal teeth and another two seemingly vestigial ( Figs 4D, EView FIGURE 4, 6BView FIGURE 6): Gl thick, conical, pointed, with large basis and distalward projected, L2 thick, with its tip slightly pointed and basalward projected, connected to the basis of fang by a small keel, L3 straight, small and pointed, basally apart from the row, L4 straight, pointed and longer than other teeth of the lower row, L5 with almost the same size as L3 but thinner and more pointed, L6–L7 vestigial. Cheliceral fang with almost the same width throughout, bearing an inner cusp on its first third and closing between rows of teeth ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 C–E, 6A, B). Abdomen long, cylindrical and slender, around 2.3x longer than carapace ( Fig. 4A, BView FIGURE 4). Dorsum pale beige, completely covered by guanine spots ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Venter a little darker than dorsum, with some guanine spots placed in line near the border, starting below the lungs ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4). Epiandrous wide with a large keel-shaped division midway, with nine fusules on the right side and five fusules on the left side ( Fig. 6GView FIGURE 6). Palps with median sized tibia and cymbium, with almost the same size ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 G–I, 6C); tegulum roundish, approximately 25% wider than high, bearing two parallel lines, forming a darker area in the middle ( Figs 4GView FIGURE 4, 6CView FIGURE 6); conductor twisted, with thick edges enfolding over the embolus as a wide and projected pouch on its last portion ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 G–I, 6C–E); embolus thick, slanted and filiform, originating at the middle portion of the bulb, with a small and slightly bending tip, hidden by the conductor all the way ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 G–I, 6C–E); paracymbium subquadrate, with a bulky notch, translucid lobe very wide, occupying 2/3 of the paracymbium area ending near the notch and knob small, slightly bulging and basalward projected ( Figs 4IView FIGURE 4, 6FView FIGURE 6).

Total length 7.25. Carapace 2.19 long, 1.29 wide. Abdomen 5.02 long, 0.89 wide. Left chelicera 1.53 long, 0.60 wide. Leg formula I–II–IV–III. Leg I: femur 6.92, patella 0.96, tibia 7.91, metatarsus 6.91 and tarsus 1.56. Leg II: patella + tibia 4.95. Leg III: patella + tibia 1.75. Leg IV: patella + tibia 4.40.

Female (paratype MCTP 43331): Carapace dark yellowish brown ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5). Fovea rounded and pronounced, a little darker than carapace ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5). Labium brown and elongated ( Fig. 5CView FIGURE 5). Sternum with same colour as carapace, basally with two guanine spots ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5). Eyes as in male ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5). Legs light yellow with just few setae ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A–C). Paturon approximately 2.9x longer than wide and about 75% as long as the carapace, retrolaterally straight, and around 55° from median line of the body ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 D–G). AXu absent ( Fig. 5D, EView FIGURE 5). Upper row with eight teeth ( Fig. 5D, EView FIGURE 5): Gu bulky, elongated, pointed, very sclerotized and distalward projected; U2 small, triangular and straight, located exactly midway between Gu and U3, which is elongated, pointed but not as bulky as Gu; U4–U8 pointed and decreasing in size. AXl absent ( Fig. 5E, FView FIGURE 5). lower row with eight teeth ( Fig. 5E, FView FIGURE 5): Gl similar to Gu, also bulky, elongated, pointed, very sclerotized and distalward projected; L2 pointed and slightly distalward projected, displaced from the row itself and located near the base of L3 after a deep furrow from Gl; L3 pointed, longer than L2, and with a distalward projected tip; L4 wide, pointed and a bit longer than Gl or any other teeth; L5–L8 pointed and decreasing in size. Cheliceral fang without projections, uniformly tapering and closing between both rows of teeth ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 D–F). Abdomen beige, not as elongated as in male, laterally wrinkled, around 2x longer than the carapace and dorsally covered by guanine spots ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A–C). Genital fold elevated, approximately 3.5x wider than long, with a rounded and pointed tip on posterior rim ( Fig. 5HView FIGURE 5). Internal genitalia composed of two massive, large and wide spermathecae and a perfectly rounded central membranous sac, located atop of a short neck ( Fig. 5IView FIGURE 5).

Total length 6.51. Carapace 2.38 long, 1.14 wide. Abdomen 4.39 long, 1.36 wide. Left chelicera 1.24 long, 0.40 wide. Leg formula I–II–IV–III. Leg I: femur 5.95, patella 0.93, tibia 6.40, metatarsus 6.60 and tarsus 1.56. Leg II: patella + tibia 3.90. Leg III: patella + tibia 1.60. Leg IV: patella + tibia 3.83.

Variation. Males (n = 7): total length, 6.63 – 7.99. The lower row of teeth of the chelicerae of males can bear eight teeth instead of seven, with L7–L8 small but not vestigial, as observed on the SEM figure ( Fig. 6BView FIGURE 6).

Notes. We considered the second tooth of the upper row as U2 on males, following Castanheira et al. ’s (2019) system. However, it could also be considered as a tooth similar to the “T” of T. tenuissima  and the other two new species herein described, but just a little more robust than U3. Unfortunately, the homology between the cheliceral teeth is still debatable and will only be truly assessed in a phylogenetical analysis (see the “Structures of chelicerae” section above).

Natural History. Unknown.

Distribution. From Venezuela to Argentina. In Brazil, most specimens are so far known from Southeast and South regions, with one record for the Northeast (Pernambuco) and one for North (Rondônia) regions (Map 1).

MAP 1. Distribution of T. renatoi  new species.


Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile